Back Matter
  • 1 https://isni.org/isni/0000000404811396, International Monetary Fund

References

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Prepared by Tim Irwin, Samah Mazraani, and Sandeep Saxena. The note benefited from comments from Nathaniel Arnold, Elsie Addo Awadzi, Carlos Caceres, Selim Cakir, Taz Chaponda, Ana Corbacho, Sergei Dodzin, Luc Eyraud, Manal Fouad, Metodij Hadzi-Vaskov, Daniel Hardy, Yuko Hashimoto, Klaus Hellwig, Cory Hillier, Salifou Issoufou, Mariusz Jarmuzek, Selim Kakir, Jad Khallouf, Michel Lazare, Ross Leckow, Iyabo Masha, Kazuaki Miyachi, Sanjaya Panth, Sailendra Pattanayak, Mario Pessoa, Adina Popescu, Natalia Tamirisa, Arina Viseth, Christophe Waerzeggers, and Aleksandra Zdzienicka.

2

The cost of individual PPP failures generally tends to be relatively small. The survey, nevertheless, identified at least eight major episodes where costs were considered macrorelevant.

3

A gateway process is an institutional mechanism that empowers the ministry of finance to prevent a project from advancing through successive stages of the PPP cycle if it fails to meet certain critical conditions (for example, if the project does not offer value for money or is not affordable from a fiscal perspective).

4

See articles 22 and 28 of Brazil’s Law 11,079 of 2004, article 13 of Peru’s Decree-Law 1012 of 2008, article 20 of El Salvador’s Decree-Law 379 of 2013, and article 26 of Honduras’s Decree-Law 143 of 2010. On the United Kingdom, see HM Treasury (2013, 9). For Colombia, the limit does not have a legal basis; it is prescribed by a high-level executive body, the National Council of Economic and Social Policy.

How to Control the Fiscal Costs of Public-Private Partnerships
Author: Mr. Timothy C Irwin, Samah Mazraani, and Mr. Sandeep Saxena