The Economy of Togo
  • 1 0000000404811396https://isni.org/isni/0000000404811396International Monetary Fund

Selections from this paper were delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on September 8, 1965.

Abstract

Selections from this paper were delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on September 8, 1965.

U Tun Wai, Edwin L. Bornemann, Michel M. Martin, and Pierre E. Berthe*

THE REPUBLIC OF TOGO is located on the Gulf of Guinea and is bounded by Ghana on the west, by Upper Volta on the north, and by Dahomey on the east. The country covers 22,000 square miles; it measures almost 400 miles from north to south and 31 miles from east to west along the coast. A chain of low mountains forms a watershed for the Volta River basin to the west and the Mono River basin to the east. There are four geographical regions: the sandy coastal plains and the Ouatchi plateau stretching for 40 miles inland, the fertile Mono tableland, the Togo-Atakora mountains, and the sandstone Oti plateau in the north (see maps, pages 410 and 411).

The population in January 1964 was estimated at 1,586,000, giving an average density of 70 persons per square mile, which is relatively high for West Africa. However, population density varies from 225 persons per square mile in the coastal zone and in the Kabré country of the northeast to 25 persons per square mile in the Sokodé area, and certain areas are virtually uninhabited. Population growth has been estimated at some 2.6 per cent per annum. Lomé, the capital and main commercial center, with a population of some 97,000, is practically the only town of significant size. There are about 1,700 foreigners, of whom 1,200 are French nationals.

Togo has 18 important ethnic groups and a large number of subgroups. The Ewe tribe of the coastal region, although a minority, forms the most important social group. There are some 200,000 Christians and about 36,000 Moslems (mostly in the north) in Togo. The rest of the people are animists or fetishists.

About four fifths of the population are farmers and live in small villages. A large artisan class exists in both the urban and rural areas, and there is also a fairly well organized entrepreneurial class with women traders playing an active role in local commerce.

Considerable progress has been made in education since the end of World War II. Approximately 35 per cent of school-age children (126,000 pupils) were in primary schools in 1963, compared with 5–10 per cent in 1948. In 1963 there were some 7,900 students in secondary and technical schools, and approximately 400 university students were studying abroad, mainly in France.

Gross domestic product

For 1958, gross domestic product was estimated at CFAF 25 billion ($100 million). For 1962, the gross domestic product (also at current prices) was estimated by the Planning Bureau at CFAF 32.8 billion, of which CFAF 11.8 billion represented self-consumed local production and CFAF 2.6 billion salaries paid by the Government. The apparent increase between 1958 and 1962 seems to have been due largely to differences in the methods of estimation. Reportedly, the coverage for 1962 was much better than that for 1958, and therefore it is difficult to draw any conclusions from the two figures.

The 1962 estimate is equivalent to an annual per capita income of $80. Agriculture contributes approximately 55–60 per cent of total output, transport and commerce 15 per cent, services and Government 15 per cent, and industry and handicrafts the remainder.

The economy of Togo has expanded in recent years, especially in the subsistence agriculture sector. Production and exports of cocoa and coffee have also increased since 1958, while exports of phosphates have expanded rapidly since exploitation of the mines began in 1961. In the late 1950’s, capital formation was estimated at about 5 per cent of gross domestic product. For 1962, gross investments were estimated at CFAF 3,020 million, of which CFAF 1,000 million was in the private sector, CFAF 1,560 million in the public sector, and CFAF 460 million in the household sector. Thus, capital formation in 1962 was about 9 per cent of gross domestic product, but it is difficult to assess the significance of this percentage as methods of estimation have improved between 1958 and 1962.

Agricultural production

Agricultural production is very important in Togo, as it provides employment for more than 80 per cent of the working population, and as agricultural products account for about 70 per cent of total exports. Agricultural production is limited by the scarcity of good soils, a lack of water, and primitive cultivation methods. Yields are consequently low and there is a danger of soil exhaustion. The intensiveness of cultivation varies from region to region: the coastal zone, the Kabré region, and the Dapango area, close to Upper Volta, are the most cultivated areas. Generally speaking, many crops are cultivated concurrently on small family farms and there is no specialization. While Togo still has a reserve of cultivable land and manpower, this reserve is not located in regions suitable for cocoa and coffee cultivation. The available land could be used for subsistence crops (such as rice and groundnuts) and also for cotton.

Food crops for domestic consumption

Food crops are grown mainly for local consumption and only to a lesser extent for sale to neighboring countries (see Table 26, p. 462). The major food crops are yams, manioc, corn, millet, and sorghum, which account for over 80 per cent of total output. Export crops, such as coffee and cocoa, account for less than 20 per cent of output.

Production of the main subsistence crops, especially manioc and yams, has expanded rapidly over the last decade (Table 1). Manioc, yams, and corn are the main food crops of the south (Ouatchi plateau), while millet and sorghum are grown mainly in the north, together with yams and voandzou nuts. Rice is grown both in the south and in the north. Various projects are under preparation for increasing subsis tence production so as to lessen the need for imported food products. The projects include intensification of rice cultivation, expansion of manioc, soya beans, vegetables, and fruit production, and general improvement in the productivity of traditional cultivation.

Table 1.

Togo: Production of Principal Subsistence Crops, 1950, 1954, and 1957–63

(In thousands of tons)

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Sources: Service de l’Information du Gouvernement du Togo, Annuaire du Togo, 1962; Service de la Statistique Générale, Inventaire Economique du Togo, 1962–63; French Government annual reports on Togo to the United Nations; U.S. Department of Commerce, World Trade Information Service, Basic Data on the Economy of the Republic of Togo (Part 1, No. 61–25); and data supplied by the Togolese authorities.

Export crops

The production of export crops has fluctuated over the years and, with the exception of coffee, has not expanded recently. Cocoa and coffee account for approximately half of the total value of exports in recent years. Other export crops are cotton, groundnuts, coconuts, and palm products (Table 2). The cultivation of coffee was introduced into Togo after World War I, but production increased significantly only after World War II; it is grown in the mountains and in parts of the Mono tableland. The coffee is predominantly of the robusta type, but small quantities of arabica are also grown. Production was negligible in 1923, but it had increased to 9,000 tons by 1961/62 and to 11,000 tons in the following year. Production reached a record level of 18,000 tons in 1963/64. The recent rapid increase is due in part to the Government’s program of introducing better varieties of coffee, teaching better cultivation techniques, and encouraging greater use of fertilizers.

Table 2.

Togo: Production of Principal Export Crops, 1958/59–1963/64

(In thousands of tons)

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Sources: Service de la Statistique Générale, Inventaire Economique du Togo, 1962–63, and data supplied by the Togolese authorities.

Coffee exports have fluctuated more or less with changes in production. Exports decreased from 11,600 tons in 1959 to 4,400 tons in 1960, but they recovered to 10,200 tons in 1961 and 11,500 tons in 1962, and declined again, to 6,200 tons, in 1963. In 1964, they reached 16,100 tons. Togo is a signatory member of the International Coffee Agreement (ICA), with a coffee export quota of 10,400 tons (later increased to 10,591 tons) for 1963/64. Since production was expected to reach at least 18,000 tons for the 1963/64 crop year, Togo requested an increase in its quota, but this request was rejected in July 1964 by the Board of the ICA. In the meantime, however, Togo had exported 13,500 tons to member countries of the Agreement; the amount shipped in excess of the 1963/64 quota will be counted against Togo’s 1964/65 quota. It has also sold 2,500 tons on new markets, but there will still be some 2,000 tons to be carried over to the next crop year.

Cocoa is grown in the same regions as coffee. The area devoted to cocoa has changed little during the past few years, but production increased after 1958, indicating an increase in productivity. Cocoa exports increased from 8,400 tons in 1959 to 11,500 tons in 1961, but declined to 10,300 tons in 1963. In 1964, they amounted to 13,500 tons. Exports of cocoa have exceeded output because part of the cocoa originates from Ghana, being smuggled into Togo and re-exported. Most of the land suitable for cultivation both of coffee and of cocoa is being exploited. Production, however, could be expanded further by improving yields through more intensive use of fertilizers and by replacing the plants with more productive new ones.

The output of palm products, almost all of which is exported, has remained at about the same level since 1950 (between 11,000 and 13,000 tons a year). Production of copra (2,000 to 5,000 tons a year, also almost entirely exported) has not increased, partly because there appears to be little room for expanding the area under cultivation along the sandy coastal plain where coconut trees are grown.

Since 1959, production of cotton has fluctuated between 6,000 and 9,000 tons a year, and that of groundnuts between 9,000 and 22,000 tons a year. Cotton is grown in the Mono tableland, and groundnuts in the northern region. Most of the groundnuts are consumed locally, although 1,000 to 3,000 tons of shelled nuts are shipped yearly, mostly to France. Some manioc is exported to neighboring countries in the form of flour, starch, or tapioca (5,800 tons in 1964), but yields per hectare are declining, partly because of soil exhaustion.

The Togolese Government is encouraging farmers to increase production by improving infrastructure facilities and by giving advice through its Agricultural Extension Service. It is also preparing projects for expanding the output of export crops, such as palm products, copra, groundnuts, and cotton, and that of domestic crops, such as manioc, sugar cane, and tobacco.

The Common Price Stabilization Fund for the main export crops, originally set up by the French authorities, was abandoned in 1955 when the Togolese Government created separate Price Stabilization Funds for each cash crop. The Stabilization Fund for cotton was established in 1955, that for cocoa in 1956, for groundnuts in 1957, and for coffee in 1958. Under these Funds, marketing was in private hands, subject to control by the Government. Nine merchant trading firms established in Togo bought direct from the producer and exported to the world market. The Government set all prices and charges. The two main prices were the purchase price to the producer and the “f.o.b. Lomé” price, consisting of the purchase price plus costs and expenses—transportation, processing, taxes, etc. (Table 3). The trading firms bought from the producer at the official purchase price, undertook all financing, transportation, and processing operations, and sold the goods abroad through their sales offices in foreign countries. The firms declared to the Stabilization Funds the c.i.f. export price they obtained, and paid to the Funds the amount of their export receipts less (1) the official “f.o.b. Lomé” price set by the Government; (2) a commission of 2 per cent on the official f.o.b. price as remuneration for their commercial operations in Togo; (3) a commission of 1.5 per cent on the official f.o.b. price as remuneration for the services of their sales offices abroad; (4) the cost of transportation and insurance from Lomé to the foreign port; and (5) a margin of 0.50 to 1 per cent (depending on the product) covering possible damage on the way. If the “f.o.b. Lomé” price plus commission and other expenses was in excess of the world market price, the exporting companies received the difference between the two prices as a subsidy from the Stabilization Funds. On the whole, the Stabilization Funds made large profits in recent years, but there were differences between the results and the cash positions of the individual Funds.

Table 3.

Togo: Components of F.O.B. and C.I.F. Export Prices for Coffee and Cocoa, 1962/63 and 1963/64

(In CFA francs per ton)

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Sources: Service de la Statistique Générate, Bulletin de Statistique; Food and Agriculture Organization, Monthly Bulletin of Agricultural Economics and Statistics; Banque de l’Afrique Occidentale, Bulletin Economique et Financier France Afrique Noire; International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics; and data supplied by the Togolese authorities.

Until July 1964, Togo was able to sell part of its coffee crop on the French market at guaranteed prices, which, except for a few months in early 1964, were consistently higher than the world market price. France maintained the guaranteed price in the French market through quantitative restrictions on coffee from outside the franc area. The net financial benefit to Togo of this arrangement was determined by the difference between the French price and the price prevailing in world markets, and the quantities purchased by France each year (Table 4). This benefit varied from year to year; for 1961, it was estimated at F 8.6 million ($1.7 million), while for 1964 it practically disappeared.

Table 4.

Togo: Average Prices for Coffee and Groundnuts Exported to France and Estimated Financial Advantage to Togo, 1958-64

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Sources: Service de la Statistique Générale, Bulletin de Statistique; Food and Agriculture Organization, Monthly Bulletin of Agricultural Economics and Statistics; Banque de l’Afrique Occidentale, Bulletin Economique et Financier France Afrique Noire; International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics.

The new Convention of Association between the European Economic Community (EEC) and the Associated African States (including Togo), which came into force on June 1, 1964, stipulated for the eventual termination of the preferential system. Taking advantage of the high level of world market prices for coffee early in July 1964, France then terminated the preferential treatment of coffee from the franc area by liberalizing imports of coffee regardless of their country of origin. As partial compensation, Togo will receive $5.7 million in aid during the five years of the new Convention. In addition, Togo’s exports of coffee to all six EEC countries now enter free, while coffee exports from non-associated countries are subject to an ad valorem tax of 9.6 per cent (previously, only exports to France enjoyed this preference).

Exports of groundnuts to France benefit from the same system as coffee, though except in 1963 and 1964 the margin and total financial benefit have been smaller. For groundnuts also, preferential treatment in the French market is to terminate according to the EEC Convention, but not until the 1965/66 crop year.

The Coffee Stabilization Fund made a profit of CFAF 279 million for the crop year 1961/62, when exports reached about CFAF 1,430 million at a purchase price from the producer of CFAF 65,000 per ton and an “f.o.b. Lomé” price of CFAF 100,998 per ton. Profits in the following crop year declined to some CFAF 204 million, partly because exports were lower, at some CFAF 801 million. In 1963/64 the purchase price was raised to CFAF 75,000 per ton. The profits of the Cocoa Stabilization Fund were some CFAF 163 million in 1961/62 on total exports worth CFAF 1,182 million. For the following year, profits were reduced slightly, to about CFAF 132 million, although exports remained about the same; the purchase price was increased from CFAF 60,000 per ton to CFAF 65,000 per ton on February 11, 1963. For the 1963/64 crop year, the purchase price of cocoa was raised further, to CFAF 70,000 per ton. The Groundnut Stabilization Fund, on the other hand, incurred deficits of some CFAF 522,000 for the crop year 1961/62 and about CFAF 1.5 million in 1962/63, because the local cost of production and the purchase prices plus transportation and other charges were higher even than the French guaranteed price. The government purchase price for groundnuts in 1963/64 was CFAF 26,000-30,000 per ton. The Cotton Stabilization Fund made a profit of some CFAF 45 million in 1962 and incurred a deficit of about CFAF 13 million in 1963.

In September 1964, the Stabilization Funds were abolished and replaced by the Agricultural Products Marketing Board (Office des Produits Agricoles du Togo, or OPAT), which has a monopoly of buying agricultural products from producers and selling them abroad. The nine trading firms have been relegated to the role of agents (“agreed purchasers”) for the OPAT. They now operate with their own financial resources and with bank credit for domestic marketing only, e.g., transport from the crop area to the port of Lomé. Exports are shipped and marketed abroad exclusively by the OPAT.

Unlike the Stabilization Funds, which handled only four products (coffee, cocoa, cotton, and groundnuts), the OPAT will deal with all agricultural products, including palm products, copra, kapok, sheanuts, and castor seeds. The Government sets a barème (price schedule) including the purchase price from the producer, the costs and expenses incurred by the agreed trading companies, and their commission. The trading firms buy the products from the producers and process, transport, and deliver them to the port of Lomé. At the time of delivery in Lomé, the “agreed purchasers” are paid by the OPAT according to the barème set by the Government. The OPAT sells abroad through its two sales offices in London and Paris. These offices have been created in cooperation with two of the trading firms established in Togo—the John Holt Company and the Société Commerciale Industrielle et Agricole (SCIA). These firms receive an over-all commission of 1 per cent instead of the regular 1.5 per cent plus the margin of 0.5–1.0 per cent covering losses en route. Export taxes are paid by the OPAT. On the other hand, it does not have to pay the tax on industrial and commercial profits or the patente (see p. 435).

Previously, the determination of the c.i.f. sales prices was left in the hands of the trading companies without any possibility of intervention by the Stabilization Funds. Now, the OPAT negotiates the c.i.f. prices and obtains any extra profits from sudden increases in world market prices. The resources of the OPAT will be used to develop agricultural production in conjunction with the Planning Bureau, by placing them at the disposal of agricultural cooperatives to finance their purchases. Under the old system, the cooperatives were not able to obtain sufficient funds from the banks.

When the OPAT was created, it was credited with the assets of the Stabilization Funds; these assets had been deposited with the Treasury and amounted to CFAF 1.8 billion on September 30, 1964. The OPAT has withdrawn CFAF 300 million for its marketing operations and, for the crop year 1964/65, it estimates its needs at about CFAF 400–500 million.

Cattle raising and fishing

The livestock population of Togo has been estimated at 160,000 cattle and about 950,000 sheep and goats. Although the cattle population has increased considerably in recent years, the country still imports one third of its requirements of meat from neighboring countries, including Dahomey, Upper Volta, Ghana, Nigeria, and Niger. Further expansion of meat production is limited by the backwardness of farming techniques and the shortage of water, and by the raising of cattle as a symbol of wealth rather than for production. The Government intends to increase production by importing better quality cattle from Ivory Coast, Guinea, and Mali, and by offering compensation for the slaughter of cattle suffering from contagious diseases.

Fishing, an important but primitive industry in Togo, is carried out mainly by individual fishermen in small canoes. It is expected that two large fishing boats (30–35 tons) will be supplied by the Federal Republic of Germany in the near future to enable training to be given in deep-sea fishing. Further development of the fishing industry will be dependent upon the construction of harbor facilities. With the help of an expert from the Food and Agriculture Organization, a Fisheries Service within the Ministry of Agriculture was opened in 1963.

Production of fish was estimated at 3,000 tons for 1963 and at about 2,000 tons for the first half of 1964. The country is not, however, self-sufficient in fish. In 1963, it imported about 1,700 tons (CFAF 90 million), and in the first six months of 1964, 2,200 tons, mainly from Ivory Coast. There are large possibilities in the lakes and rivers for increasing local catches of fish, but the inlanders are lacking in skills. The Government has prepared a program to teach them appropriate techniques.

Forest products

Forests cover about one tenth of the total area of Togo, but lumbering is still very limited. Two private enterprises, with one sawmill in Lomé and another in Nuatja, process exotic wood, such as teak, mahogany, iroko, kapok, and shea. Government-owned teak operations provide the administration, railroad, wharf, and phosphate company with pitprops and poles, but the major part of the domestic needs in timber are met by imports from neighboring countries. The Water and Forests Service has started reforestation, mainly with teak trees, the export demand for which is high. By December 31, 1962, more than 25,000 acres had been replanted with trees.

Mining

Togo’s mineral resources have been surveyed in recent years. Limestone was discovered near Tokpli on the Mono River during the German administration prior to 1919, and other resources have been discovered more recently—for example, iron ore in the northwest of the country near Bandjeli, bauxite in Mount Agou, rutile near Atakpamé and the northern part of the country, dolomite to the south of Atakpamé, and manganese in Naki, east of Dapango. Some traces of gold and chromite have also been located. A Togolese-U.S. oil company obtained six concessions for oil research, especially along the coast, but these concessions are due to expire shortly, and no serious search has yet been made. Except for the phosphate deposits discovered near the coast, the development of mineral resources has been rendered difficult by the lack of transportation and power facilities. Furthermore, in most cases, ore deposits are of very low grade and of insufficient importance to make mining profitable. Mineral prospecting, however, is pursued by the Government with the help of the United Nations Special Fund.

Phosphate is the only mineral of importance being mined in Togo. The phosphaté deposits at Hahotoe have been estimated at more than 50 million tons of ore with a high tricalcium phosphate content (at least 81 per cent). These deposits are being exploited by the Compagnie Togolaise des Mines du Benin (CTMB) established with an original capital of CFAF 750 million, which was raised to CFAF 2,400 million at the end of October 1964. Although the Togolese Government has a right to participate to the extent of 20 per cent of the original capital and 25 per cent of all investments, no new subscription was made by the Government at the time the capital was increased, and consequently the share of the Togolese Government in CTMB is now less than 1 per cent. The companies participating in CTMB are the W. R. Grace Company of the United States (47 per cent) and a consortium of other foreign companies, mostly French. CTMB’s investments, valued at some $24 million, include equipment for the mine located about 14 miles from the coast, a private railroad line linking the mine to the processing plant on the shore, a diesel electric plant of 6,300 kw., and a wharf three fourths of a mile long at Kpémé.

Exports of processed phosphate increased from 57,000 tons in 1961, the first year of operation, to 198,000 tons in 1962, 459,000 tons in 1963, and 802,000 tons in 1964. A third stage of mechanization of the mining operations, now being completed, should raise the export capacity of the company to 1,200,000 tons by 1966. The impact of the phosphate mine and processing plant on the economy of Togo is large, inasmuch as of the 900 workers employed by the company only 60 are foreigners. Wages paid in 1962 amounted to CFAF 132 million, of which 65 per cent is estimated to have been paid to Togolese nationals. Exports of phosphates represented 26 per cent of the total value of exports in 1964. Under a special convention between the Government and CTMB, the company is exempt from direct corporate taxes until 1966 and from import duties on its industrial equipment for a period of 25 years. An export tax amounting to 2 per cent of the export value is levied by the Government. After 1966, if no new investments are made by the company, taxes on profits will be levied at a rate equal to that existing at the time the mines were first operated in 1961. There is a possibility, however, that if additional investments are undertaken the Government may extend the period of tax exemption.

Manufacturing

A few processing plants for agricultural products (manioc, cotton, palm oil, and kapok) and a few small industrial enterprises in Lomé are the major sources of industrial activity. Some 30 industrial enterprises, with an investment of about CFAF 7 billion, employ more than 2,000 people, with a wage bill of CFAF 350 million in 1962, in the manufacture of soap and perfume, plastic products, furniture, soft drinks, ice, coffee (roasting, grinding, and packaging), and concrete pipe. Recently, factories have been established for the production of coconut oil for export to neighboring countries and for the refining of palm oil and peanut oil for the local market. A textile plant, which will supply one third of Togo’s needs, a cement factory, and a brewery are now, or will soon be, under construction. The establishment of industries for the production of salt and cigarettes and for tire retreading is also currently under consideration.

Transportation and power

Lomé, the only port, provides no sheltered anchorage and all freight is carried by surfboats between the wharf, one third of a mile long, and the ships which lie offshore. The amount of freight imported and exported has been increasing, and the tonnage handled (157,000 tons in 1963 and 174,000 tons in 1964—see Table 5) has exceeded the normal capacity of the wharf (100,000–120,000 tons a year). Since the end of 1963, the wharf has been used practically day and night without interruption. There are severe fluctuations in the volume of the port traffic, caused mainly by variations in agricultural exports. A surcharge of 30 per cent was imposed on shipments to Lomé by freight lines in May and June 1962, from May to September 1963, and again from January to August 1964. There were no surcharges on export shipments from Lomé, as loading boats enjoy full priority and, therefore, are not delayed. In recent years, the operation of the Lomé wharf has shown a net profit (CFAF 61 million in 1961 and CFAF 87 million in both 1962 and 1963).

Table 5.

Togo: Port Traffic, 1959–64

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Sources: Service de la Statistique Générale, Inventaire Economique du Togo, 1962–63, and data supplied by the Togolese authorities.

A project for the construction of a new port at Lomé has been prepared by German experts. Its total cost for four successive stages will amount to some CFAF 7,254 million. Construction of the first stage has already started and should be completed early in 1968. The cost of this first stage, which will permit the docking of two large ships and one trawler at the same time, has been estimated at CFAF 3,286 million. Of this, the Federal Republic of Germany will finance CFAF 3,166 million by a loan, at 2 per cent, repayable in foreign exchange over a period of 25 years starting December 31, 1968, at the rate of two installments a year. The rest of the cost will be borne by the Government of Togo. As the new harbor will replace the wharf, it is expected that current receipts will cover current expenditures as soon as it starts functioning. The present separate wharf at Kpémé, built especially for the export of phosphates, will be used at least until it has been amortized, i.e., around 1980.

There are some 4,000–4,500 vehicles in Togo, of which about 50 per cent are trucks operated either by specialized transportation firms or directly by trading firms.

Togo’s road network consists of 1,050 miles of government roads and about 1,875 miles of local tracks. The government roads are generally in poor condition, although they are supposed to be all-weather roads; only 110 miles are hard top. There are three main routes: (1) the coastal road between Ghana and Dahomey, (2) the dorsal axis running north from Lomé to the center of the country and on to Upper Volta, and (3) the roads serving the cocoa and coffee producing area. The coastal road, and to some extent the north-south road, are important internationally. The former carries a significant amount of traffic between Nigeria and Ghana. The budget of the Public Works Department is sufficient to maintain only one third of the roads properly. It is estimated that each year about ten kilometers of roads are being lost for lack of maintenance.

There is no over-all road development program. All capital expenditures in the past have been financed by France, and more recently by the European Development Fund (EDF). During 1960/62, the French Fonds d’Aide et de Coopération (FAC) granted CFAF 290 million, mainly for improving a section of the north-south road between Blitta and Sokodé. During the same period, the EDF financed improvements of the Atakpamé-Badou and Atakpamé-Palimé roads at an estimated cost of $2.8 million. The EDF has also recently agreed to conduct a road and transportation survey and to rebuild the coastal road at a cost of some $2 million. In addition, the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) has supplied about $1 million worth of highway equipment.

At the request of the Togolese Government, a road construction program is now being prepared by a French and a German research institute. The program envisages that some 410 miles of paved roads will be built by 1972. The cost of this program will amount to CFAF 4.3 billion, and the FAC and the EDF have agreed to finance CFAF 1.3 billion. As a result of the road expansion, it is estimated that by 1973 the yearly cost of road maintenance will amount to CFAF 280 million, or more than double that in 1964.

Togo has a government-owned railroad network of 275 miles, consisting of three lines running from Lomé. The main line runs north to Blitta, another line runs northwest to Palimé, and the third, the smallest, runs east along the coast to Anécho. The Chemins de Fer du Togo (CFT) is not an efficient railroad because the equipment is old, some of it dating back to the days of the German administration. If amortization were included, the yearly deficit would average some CFAF 150-180 million. The number of passengers increased from 1.3 million in 1948 to 1.8 million in 1964, but the tonnage of goods transported increased only from 111,500 tons to 115,000 tons during the same period. Measured in ton/kilometers, there has even been a decline in the volume of goods traffic, from 10.9 million in 1948 to 8.2 million in 1964 (Table 6).

Table 6.

Togo: Railroad Traffic

(All figures in thousands)

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Sources: Service de la Statistique Générale, Inventaire Economique du Togo, 1962–63, and data supplied by the Togolese authorities.

Not including goods transported for the functioning of the railroad.

Yams and starch combined.

CFT incurred current deficits of CFAF 97 million in 1961, CFAF 79 million in 1962, and CFAF 86 million in 1963. An important factor in these deficits is that only some 50 per cent of the railroad’s capacity is presently used for the transport of goods, because the volume of goods transported southward (mostly exports) exceeds the volume of goods northward (mostly imports); the latter amounts to only 40 per cent of the total freight. Another cause of the deficits is that railway tariffs have not been increased since 1962. The price of a third-class ticket was increased from CFAF 2.35 per passenger/km. to CFAF 3.04 per passenger/km. in April 1959. However, it was reduced again on February 2, 1962, to CFAF 3.00 (about 1¼ U.S. cents) per passenger/km., where it has remained. On April 1, 1959, railroad rates for goods were increased by 17–47 per cent, depending on the product to be transported, and since then they have remained at practically the same level (Table 7). On the other hand, costs have been increasing recently as a result of higher salaries and larger repair expenses. Efforts have been made to reduce the number of employees, but the minimum number has now been reached. Since 1963, it has not been necessary for the Government to give a direct subsidy to the railroad because the profits from the wharf have been used for that purpose.

Table 7.

Togo: Railroad Rates

(In CFA francs)

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Sources: See Table 6.

Rates on the line Lomé-Blitta.

In 1958, there were two different rates for coffee and cocoa: CFAF 7.07 on the line Palimé-Lomé and CFAF 10.00 on the line Atakpamé-Lomé.

There are only rough estimates of the capital expenditures of the railroad, which have all been financed by external aid. Since 1960, about $1.8 million and $0.4 million have been granted by the EDF and France, respectively, to purchase new equipment and replace old tracks.

There is at present no coordination between rail and road transport. Although railroad freight rates are noticeably lower than road freight rates, road transportation competes with increasing success with the railroads, because it reduces the number of loading and unloading operations. Furthermore, firms purchasing agricultural products are also agents for selling trucks and thus favor the use of road transport. It is estimated that 70 per cent of all goods transported are sent by road and only 28 per cent by railway.

Electric power is produced and distributed in Lomé and Anécho by l’Union Electrique d’Outre-Mer (UNELCO), a French private concern, which has had concession rights in Togo since 1931. It operates six diesel generating sets with an installed capacity of 2,160 kw.; an additional generating plant of 1,000 kw. is now under construction. UNELCO produced 9.9 million kw-h in 1963, four times its output in 1957. The cost of power to the consumers was reduced by 10 per cent in August 1964 and varies from CFAF 16 to CFAF 32 a kilowatt. Even after this reduction, the charges are still high, partly because of the small domestic demand and also because of the absence of an industrial load. In recent years, the company has had disputes with the Government over increases in power rates, and relations have often been strained. The National Electricity Company (Compagnie Energie Electrique du Togo—CEET) envisages the purchase of all UNELCO electrical installations by the end of 1965.

A hydroelectric station built by a Yugoslav firm for the Togolese Government at Kpimé (about 100 miles northwest of Lomé) with an installed capacity of 1,600 kw. is run by the CEET. In 1963 its production was only 20,000 kw-h, although its yearly output was scheduled to be about 5.6 million kw-h. The cost of the station, estimated at $1.6 million, was financed by a five-year loan from the Yugoslav Government. Despite this additional electricity, it is forecast that by the mid-1960’s the total output of the UNELCO plant and the Kpimé plant will not be sufficient to meet the increased demand in Lomé.

CTMB operates its own 6,300 kw. diesel electric plant, which produced 11 million kw-h in 1963. The rest of the country relies on electricity produced by small diesel plants run by municipalities, the Public Works Service, or individuals. The installed capacity in 1963 of all such plants was 500 kw. while their production amounted to some 1 million kw-h.

There is a possibility of building a group of hydroelectric plants in the Mono River valley some 90 miles north of Lomé. These plants could produce 500 million kw-h and the dams could be used also for irrigation in this area. This project would have to be undertaken in cooperation with Dahomey, but as the actual needs of both countries do not presently exceed 50 million kw-h yearly, it will not be carried out in the near future.

Economic Development Planning

Although the Government announced early in 1964 that a five-year development plan for the period 1964–68 would be established, delays in its preparation postponed the starting date to 1965. In July 1964 and again in November 1964, the President of the Republic stressed the main objectives of Togo’s economic development under a program of four five-year plans beginning in 1965. The objectives of the development plans are (1) to develop a modern economy to replace the present economy, which is highly dependent on the production of raw materials and the import of manufactured consumer goods; (2) to diversify the economy; (3) to develop all parts of the country evenly; (4) to develop internal and external trade; and (5) to develop agriculture and establish light industries.

Toward these ends, certain decisions have already been taken concerning worker training, education, public health, the grouping of private individuals into cooperatives for rural development, and the reorganization of the administration for the preparation and execution of the plans.

While the investment program will be as large as possible, care will be exercised to balance the budget and maintain equilibrium in the balance of payments. Within the total investment program, priorities will be established so as to limit expenditures on nonproductive social projects. There will be emphasis on agriculture, including (1) developing underdeveloped areas (e.g., cotton and sugar cane in the Oti and Mono valleys); (2) expanding traditional crops, such as coffee, cocoa, rice, and cotton; (3) promoting new crops, such as cotton, sugar cane, tobacco, and vegetables; and (4) diversifying and rationalizing agricultural production. Small processing industries based on agricultural products will also be established and measures will be taken to develop infrastructure facilities (e.g., the port of Lomé and the roads).

Each of the projects to be included in the plans will be based on careful studies and realistic estimates of possible investments. The criteria to be used by the Government in choosing projects include the importance of the investment for Togo’s economy, the opportunities for the employment of Togolese nationals, the saving in foreign exchange, and costs of production in relation to the prices of imported goods.

In order to encourage foreign and domestic private investments, an investment code is now in preparation. The new code will replace the present system of fiscal exemptions and special conventions accorded to new investments by the Government. Since achieving independence, Togo has relied heavily on external public funds to finance investment. In the future also, it does not seem likely that domestic savings will be sufficient to finance all the investment needed for Togo’s economic development. Therefore, for the implementation of its five-year plans, Togo will still have to rely on foreign financial assistance. The Government has already made arrangements to obtain additional foreign aid. France, through the FAC, has contributed to the expansion of the Lomé airport, roads, and broadcasting networks and the development of cotton growing. Negotiations have also started with French private companies for the establishment of an international communications center and the building of a cement factory. The Federal Republic of Germany will continue to help materially and financially toward the building of the port of Lomé, plants for producing textiles and plastic material and for extracting salt, and a printing office in Lomé.

Prices, Wages, and Employment

Prices

Although some information about prices in Togo is available, no wholesale or retail price index has yet been computed and published. In order to establish a retail price index, an inquiry into consumption habits by sampling methods is now in progress. This inquiry is being conducted in three different areas, namely, Lomé, other urban centers, and rural areas. It will also cover different income groups so as to determine the expenditure pattern of the most important income group, which will be used for the final index. However, the results of the inquiry will not be available before the end of 1965.

From the various individual prices quoted in Lomé and published monthly, it appears that there have not been many changes in the general trend of prices between 1959 and 1964, except for a few items (corn, meat, and piece goods), the prices of which have increased (see Table 27, p. 463).

No statistics for wholesale prices are available, but the movement of the unit values of the principal export and import products may be considered as representing the movement of wholesale prices (see Table 28, p. 464). Since there is a greater consistency in exports than in imports, the export index is probably more representative than the import index. These figures show that during the period 1959–63, when import prices remained generally stable or declined slightly, export prices declined more sharply.

On July 24,1964, for the first time, the Togolese Government decided to control prices by regulating the profit margins of wholesale and retail traders in certain goods. These measures were taken largely to improve the system of local distribution, reduce the excessive profits made by retail traders, and prevent speculative increases in prices of goods temporarily in short supply as a result of clandestine re-exports to neighboring countries. They also aimed at regularizing trade methods, improving internal distribution, increasing competition through a better knowledge of world prices by traders, imposing elementary accounting, and integrating peddlers into the regular commercial circuit. The price control regulations did not stipulate fixed prices, but prescribed maximum profit margins on certain products. For example, the profit margin was limited to 15 per cent on cement, 20 per cent on food products, and 40 per cent on electrical equipment, while at the same time the Government reduced the price of fuel.

Even before introducing these controls, the Government in 1962 had established the Société Togolaise d’Exportations et d’Importations (SOTEXIM) as a step toward improving internal distribution. The organization deals with all key imported products, such as cement, textiles, salt, and building materials. It sells these products at reasonable prices, and by its competition encourages private sector enterprises also to sell at low prices.

Wages

The Government has instituted a guaranteed hourly minimum wage (salaire minimum interprofessionnel garanti—s.m.i.g.), which differs according to categories of wage earners (agricultural or nonagricultural workers) and by areas (urban areas, coastal and plateau regions, and other areas). The minimum wages for nonagricultural workers are higher than those for agricultural workers. For each category, minimum wages are highest in urban areas and lowest in rural areas; those in the coastal areas lie between the others (Table 8). The differences are due to allowances being made for the lower cost of living outside the capital city, Lomé. However, the deductions for areas outside Lomé are made more or less arbitrarily and are not based on precise information.

Table 8.

Togo: Minimum Hourly Wages1

(In CFA francs)

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Source: Service de la Statistique Générale, Inventaire Economique du Togo, 1962–63.

These rates apply to the lowest grade wage earners.

Wages and salaries for each important category of worker are fixed through collective bargaining (conventions collectives) on the basis of the s.m.i.g. For example, in the building and public works enterprises, distinctions are drawn between different skills and categories of wage earners, such as building workers, quarry workers, other industrial workers, and drivers. There are similar distinctions between servants, employees in bars, hotels, and restaurants, transport workers, bank employees, industrial workers, and trade employees. In the public sector, salaries are fixed according to barèmes established by the Government.

The s.m.i.g. is determined by the Government after consulting a special committee composed of representatives of employers, wage earners, and the Administration. The factors taken into account by the Government in determining the s.m.i.g. include the wages policy of the Government, the working relations between employers and employees, and the minimum vital, which is the minimum cost of living based on the budget of a low-income family in Lomé. This minimum vital is not calculated regularly; it is computed when there is political pressure for an increase in salaries and wages.

In practice, the s.m.i.g. is applied only by the Government and the larger private enterprises. Small shopkeepers and craftsmen more or less ignore it, partly because they are not aware of the regulations and partly because they cannot afford to pay even the minimum wage. It is estimated that the total wage bill for workers who earn less than the minimum wage represents about 18 per cent of total wage earnings of all workers, estimated at some CFAF 4.3 billion in 1962 for the non-agricultural sector and about CFAF 300 million in 1961 for the agricultural sector. About 4,000 to 5,000 workers—20 to 25 per cent of the total number of wage earners—earn less than the minimum wage. As the s.m.i.g. is a minimum wage only, employers are free to pay more than this amount. Except for higher level positions, however, this practice is not widespread.

The evolution of the s.m.i.g. in recent years is shown in Table 8. The latest wage increase, on November 1, 1963, was decided by the Government because there had been an increase of 16 per cent in the minimum vital between 1959 and 1963. However, as the actual increase in minimum wages then authorized was 8 per cent, the level of real wages in Togo has declined a little in recent years.

Employment

The number of wage earners in 1962 is estimated at some 23,700, of whom about 12,200 were in the Administration and the public sector, and some 11,500 were in the private sector (Table 9). There were also independent retail traders, mostly women, estimated at some 20,000. Both unemployment and underemployment exist in Togo, a large part of the 10,000 unemployed workers being concentrated in Lomé. There is underemployment in the traditional agricultural sector as the peasants work only during two relatively short growing seasons and are more or less idle for the rest of the year. The Government is trying to remedy this situation by increasing agricultural production, but great difficulties are created by the system of land tenure. Practically all land is owned either by tribal entities or by villages, and without private ownership of land there is no incentive to make land improvements or to increase agricultural output. Furthermore, it is extremely difficult to establish proof of ownership of land, and there are endless fights between villages and tribes about land, especially in the richer regions where coffee and cocoa can be grown.

Table 9.

Togo: Number of Wage Earners, 1956, 1959, 1961, 1962

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Source: Service de la Statistique Générale, Inventaire Economique du Togo, 1957,1958,1959–61, 1962–63.

There are two trade unions in Togo. The major one is the Union Nationale des Travailleurs Togolais (UNTT), with a membership comprising nearly all government workers and employees and most of the workers in private trade and industry. The second union, Comité d’Action des Travailleurs Croyants (CATC), is quite small, having only 2,000 members, mostly in religious education. Labor unions are not of much importance in the agricultural sector. In the nonagricultural sector, they participate in discussions with the Government and employees concerning possible increases in the s.m.i.g. Disputes between the labor unions and the employers have to be submitted to the Inspection du Travail for arbitration. If no agreement can be reached, the disputes are transmitted to the Minister of Labor and thereafter to the Tribunal du Travail for final settlement. Although there is freedom to strike in Togo, there has not been any strike since independence was achieved.

Government Finance

There are two main budgets of the Central Government: the ordinary budget which covers current revenues and expenditures and an equipment budget pertaining to capital expenditures (Table 10). In addition, there is an annexed budget for the port of Lomé and the railroad (Table 12, p. 438). Apart from the budgets for the Central Government, there are budgets for the regions and the municipalities (Tables 13 and 14, below), but their total expenditures are small (generally about CFAF 400 million), compared with those of the Central Government, which totaled some CFAF 5 billion in 1964.

Table 10.

Togo: Original Estimates and Results of the Ordinary and Equipment Budgets of the Central Government, 1959–64

(In billions of CFA francs)

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Sources: Service de la Statistique Générale, Inventaire Economique du Togo, 1962–63; data supplied by the Togolese authorities; Comité Monétaire de la Zone Franc, La Zone Franc.

Provisional data.

Estimates based on initial and revised budgets.

Table 11.

Togo: Financing of Budget Deficits, 1962—64

(In millions of CFA francs)

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Source: Data supplied by the Togolese authorities. See also Table 29 (p. 465).
Table 12.

Togo: Annexed Budget for Railroad and Wharf, 1959–63

(In millions of CFA francs)

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Sources: Service de la Statistique Générale, Inventaire Economique du Togo, 1962–63; Réseau des Chemins de Fer et du Wharf du Togo, Compte-Rendu de Gestion 1963.
Table 13.

Togo: Budget for the Regions, 1960–62

(In millions of CFA francs)

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Source: Service de la Statistique Générale, Inventaire Economique du Togo, 1962–63.
Table 14.

Togo: Budget for the Municipalities, 1960–62

(In millions of CFA francs)

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Source: Service de la Statistique Générale, Inventaire Economique du Togo, 1962–63.

The budget year in Togo is the calendar year. However, the ordinary budget is subject to the règle de l’exercice, according to which receipts and expenditures attributable to a fiscal year A, but effectively cashed or disbursed in the first 5 months of the following fiscal year B, are included in the accounts of the fiscal year A. As a result of this practice, the budget figures presented in the upper part of Table 10 record transactions over 17 months, although in practice most expenditures are spent and practically all revenues are collected by December of each year. The equipment budget and other accounts which are separate from the ordinary budget (e.g., local authorities’ budgets) are not subject to the règle de l’exercice and are closed at the end of the fiscal year.

Until December 31, 1960, the financial operations of the Government of Togo were managed by the French Treasury on behalf of the Togolese Treasury. The French Treasury in Togo kept separate records for collections and payments made on behalf of the Government of Togo and for the financial operations of the French Government, such as payments for pensions and disbursements of the Caisse Centrale de Coopération Economique (CCCE). On January 1, 1961, the Government of Togo took over the management of its Treasury, and the accounts of the French Treasury at the Banque Centrale des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (BCEAO) were separated into two accounts, one for the French Treasury proper and the other for the Togolese Treasury.

Structure of government revenues

Ordinary budget revenues consist mainly of indirect taxes; direct taxes and revenues from government property account for less than 10 per cent of total revenues. The important indirect taxes are customs duties (imports and exports) and a turnover tax, which applies only to sales of manufactured products (8.8 per cent) and services rendered (6 per cent). There is also a quarterly tax on vehicles, varying from CFAF 125 for a bicycle to CFAF 18,000 for a bus. The import duties are levied without discrimination between countries or currency areas. Revenues from import duties have increased in recent years because there has been an expansion in the quantity and value of imports, while the rates have been kept more or less unchanged. In fact, import duties are relatively low compared with those in neighboring countries, which is one reason why imported goods are smuggled across the border to Ghana. Revenues from export duties are much smaller than those from import duties, as only some of the exports are taxed and these, in general, at a rate lower than that for imports.

In addition to the normal export and import duties there are entry and exit taxes, levied ad valorem, which vary according to the commodity. There are also a number of other taxes collected on the goods at the time of entry or exit: a turnover tax of 15.71 per cent on imports and 5.50 per cent f.o.b. on exports; a statistics tax of 1 per cent ad valorem for imports and exports; a tax on behalf of the town of Lomé at CFAF 100 per ton of exports and imports; a lighthouse tax of CFAF 20 per ton on both exports and imports; and a wharfage tax, which for imports varies according to the commodity and for exports is CFAF 20 per ton. Special taxes are also levied on some imports, such as the tax on behalf of the Chamber of Commerce (CFAF 40 per 100 kg. on perfumes, alcohols, and fabrics and CFAF 20 per 100 kg. on other products). The special tax on behalf of the Road Fund is levied on imports at CFAF 2 per liter on gasoline and CFAF 1 per liter on gas oil, and there is a surtax of CFAF 15,000 per hectoliter on pure alcohol.

Direct taxation in Togo has been modeled after the French system. The main direct taxes are the income tax, the progressive tax on all profits, a tax on wages paid by employers, a tax on rental values (droit de patente et licence), a land tax, and a capitation tax. Income tax is levied on industrial and commercial profits at 25 per cent for individuals and 35 per cent for companies. The rate of tax on other profits is 25 per cent. The progressive tax on wages and salaries is levied at the source on employees’ earnings in excess of CFAF 7,000 a month, the rate varying between 1.1 per cent and 50 per cent. The tax on wages below CFAF 7,000 a month is paid by employers at a rate of 1.5 per cent. The droits de patente et licences are imposed on all commercial and industrial enterprises; they comprise partly a fixed amount and partly a proportion (10 per cent) of the rental value. The land tax is applied only in certain urban areas; its rate varies between 5 per cent and 20 per cent, and the proceeds accrue to local authorities. A capitation tax on men, amounting to about CFAF 1,200 per annum, also accrues to local authorities.

Prior to achieving independence in 1960, Togo relied heavily on French aid for ordinary budget support. Beginning with 1960, this aid has been greatly reduced. It was CFAF 446 million in 1958, CFAF 251 million in 1959, CFAF 32 million in 1960, CFAF 31 million in 1961, and nil in 1962 and 1963, but for 1964 is estimated at CFAF 89 million. The reduction has been due in large part to the desire of the Togolese Government to rely only on domestic resources for financing the expenditures of the ordinary budget.

The equipment budget does not have special revenues except for small amounts earmarked from the current budget. External aid, however, is an important source of revenue for the equipment budget.

Structure of government expenditures

Most of the expenditures of the ordinary budget are devoted to wages and salaries, and a smaller amount is earmarked for supplies (Table 10). A part of the expenditure for the police, army, and airport maintenance outside the budget is still reimbursed by France.

Service on the public debt in the current budget is small, generally about 3 per cent of total budget expenditures (about CFAF 120-140 million annually). On January 1, 1964, the recorded external public debt amounted to CFAF 4.7 billion, of which CFAF 3.3 billion is due to the Federal Republic of Germany, mainly for the construction of the port of Lomé. About CFAF 1.4 billion is due to France, mainly to the CCCE, for various projects, such as the participation of the Government in semipublic or private companies. Domestic public debt in January 1964 was CFAF 210 million, consisting of a loan from the Cocoa Stabilization Fund for the construction of the hotel Le Bénin in Lomé. In addition, the Treasury in its financial operations borrowed from deposits in the Savings Bank, the Postal Checking System, and the Pension Fund (Table 11 ; see also Table 29, p. 465).

Expenditures in the equipment budget include direct investment, subsidies, and participations. For example, the government share in the CTMB is included. However, the expenditures in the equipment budget do not include those expenditures financed directly by foreign loans.

Budgetary development in recent years

Since 1960, the ordinary budget has been in deficit, except in 1961 when an austerity program was introduced and strictly enforced. There was a deficit of CFAF 243 million in 1960, a surplus of CFAF 56 million in 1961, and deficits of CFAF 299 million in 1962 and CFAF 627 million in 1963. For 1964, the latest estimate of the deficit is CFAF 824 million.

The ordinary budget deficits have arisen mainly because expenditures have expanded more rapidly than revenues. Between 1959 and 1963, expenditures increased from CFAF 2.8 billion to CFAF 4.3 billion (53 per cent), while revenues increased by 28 per cent, from CFAF 2.8 billion to CFAF 3.6 billion (see Table 10). In addition, there have been special factors such as the decrease in French aid beginning in 1960 and a temporary increase in government subsidies in 1962. In 1963, and especially in 1964, there were large increases in wages and salaries because of the higher minimum wage introduced in 1963 (see section on Prices, Wages, and Employment).

Although there have been large deficits in recent years, they have been financed by noninflationary resources provided by the Treasury. These resources have consisted mainly of funds put at the disposal of the Treasury by different national institutions (Table 11). The bulk of these funds has originated from the Stabilization Funds (now replaced by OPAT) which amounted to CFAF 1,815 million on September 30, 1964. Other resources have been supplied by the Postal Checking System, the Pension Fund, the Savings Bank, and the local authorities (regions and municipalities) which do not immediately use the resources they have collected. The difference between the total resources of the Treasury and the use it has made of these funds (accumulated budget deficits plus funds required for the current Treasury needs) constitutes the net assets of the Treasury (CFAF 1,840 million on September 30, 1964) which are invested abroad by the Treasury through the BCEAO (see Table 29, p. 465).

It will be noted that in the period 1962–63 domestic and external borrowing exceeded the deficits, and the Government invested surplus funds. There are also some public funds outside the control of the Treasury. For example, the proceeds not yet repatriated of postal stamps sold abroad (some $120,000 on December 31, 1963), the foreign assets of the Stabilization Fund for Overseas Products (Fonds de Stabilisation des Produits d’Outre-Mer), and the funds deposited directly by the Savings Bank with the Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations in Paris (estimated at some CFAF 230 million on September 30, 1964). Participations of the Togolese Government in public or semipublic enterprises, such as CTMB, SOTEXIM, Union Togolaise de Banque (UTB),1 etc., are also not recorded in any Treasury account, but are included directly in the equipment budget each year.

As mentioned above, the Government instituted austerity measures in 1961 in order to reduce the ordinary budget deficit. Efforts were made to limit the number of employees on the government payroll and to prevent government salaries from increasing. However, expenditures increased again in 1963. Therefore, in 1964, the Government decided to cut salaries by 10 per cent for all politically appointed officials.

The equipment budget has been quite small (see Table 10). Expenditures were CFAF 626 million in 1960, but decreased to CFAF 343 million in 1963. For 1964, they were estimated at CFAF 496 million. This budget has always been balanced, partly by contributions from the ordinary budget but mainly (until 1960) by subsidies from the French Government. It has also received loans from the Cocoa Stabilization Fund and the CCCE.

In addition to the ordinary and equipment budgets, there is an annexed budget for the railroad and the wharf. Expenditures in this budget increased from CFAF 450 million in 1956 to CFAF 543 million in 1960, and then decreased to CFAF 481 million in 1963 (Table 12). Through 1961, there were annual deficits which were covered by a contribution from the ordinary budget (CFAF 93 million in 1959, CFAF 50 million in 1960, and CFAF 36 million in 1961). In 1962 and 1963, there were surpluses of CFAF 8.7 million and CFAF 1.7 million, respectively, so that it was not necessary to use earmarked government subsidies from the ordinary budget. For both the railroad and the wharf, revenues have consisted mainly of receipts (those of the railroad from travelers and those of the wharf from import-export taxes), while most expenditures have been for wages and salaries, and a small part for maintenance.

Financial operations of regions and municipalities

The budget for the regions showed surpluses in the years 1960-62 (Table 13). Most of the revenues of this budget are derived from direct taxation, some being transfers from the Central Government, e.g., a percentage of certain direct taxes such as droits de patente et licences (25 per cent), taxe d’abattage (50 per cent), and centimes additionnels. The bulk of expenditures consists of wages, salaries, and expenses for equipment and maintenance.

The budget for the municipalities (Lomé, Anécho, Tsévié, Palimé, Atakpamé, Sokodé, and Bassari) also showed surpluses in the period 1960–62 (Table 14). Revenues of this budget, like that of the regions, are derived mainly from extraordinary receipts, direct taxes, and taxes on services rendered. The direct taxes include transfers by the Central Government of a percentage of certain direct taxes such as the tax on vehicles (30 per cent), droits de patente et licences (25 per cent), and taxe d’abattage (50 per cent); they include also centimes additionnels. Expenditures consist mostly of wages, salaries, and expenses for equipment and maintenance of municipal administration and public works.

Money and Banking

The monetary system

Togo is a member of the franc area. It is also a member of the West African Monetary Union, consisting of seven West African countries (Dahomey, Ivory Coast, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Togo, and Upper Volta). The Treaty establishing the West African Monetary Union went into effect on November 1, 1962. It provided for a continuation of the existing arrangements whereby these countries have a common currency—the CFA franc, which is equal to 0.02 French franc—and a common central bank, the BCEAO.2 The Treaty also gave the BCEAO new statutes and stipulated that the banknotes issued by it in each participating country should bear a distinguishing letter in their serial numbers, but should continue to be legal tender throughout the territory of all countries of the Monetary Union. Togo formally acceded to the West African Monetary Union only in November 1963. Prior to that date, the BCEAO functioned as a bank of issue in Togo under a provisional agreement concluded between Togo and the BCEAO.

In addition to the Treaty establishing the Union, there are three related agreements: (1) the new statutes of the BCEAO; (2) a cooperation agreement between the Union and France, redefining the terms and conditions of the existing monetary cooperation between these countries and France; and (3) a new agreement on the conduct of the “Operations Account” maintained by the BCEAO with the Government of France.

Beginning in October 1962, the BCEAO has succeeded in identifying its main assets and liabilities in the seven member countries on the basis of information on notes in circulation in each country and claims on banks and member Governments. At the end of 1964, the foreign assets imputable to Togo, including foreign investments made by the Government of Togo through the BCEAO, were estimated at CFAF 2.8 billion, or about 8 per cent of the total foreign assets of the BCEAO, while the notes in circulation (CFAF 2.5 billion) and rediscounts of short-term commercial paper (CFAF 1.0 billion) in Togo represented, respectively, about 4 per cent and 3 per cent of the notes and discounts for the BCEAO as a whole. The assets and liabilities of the BCEAO in Togo are shown in Table 15.

Table 15.

Togo: Assets and Liabilities of the Banque Centrale des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest in Togo, Quarterly, September 1962-December 1964 1

(In millions of CFA francs)

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Sources: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics; Banque Centrale des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (BCEAO), Notes d’Information et Statistiques; and estimates provided by the BCEAO.

Totals may not equal sums of items because of rounding.

Until June 1964, the original gold subscription payment to the Fund was made by the Togolese Treasury. However, for the sake of comparability with all other BCEAO countries where this payment was made by the BCEAO, the gold subscription to the Fund is included in the present table in the foreign assets of the BCEAO with a contra-entry in government deposits. From July 1964, the situation has been rendered similar to other BCEAO countries.

Foreign assets were about the same in December 1962 and December 1963. Within the next 12 months they rose by nearly 14 per cent, to CFAF 2.8 billion in December 1964. On that date, the largest item in total foreign assets was the “Treasury Investment Account” (CFAF 1.6 billion), which consisted of French francs held at the French Treasury on behalf of the Togolese Government (a corresponding contra-entry appeared under government deposits). The increase in this item between December 1963 and December 1964 (41 per cent—CFAF 0.5 billion) accounted for most of the recent increase in total foreign assets. The second largest item in total foreign assets at the end of December 1964 was Togo’s imputed share in the BCEAO’s balance in the “Operations Account” (CFAF 1.0 billion), which was also held in French francs with the French Treasury. The IMF entry (CFAF 278 million) corresponded to the gold subscription to the IMF, which was originally made by the Togolese Treasury, but which was reimbursed by the BCEAO in June 1964; up to that date, in order to render Togo’s foreign exchange position comparable, the gold subscription was included in the foreign assets of the BCEAO, with a contra-entry in government deposits. Until July 1963, Togo’s foreign assets also included a claim for CFAF 439 million against Guinea, representing Togo’s share of the claim of the BCEAO (CFAF 3.1 billion) which arose at the time of Guinea’s withdrawal from the BCEAO in 1960; this claim was settled in July 1963.

The domestic assets of the BCEAO in Togo consist almost entirely of rediscounts of commercial paper. So far, the Togolese Treasury has not had recourse to the BCEAO; the very small entries for claims on the Treasury, included in Table 15, arise from small deposits with the Postal Checking Accounts. Short-term rediscount credit reflects the seasonal movements of credit to the private sector, granted mainly to finance the marketing of export crops. These seasonal movements are less pronounced in Togo than in other BCEAO countries; indeed, the marketing periods of its two main cash crops, coffee and cocoa, extend over the whole year, with an overlapping period only between December and March (coffee is marketed from December to June, while cocoa has two marketing periods—from October to March and from June to September). The demand for credit is generally highest around February-March and lowest in September-October. In the period September 1962 to September 1963, rediscounts of short-term paper declined by some 12 per cent, from CFAF 765 million to CFAF 672 million. They increased to CFAF 1,196 million in March 1964, after which they showed their normal seasonal decline. In December 1964, they amounted to CFAF 1,016 million, 4 per cent higher than in December 1963. Medium-term rediscounts declined from CFAF 500 million in September 1962 to a minimum of CFAF 275 million in April 1964, but by December 1964 they had reached CFAF 330 million.

The amount of currency in circulation declined by 7 per cent between September 1962 and September 1963, when it was CFAF 1,951 million. However, it expanded by 13 per cent in the 1963/64 crop year and reached CFAF 2,202 million by September 1964 and CFAF 2,433 million in December 1964. The other principal liabilities of the BCEAO in Togo are the contra-entries for the Treasury Investment Account and the IMF gold subscription mentioned above. In addition, there are small amounts of deposits of banks and of the Treasury.

The operations of the BCEAO in Togo follow policies laid down by the central Board of Directors and the national Monetary Committee. For every six-month period (the December-May “marketing period” and the June-November “nonmarketing period”) the central Board determines, on the basis of the Monetary Committee’s proposals, a global ceiling for over-all short-term rediscounts and individual ceilings for rediscount of short-term paper issued by enterprises. It is the Monetary Committee’s responsibility to allocate the global ceilings among the different credit institutions, while imposing specific ceilings on rediscounting paper from certain enterprises. Generally, credit institutions are authorized to rediscount up to 65 per cent of their short-term credits during the marketing season and up to 50 per cent in the slack season. The Monetary Committee generally limits the total monthly credit ceiling to 70–80 per cent of the global credit ceiling approved by the central Board.

Commercial banks

The commercial banking system of Togo consists of three commercial banks. Two—the Banque de l’Afrique Occidentale (BAO) and the Banque Nationale pour le Commerce et l’Industrie (BNCI)—are branches of French banks. The third is a Togolese bank, the Union Togolaise de Banque (UTB), founded on April 3, 1964, which took over, from July 1, 1964, the operations in Togo of the Crédit Lyonnais (the third French bank previously operating in Togo). Of the UTB’s capital of CFAF 100 million, 35 per cent was subscribed by the Togolese Government, 35 per cent by the Crédit Lyonnais, 18 per cent by the Deutsche Bank, and 12 per cent by the Banca Commerciale Italiana.

Banking regulations are still based on French laws and are applied by the Minister of Finance. However, a new law, better adapted to local conditions in Togo, is now in preparation. It will take into account the guidelines set by the draft commercial banking law prepared by the central Board of the BCEAO.

A very large part of the operations of the commercial banks consists of the seasonal short-term financing of the coffee and cocoa crops. The banks are also active in financing imports. They extend some medium-term credit for the purchase of industrial and commercial equipment. For financing their short-term and medium-term credits, commercial banks rely heavily on rediscounting by the BCEAO; some of them also rely considerably on advances from their foreign head offices and correspondents. These factors account for the very low cash reserve position of the commercial banks in Togo (Table 16).

Table 16.

Togo: Assets and Liabilities of Deposit Money Banks, Quarterly, September 1962–December 1964 1

(In millions of CFA francs)

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Sources: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics; Banque Centrale des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (BCEAO), Notes d’Information et Statistiques; and estimates provided by the BCEAO.

Includes commercial banks and public credit institutions. Totals may not equal sums of items because of rounding.

Before September 1963 separate figures for foreign liabilities are not available; foreign assets are therefore shown net of foreign liabilities.

Public credit institutions

The Crédit du Togo is a public credit institution which was established in 1957 and transformed into a national development bank in 1960. The larger part (CFAF 62.5 million) of its capital is held by the Togolese Government and the remainder (CFAF 50 million) by the CCCE. The Crédit du Togo extends mainly long-term and medium-term credit to finance construction and the purchase of equipment by small enterprises in industry, handicraft, and agriculture; it also extends short-term commercial credits to cooperatives. At the end of September 1963, total outstanding credits extended by the Crédit du Togo amounted to CFAF 0.6 billion (of which CFAF 0.4 billion was long term). The bulk of the Credit du Togo’s resources consists of loans from the CCCE. Deposits are small, consisting exclusively of funds deposited as collateral by cooperatives or by the Government as a guarantee for loans extended to repatriated citizens. Rediscounts at the BCEAO are limited to short-term paper, as the rediscount rate (3.5 per cent) is higher than the interest charged by the CCCE (2.5 per cent). The Crédit du Togo would like to diversify its resources by obtaining funds from the OPAT, the Family Allowance Fund, and the Savings Fund.

The combined operations of the commercial banks and the Crédit du Togo are shown in Table 16. Total credit granted by these banks to the private sector decreased from CFAF 2,947 million in September 1962 to CFAF 2,836 million in September 1963 (i.e., by 4 per cent). During the 1963/64 crop year, there was an over-all expansion of credit. After reaching a seasonal peak in February, credit declined only slightly during the slack period; it amounted to CFAF 3,479 million in September 1964, or 23 per cent more than in September 1963, and reached CFAF 3,902 million on December 31, 1964. This over-all increase in credit was due to the expansion of short-term credit for financing crops and imports. The 1963/64 coffee crop was very large: a record 18,000 tons of coffee was produced, compared with 11,000 tons in 1962/63. Moreover, since Togo succeeded in selling only 16,000 tons to countries participating in the International Coffee Agreement and on other markets, unusually large stocks, estimated at 2,000–3,000 tons at the end of 1964, accumulated. These stocks were largely financed by bank credit.

Medium-term credit decreased during 1964 and was CFAF 467 million in December. The main component was a loan to CTMB extended by a bank syndicate and rediscounted with the BCEAO. The second main component of medium-term loans was credit to agriculture, granted essentially by the Crédit du Togo. After increasing during 1960–62 for financing new coffee plantations, it declined early in 1963 and 1964. Long-term credit, on the other hand, tended to rise throughout 1964 and amounted to CFAF 557 million in December 1964. This rise was due mainly to a large extension of credit by the Crédit du Togo to finance construction.

Other financial institutions

Other financial institutions include insurance companies, the Pension Fund, the Workmen’s Compensation Fund, the Savings Bank, and the Postal Checking System.

The Postal Checking Accounts (Comptes Courants Postaux—CCP) are handled by the Post Office in a specialized department which also handles private transfers abroad. These accounts are widely used by the private sector, the Treasury, and commercial banks for payments and transfers in the rural areas which have no commercial banking facilities. Deposits with the CCP are not important, but have increased steadily; at the end of September 1964, they amounted to CFAF 145 million, 18 per cent more than in 1963 and 50 per cent more than in 1962.

The Savings Bank (Caisse d’Epargne) is a juridically distinct public institution whose operations with the public are handled by the Postal Administration. Its deposits consist mainly of small savings from the people of Togo (some 14,000 accounts averaging CFAF 20,000). Its revolving funds (some CFAF 30 million) are deposited with the Treasury, while the remainder of its resources is redeposited in France with the Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations at a relatively high interest rate. Savings deposits have grown steadily in recent years; in mid-1964, they amounted to CFAF 284 million, compared with CFAF 233 million in mid-1963 and CFAF 203 million in mid-1962.

CCCE has extended substantial long-term and medium-term loans to the private sector (mainly a CFAF 2.5 billion long-term loan to the CTMB) as well as to the public and semipublic enterprises. In September 1964, its over-all outstanding credits amounted to CFAF 4.6 billion, about the same as in 1963.

The Treasury also extends short-term credit to private enterprises by accepting promissory notes (obligations cautionnées) in payment of fiscal debts. These notes may be rediscounted with the BCEAO, but so far the Government has not done so. At the end of September 1964, these promissory notes totaled CFAF 514 million, compared with CFAF 400 million and CFAF 325 million in September 1962 and September 1963, respectively.

Rates of interest

Pursuant to an agreement reached by the banks operating in former French West Africa, the interest rates charged by commercial banks are subject to a minimum equal to the rediscount rate (presently 3.5 per cent) plus 2.5 per cent per annum. However, owing to the nature of the risks, the existence of collateral, and eligibility for rediscounting, the minimum interest rates charged by the banks have varied from 4.75 per cent to 8.50 per cent per annum.

The interest rates charged by the Crédit du Togo are based on the rate paid to its main supplier of funds, namely, CCCE (2.5 per cent). Interest rates on loans to finance construction vary from 5.5 per cent to 8 per cent per annum, according to the size of the loans. Loans to cooperatives are at 5 per cent, to agriculture at 6 per cent, and to handicrafts and real estate companies at 7 per cent.

The Savings Fund pays a 3.5 per cent per annum interest to its depositors, while it receives 4.4 per cent for its own deposits with the Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations. CCCE charges 2.5 per cent for its loans to the public sector and 4-4.5 per cent for its loans to private enterprises.

Monetary developments

Statistics on money supply in Togo are available only beginning in October 1962, when the banknotes issued by the BCEAO in each member country of the West African Monetary Union were designated by a special letter in their serial number. Money supply at the end of September 1962 is estimated at CFAF 3.3 billion (Table 17). At the end of September 1963 it had not changed significantly. At the end of September 1964 it had increased by 14 per cent to CFAF 3.8 billion, and in December 1964 it amounted to CFAF 4.4 billion—17 per cent higher than in the previous year. Quasi-money reached CFAF 114 million in December 1964, more than twice the 1963 average.

Table 17.

Togo: Monetary Survey, Quarterly, September 1962–December 1964

(In millions of CFA francs)

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Sources: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics; Banque Centrale des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (BCEAO), Notes d’Information et Statistiques; and estimates provided by the BCEAO.

Excluding very small deposits with deposit money banks which are consolidated with claims on the Government (five in December 1963).

Bank credit to the private sector was the major factor in the expansion in money supply. Bank credit rose from CFAF 3,236 million in September 1963 to a maximum of CFAF 4,487 million in February 1964, when it was 17 per cent above the amount in February 1963. By September 1964, it had declined only slightly, to CFAF 3,992 million and was 23 per cent above the previous year’s level; it then increased somewhat, reaching CFAF 4,370 million at the end of 1964. As already mentioned, short-term credit had expanded because of growing imports and a bumper coffee crop in 1963/64. Because of the large unsold coffee stocks, credit did not contract as usual during the slack season.

Net foreign assets of the monetary system declined in the last months of 1963, reflecting mainly a decline in the commercial banks’ foreign assets and a rise in their foreign liabilities. During 1964, net foreign assets of the monetary system rose to CFAF 2,524 million in September, which was 19 per cent more than in September 1963; they declined slightly to CFAF 2,447 million in December. Until March-April 1964, this expansion was the result of a large rise in the foreign exchange reserves of the BCEAO, reflecting exports of coffee at higher prices. After April 1964, foreign exchange reserves tended to decline, as the marketing of the crop became more difficult and as imports kept increasing; in December 1964, they were under CFAF 1,000 million. Until September 1964, a large increase in the Investment Account of the Treasury with the BCEAO had helped to maintain a steady rise in over-all foreign assets (see Table 15).

Commercial banks’ gross foreign liabilities increased steadily through September 1964, since the banks relied partly on their foreign correspondents to finance the expansion of their short-term credits; over the period September 1963-September 1964, these liabilities more than doubled, growing by CFAF 700 million to reach CFAF 1,310 million in September 1964, but they declined to CFAF 958 million in December (see Table 16). On the other hand, commercial banks’ gross foreign assets also grew in 1964, resulting from investments in France by one of the three banks; the increase of these assets over the period September 1963-December 1964 amounted to CFAF 340 million.

Government desposits, after declining slowly from June 1963 to March 1964, rose considerably, reaching CFAF 2,527 million in September 1964, which was about 25 per cent more than in September 1963 (Table 17). These developments reflected mainly the counterpart of the Treasury Investment Account with the BCEAO and also a rise in promissory notes accepted by the Administration in payment of fiscal debts. Although government deposits declined somewhat in December 1964, to CFAF 2,183 million, they were slightly above the previous year’s level.

Foreign Trade and Payments

Foreign trade

Togo has traditionally exported a few tropical agricultural products, such as coffee and cocoa, but beginning in 1961 it has also exported increasing amounts of phosphates. Its imports consist mainly of manufactured goods, fuel, and certain food items. Whereas exports have risen only slightly in recent years, imports have generally increased substantially, resulting in large trade deficits (Table 18). With the exception of 1959, Togo’s trade balance has been in deficit since 1955.

Table 18.

Togo: Foreign Trade, 1950–64

(In billions of CFA francs)

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Sources: Service de la Statistique Générale, Inventaire Economique du Togo, 1962–1963, and Bulletin de Statistique.

In 1964, exports showed a remarkable upturn, increasing by 65 per cent over 1963 (see below). However, as imports also continued their rapid expansion (44 per cent), the trade deficit in 1964 rose to CFAF 2.84 billion, from CFAF 2.66 billion in 1963.

Exports

Togo’s exports by value are shown in Table 19 (for volume figures see