Effect of City-Level Trade Openness on Participation
(Percentage point change for a one standard deviation rise in openness)
Citation: Staff Discussion Notes 2019, 002; 10.5089/9781484393901.006.A001Source: IMF staff calculations.Note: Youth are 15–29 years old; adults are 30–64 years old. The standard deviation of city-level trade openness is approximately 51 percentage points. Filled bars indicate statistical significance at the 5 percent level, while hollow bars do not.