Commercial energy investment requirements in developing countries, 1982–92
(In billions of U.S. dollars)
|Low-income countries||Oil importers||Oil exporters||All developing countries||Annual average 1982-92|
|Transmission and distribution||49.9||101.8||49.9||201.6||18.3|
|Exploration, development, transmission and maintenance||17.5||16.8||30.2||64.5||5.9|
Includes maintenance of old fields, enhanced and secondary oil recovery, pipelines, and infrastructure.
Estimates include investments in refinery modifications necessary to achieve a balance between petroleum product supply and demand within developing countries, as well as investments in refinery rehabilitation and replacement of old plant and in energy conservation measures. These estimates could vary by as much as 20 percent, depending on assumptions concerning the refinery mix in China, and on the extent to which product imbalances in the developing countries are met through direct trade in refined products. Estimates exclude investments in infrastructural development, which amount to about $10 billion.
Distribution of gas from major transmission pipelines to residential and commercial users.