Boote, Anthony, “Assessing Eastern Europe’s Capital Needs,” IMF Working Paper 92/12 (Washington: International Monetary Fund, February 1992).
McDonald, Donogh, and Günther Thumann, “Investment Needs in East Germany,” In German Unification: Economic Issues, ed. by Leslie Lipschitz and Donogh McDonald, IMF Occasional Paper No. 75 (Washington: International Monetary Fund, December 1990).
Anthony Boote is a Deputy Division Chief in the Policy Development and Review Department.
This paper, which is a shortened version of Boote (1992), was written while he was a Senior Economist in the European Department. The author thanks Jacques Artus, Donogh McDonald, Massimo Russo, and Thomas Wolf for helpful comments, and Balazs Horvath and Susan Becker for technical assistance.
For the purposes of this study, Eastern Europe includes Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania.
On which data are, in any case, imperfect.