Due Process of Law Foundation (March 2014), “Ley vs. realidad, Independencia y trasparencia de la justica en Centroamérica y Panamá”, Informe de Panamá. http://www.dplf.org/sites/default/files/panama_v05.pdf
Ricardo Hausmann, Miguel Angel Santos, and Juan Obach (2017), Appraising the Economic Potential of Panama: Policy Recommendations for Sustainable and Inclusive Growth, CID Faculty Working paper No. 334.
Larsen, Matthew C. (2019). “Water supply and water quality challenges in Panama.” in Advances in Water Purification Techniques, edited by Ajuha, S., 41–46.
Prepared by Julia Faltermeier (WHD).
See Hadzi-Vaskov (2018). “Is There a Middle-Income Trap? Singular Growth Patterns in Panama”. IMF SIP, Washington D.C.
Hausmann, Obach and Santos (2016). “Special Economic Zones in Panama: Technology Spillovers from a Labor Market Perspective.
This duality in the Panamanian economy is not always well reflected in the available statistics. While aggregate indicators often include the whole country, doing business surveys are generally restricted to small to medium-size, 100 percent domestic firms, thus excluding many firms located in the free zones, which would improve the indicator if they were included.
Larsen (2019) estimates that reducing leakages to under 1 percent would be equivalent to constructing a new reservoir of the size of Alajuela.
National Energy Plan 2015–50. In addition to decarbonization of the energy matrix, the strategy also sets out to (i) provide universal access, (ii) reduce and improve efficiency of energy use and (iii) ensure energy security.
The comarcas have other sources of energy such as solar panels and kerosene.