See, for example, J. Sachs and A. Warner, “Sources of Slow Growth in African Economies,” Journal of African Economies, Vol. 6, pp. 335–76, 1997; P. Collier and W. Gunning, “Africa’s Economic Performance,” Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 37, pp. 64–111, 1999; and W. Easterly and R. Levine, “Africa’s Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions,” Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 112, pp. 1203–50, 1997.
D. Ghura, and M. Hadjimichael, “Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa,” IMF Staff Papers, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1996.
E. Calamitsis, A. Basu, and D. Ghura, “Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Empirical Analysis and Policy Implications,” IMF Working Paper 99/51, 1999.
E. Hernández-Catá, “Raising Growth and Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa: What Can be Done?” International Economic Policy Review, Vol. 2, pp. 3–15, 2000.
C. A. Leite and J. Weidman, “Does Mother Nature Corrupt?: Natural Resources, Corruption and Economic Growth,” IMF Working Paper 99/85, 1999.
D. Ghura, “Private Investment and Endogenous Growth: Evidence from Cameroon,” IMF Working Paper 97/165, 1997; G. Jonsson, and A. Subramanian, “Dynamic Gains from Trade: Evidence from South Africa,” IMF Staff Papers, Vol. 48, No. 1, 2001; E. Sacerdoti, S. Brunschwig, and J. Tang, “The Impact of Human Capital on Growth: Evidence from West Africa,” IMF Working Paper 98/162, 1998; Z. Brixiová, A. Bulíř, and J. Comenetz, “The Gender Gap in Education in Eritrea in 1991–98: A Missed Opportunity?” forthcoming IMF Working Paper, 2001; and A. Bulir, “The Price Incentive to Smuggle and Cocoa Supply in Ghana, 1950–96,” IMF Working Paper 98/88, 1998.
D. Fanizza, “Foreign Aid, Macroeconomic Stabilization and Growth in Malawi,” forthcoming IMF Working Paper, 2001; and A. Subramanian and D. Roy, “Who Can Explain the Mauritian Miracle: Meade, Romer, Sachs, or Rodrik?” forthcoming IMF Working Paper, 2001 (also forthcoming in Analytical Development Narratives, ed. by D. Rodrik, Princeton: Princeton University Press).
M. MacFarlan, and S. Sgherri, “The Macroeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS in Botswana,” IMF Working Paper 01/80, 2001; and M. Haacker, “The Economic Consequences of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa,” forthcoming IMF Working Paper, 2001.
A. Subramanian, E. Gelbard, R. Harmsen, K. Elborgh-Woytek, and P. Nagy, “Trade and Trade Policies in Eastern and Southern Africa,” IMF Occasional Paper No. 196, 2000; E. Hernández-Catá, C. Francois, P. Masson, P. Bouvier, P. Deroz, D. Desruelle, and A. Vamvakidis, “The West African Economic and Monetary Union: Recent Developments and Policy Issues,” IMF Occasional Paper No. 168, 1998; and P. Masson, and C. Pattillo, “Monetary Union in West Africa (ECOWAS): Is It Desirable and How Could It Be Achieved?” IMF Occasional Paper No. 204, 2001.
D. Coe and A. Hoffmaister, “North-South Trade: Is Africa Unusual?” Journal of African Economies, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 228–56, 1999; and A. Subramanian and N. Tamirisa, “Africa’s Trade Revisited,” IMF Working Paper 01/33, 2001.
T. Bayoumi, D. Coe, and E. Helpman, “R&D Spillovers and Global Growth,” Journal of International Economics, Vol. 47, pp. 399–428, 1999.