Back Matter
  • 1 https://isni.org/isni/0000000404811396, International Monetary Fund

References

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1

For examples of fiscal risks in infrastructure, see Schwartz and others (2020).

1

DSA analysis for low-income countries and market-access countries and the fiscal space analysis.

2

The International Public Sector Accounting Standard on “Service Concession Agreements” (IPSAS32) puts on the government’s balance sheet any PPP in which the government controls the service that is provided and controls the asset at the end of the contract. The Government Finance Statistics Manual 2014 and the Government Finance Statistics Guidelines 2011, put PPPs on the government balance sheet if the government bears most of the risks and benefits from most of the rewards, regardless of whether the government is the legal owner of the asset.

Mastering the Risky Business of Public-Private Partnerships in Infrastructure
Author: Ms. Manal Fouad, Chishiro Matsumoto, Rui Monteiro, Isabel Rial, and Ozlem Aydin Sakrak