Greta C. Dargie, Simon L. Lewis, Ian T. Lawson, Edward T. A Mitchard, Susan E. Page, Yannick E. Bocko and Suspense A Ifo, 2017. “Age, extent and carbon storage of the central Congo Basin peatland complex”.
Lukas Boer, Andrea Pescatori, and Martin Stuermer, 2021. “Energy Transition Metals”. IMF working paper. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.
Yiyi He, Stephan Thies, Paolo Avner, and Jun Rentschler, 2020. “The Impact of Flooding on Urban Transit and Accessibility: A Case Study of Kinshasa”, Policy research working paper, World bank.
Prepared by Solo Zerbo
The ND-GAIN index is obtained by subtracting the vulnerability score from the readiness score for each country and scale the scores to give a value from 0 to 100, with 100 being the best prepared/less exposed to climate events.
The DRC has a great agriculture potential with 80 million of arable land, diverse climatic conditions, and abundant water resources. Yet, this potential has barelybeen taped and only 10% of its arable land is used for agriculture.
Please see Yiyi He, Stephan Thies, Paolo Avner, and Jun Rentschler (2020) for details.
The ecosystem service carbon sequestration is defined as the capture and storage of carbon in biomass contributing to climate regulation. Sequestration services are measured using the net ecosystem carbon balance, taking into account all changes in carbon stocks (including, changes resulting from de-forestation or forest fires, or a reduction in peatland areas).
The Congo Basin drains an area of approximately 3.7 x 106 km2, within which lies a central shallow depression overlaid by swamp forest, known as the Cuvette Centrale. Over this region, the Congo River drops just 115 m over 1,740 km, with year-round waterlogging and contains extensive peat deposit. The Congo basin represent 29 percent of the global tropical peat carbon sequestration.
2017 Was the Second-Worst Year on Record for Tropical Tree Cover Loss | World Resources Institute (wri.org). The DRC is the third most populous country in Africa with 78.7 million people, 57 percent of whom live in rural areas and 77.1 percent are below the poverty line by international standards.
According to the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting – Experimental Ecosystem Accounts (SEEA-EEA), the service of sequestering carbon is equal to the net accumulation of carbon in an ecosystem and accumulation in below-ground carbon storage.
Since regional estimates are insufficiently reliable, we focus on the global carbon cost arbitrage which properly accounts for climate damage estimates in aggregate. Please see William D. Nordhaus (2017) for more details. We potentially underestimate significantly the social benefits as we take a conservative estimate of the SCC relative to other estimates.
The Net zero emissions scenario is a normative IEA scenario that shows a narrow but achievable pathway for the global energy sector to achieve net zero C02 emissions by 2050. This is consistent with limiting the global temperature rise to 1.5 °C without a temperature overshoot. The stated policy scenario provides a more conservative benchmark for the future because it does not take it for granted that governments will reach all announced goals. These include Nationally Determined Contributions under the Paris Agreement, but much more besides (IAE scenarios,2021).
These demand scenarios are feasible under strong climate policies commitments. Risks such as policy security and geopolitical risks could undermine commitment to green transition.
According to the IAE (2021), the average GHG emissions intensities forcobalt and copperare4.8 and 16.5 tCo2 eq perton, respectively for large scale mining (LSM) production.
Unresponsible mining practices including dumping chemical waste into rivers, heavy metal pollution,improper handling of waste, and abandonment of excavated pits by ASM operations could lead to additional environmental cost.
A “carbon credit” is an emission offsets financial instrument representing efforts to remove GHGs from the atmosphere or reduce their emissions. REDD+ projects in the DRC, for example, can profit by selling carbon credits to companies or individuals who want to offset their emissions by financing the conservation of Congolese forests. Each credit, known as a “verified carbon unit,” corresponds to one metric ton of carbon dioxide emissions.
Ecosystem marketplace data. The price of a carbon credit is negotiated bilaterally and varies between $US5 and $US10.