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MEAC (Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications), 2017a, “National Development Plan of the Energy Sector until 2030,” MEAC, Tallinn.
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Prepared by Neree Noumon (EUR). The analysis benefitted from discussions with the authorities and comments received on the presentation that took place during the 2022 AIV. Karlygash Zhunussova (FAD) provided helpful comments and supported with the implementation of the CPAT tool.
European Union member states (plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Norway) are part of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), a market created to trade a capped number of greenhouse gas emission allowances.
The CPAT uses a granular modelling of sectors and fossil fuels to assesses impact of carbon pricing schemes on energy-related emissions.
The Commission also proposed aligning national taxation policies with the European Green Deal objectives, measures to prevent carbon leakage, and tools to preserve and grow natural carbon sinks.
The land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) sector, traditionally a net greenhouse gas sink, became a net emitter in 2020 (about 10 percent of net emissions). This trend, yet to be confirmed, was caused by ageing forests.
The oil shale sector in Estonia is highly concentrated in the eastern-most region of Ida-Virumaa. As of 2019, oil shale related companies located in the region account for over 50 percent of Estonia’s total GHG emissions.
GHG emissions from railways, domestic navigation, and domestic aviation represented about 1 percent, 1 percent, and 0.2 percent of 2020 transportation emissions, respectively.
The prevalence of cars in the population in 2018 was similar to that of Germany and Australia, countries with higher living standards than Estonia.
UNECE’s 2020 Transport Statistics Infocards
EU Member States classify buildings’ efficiency from A (most efficient) to G (least), in line with the EU’s Energy Performance of Buildings Directive and Energy Efficiency Directive.
Road tolls are time-based and only for heavy-duty commercial vehicles, while there are no congestion charges in urban areas (EC 2022).
Estonia developed the world’s first nation-wide EVs fast-charging network in the early 2010s (Rezvani et al., 2015).
In 2013, Tallinn became the first capital city in the EU to provide free public transport to permanent residents.
For example, it would take at least two decades to replace Estonia’s entire car fleet with EVs (OECD). Norway’s success was supported by a comprehensive package.
ESCOs are integrated companies of energy engineers and experts that provide energy saving solutions.
18 The public sector has targeted renovating 3 percent of central government building stock per year, as required by the EU Energy Efficiency, finance by the sale of CO2 allowances (MEAC, 2017).
19 As of April 2021, Carbon taxes ranged from less than €1 per metric ton of carbon emissions in Poland and Ukraine to more than €100 in Sweden.