Back Matter
  • 1 https://isni.org/isni/0000000404811396, International Monetary Fund

References

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1

This note was prepared under the overall supervision of Manal Fouad. The authors gratefully acknowledge contributions by Koralai Kirabaeva. The authors would like to thank Torben Hansen, Sailendra Pattanayak, and Carolina Renteria for their guidance in preparing this note, as well as the following IMF staff for their insightful review: Richard Allen, James Daniel, Guohua Huang, Manabu Nose, James Roaf, Natalia Salazar, Michelle Stone, Eivind Tandberg, and Tjeerd Tim (FAD); Saad Quayyum (SPR); Adil Mohammad (RES); Alissa Ashcroft and Olya Kroytor (LEG); Martin Schindler (ICD); Alejandro Guerson (WHD); Alexandre Balduino Sollaci, Wenjie Chen, Natalija Novta, and Sarah Zhou (APD); and Paul Seeds (PFTAC). The authors would also like to thank Adrian Fozzard (World Bank) and Thomas Beloe and Asad Maken (UNDP) for their helpful review and comments.

2

A forthcoming How-To Note will expand on this Climate Note with more specific details on the framework and a wide range of existing country practices.

3

According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (see https://www.oecd.org/environment/green-budgeting/), “Environmentally responsive or green budgeting means using the tools of budgetary policy-making to help achieve environmental goals. This includes evaluating environmental impacts of budgetary and fiscal policies and assessing their coherence towards the delivery of national and international commitments. Green budgeting can also contribute to informed, evidence-based debate and discussion on sustainable growth.” Hence, green budgeting is designed to drive improvements in the alignment of public expenditure and revenue processes with climate and other environmental goals, and to mainstream an environmentally informed approach into the national and subnational budgetary frameworks.”

4

Gender budgeting involves integrating into the existing budget system additional tools to analyze the differential impact of governments’ budget on women and men, thereby translating the government’s commitments on gender equality into budgetary commitments. It focuses the impacts of public expenditures and revenue policies on women and girls, compared to men and boys, and analyzes whether they reduce, increase, or leave unchanged gender equality. See Albarran and others (forthcoming).

5

Already in the late 1980s and 1990s, some advanced economies tried to emphasize the role that the budget could play in furthering environmental goals. Norway introduced an Environmental Profile of the State Budget in 1989, and around the same time, France created a compulsory report (jaune budgétaire) on environmental protection appended to the annual finance law.

8

Environmental rights are composed of substantive rights (for example, rights to a healthy environment, to life, and to water) and procedural rights (for example, rights of access to information and public participation). As of 2017, 150 countries have enshrined environmental protection or the right to a healthy environment in their constitutions (United Nations Environment Programme 2019).

9

These mechanisms may include supplementary budgets, contingency reserves, disaster management laws, escape clauses, etc.

10

In some countries (particularly in federal systems), states have started implementing green PFM practices ahead of the central government (for example, India and Indonesia).

Climate-Sensitive Management of Public Finances—"Green PFM”
Author: Mr. Fabien Gonguet, Mr. Claude P Wendling, Ozlem Aydin Sakrak, and Bryn Battersby