Baumol, William J., Sue Anne Batey Blackman, and Edward N. Wolff, Productivity and American Leadership: The Long View (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1989).
Calmfors, Lars (1993a), Centralization of Wage Bargaining and Macroeconomic Performance: A Survey, Institute for International Economic Studies, Seminar Paper No. 536 (Stockholm, 1993).
Calmfors, Lars (1993b), “Lessons from the Macroeconomic Experience of Sweden,” European Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 9 (March 1993), pp. 25–72.
Calmfors, Lars, and John Driffil, “Bargaining Structure, Corporatism and Macro–economic Performance,” Economic Policy, No. 6 (April 1988), pp. 14–61.
Eliasson, Gunnar, and others, The Knowledge Based Information Economy, (Stockholm: Industrial Institute for Economic and Social Research, 1990).
Layard, Richard, Stephen J. Nickell, and Richard Jackman, Unemployment: Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1991).
Milgrom, Paul, and John Roberts, “The Economics of Modern Manufacturing: Technology, Strategy and Organization,” American Economic Review, Vol. 80 (June 1990), pp. 511–28.
Piore, Michael J., and Charles F. Sabel, The Second Industrial Divide: Possibilities for Prosperity (New York: Basic Books Inc., 1984).
Ramaswamy, Ramana, and Robert Rowthorn, Centralized Bargaining, Efficiency Wages, and Flexibility, IMF Working Paper 93/25 (Washington: International Monetary Fund, 1993).
The author is an Economist in the IMF’s European I Department. He holds a Ph.D. from Cambridge University and was a Fellow at Queens’ College, Cambridge, before joining the IMF. The author is grateful to Francesco Caramazza, Martin Fetherston, John Green, and Desmond Lachman for comments on earlier drafts of this paper. He also benefited from the discussion on this paper in the European I lunchtime seminar series.
See, for instance, Layard, Nickell, and Jackman (1991) for a detailed discussion of the impact of labor market programs.
See Baumol, Blackman, and Wolff (1989) for a detailed analysis of the factors influencing productivity in the long run.
Lindbeck (1990) has argued that the generous welfare state and the large public sector are partly to blame for Sweden’s poor productivity performance.
The changing technological structure of Swedish industry is documented in Eliasson and others (1990).
See, for instance, the discussion in Piore and Sabel (1984) and Milgrom and Roberts (1990). Organization of firms on “post‐Fordist” lines is said to have become increasingly important since the mid–1970s. Eliasson and others (1990) document some of these changes for Sweden.