I would like to thank Martha Ainsworth, Thomas Harjes, Hopolang Phororo, and Alan Whiteside for their help and suggestions.
For the purpose of this study, Southern Africa comprises Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
For a broader study of the demographic and economic impact of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa, see Haacker (2001).
PPP exchange rates also have the advantage that they respond less to short-term fluctuations of the nominal exchange rate. It is important to bear in mind, though, that PPP exchange rates are estimated based on the prices of a bundle of goods and services that may differ from goods and services relevant for the health sector.
Defined as health personnel who have completed a degree of sufficient duration.
Access to essential drugs is defined as the percentage of the population with access to at least 20 drugs from the WHO’s list of essential drugs within one hour’s walk. The list does include several drugs used to treat opportunistic diseases associated with AIDS.
See the relevant Worldbank country studies listed under references.
The ratio of 10 percent is used for illustrative purposes.
This study focuses on the countries covered here, less Uganda and Tanzania.
Assuming that those who have died of AIDS would have survived otherwise.
See Bonnel, Costs of Scaling HIV Program Activities, 2001, for a thorough discussion of this method.
See Bonnel, Costs of Scaling HIV Program Activities, 2001.
For Uganda, Binswanger (2000) reports that about 1,000 patients, that is 0.1 percent of those living with HIV/AIDS, receive triple therapy with antiretrovirals. For Malawi, the Washington Post (Nov 1, 2000) reports that the number of patients receiving triple therapy in Malawi is about 30, i.e. 0.004 percent of those living with HIV.
A possible exception are temporary treatments to reduce the rate of mother-to-child transmission.