Consejo de la Concertación Nacional para el Desarrollo, 2017, “Plan Estratégico Nacional con Visión de Estado Panama 2030.” (United Nations Development Programme, ISBN 978-9962-663-33-1).
Interamerican Development Bank, “Gender Parity Taskforce (English)” https://www.iadb.org/en/gender-and-diversity/gender-parity-taskforce
Interamerican Development Bank, “Economic Information Map of the Republic of Panama (English)” https://minerpa.com.pa/inicio/indicadores-sociales/
International Monetary Fund, 2019, World Economic Outlook Database. (Washington, DC, October)
S. Nazrul Islam and John Winkel, 2017, “Climate Change and Social Inequality.” (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Working Paper No. 152, New York).
World Bank, 2018, “Panama – Support for the National Indigenous Peoples Development Plan Project (English).” (Washington, D.C. World Bank Group).
Prepared by Marina Rousset and Paola Aliperti F. Domingues.
TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study), PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study), PISA (Program for International Student Assessment), PASEC (Program of Analysis of Education Systems), LLECE (Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of the Quality of Education) and EGRA (Early Grade Reading Assessments), whichever applicable.
According to the national sources and the Interamerican Development Bank (see Figure 3). These estimates differ methodologically from the World Bank’s poverty headcount ratios mentioned in ^[2 for cross-country comparison.
The World Bank and other development partners are currently working with the Ministry of Social Development (MIDES) on updating Panama’s conditional cash transfer programs, including through full recertification of beneficiaries to improve targeting and enhance coverage.
The GPI is made up of 9 public institutions (Panama’s Vice-Presidency and Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Economy and Finance, the Ministry of Labor and Labor Development, National Women’s Institute, Small and Medium Enterprise Authority, the Panama Canal Authority, the Superintendence of the Securities Market, National Secretariat of Science and Technology, and National Institute of Vocational Training and Training for Human Development), the leaders of 7 business groups and private companies, 5 economic and social organizations, and 3 IFIs (UNDP, UN Women and ILO), in addition to the IDB – the founding IFI in LAC.
While Panama’s score of 79.4 may sound high, it is equal to that of Burkina Faso, Belize and Fiji (in all cases, with per capita PPP GDP less than half that of Panama).
To reduce the wage gap between men and women, Panama was the first country in the region to join the International Coalition for Salary Equality and to launch the International Coalition for Equal Remuneration in January 2018, promoted by the International Labor Organization (ILO), UN Women and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
In Panama, the retirement age for women is 57 years, and that of men is 62 years.
To support female entrepreneurs, Panama introduced the Women Entrepreneurs Platform (Canal de Empresarias) at the City of Knowledge in 2015 (co-funded by the IDB) to provide technical support and mentorship to women-led startups and existing SMEs. The low entrepreneurship score however reflects legal, not logistical, deficiencies.
Including intense and protracted rainfalls, windstorms, floods, droughts, wildfires, earthquakes, landslides, tropical cyclones, tsunamis and El Niño-La Niña events, whose combined annual cost is estimated to range between US$ 125 and 150 million (0.36% to 0.42% of GDP), according to the Strategic Government Plan “Panama 2030”.
Including the National Climate Change Policy, along with the National Adaptation Plan, the National Plan for Coastal Erosion Processes, the Integral Plan for Sustainable Urban Mobility, National Energy Plan 2050, National Strategy for Sustainable Livestock, National Forest Strategy 2050, Emission Reduction Plan for the Aviation Sector, and the Panama Resilience Strategy.
Panama ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 1999 and, in 2015, the Doha Amendment on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by December 31, 2020. Furthermore, the authorities ratified the Paris Agreement on climate change in 2016 and pledged to ratify the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol in September 2018.