Autor, David and Anna Salomons, 2018, “Is Automation Labor-Displacing? Productivity Growth, Employment, and the Labor Share,” Brookings Paper on Economic Activity.
Colacelli, Mariana and Emilio Fernandez-Corugedo, 2018, “Macroeconomic Effects of Japan’s Demographics: Can Structural Reforms Reverse Them?” IMF Working Paper 18/248.
Colacelli, Mariana and Anh Le, 2018, “Inequality in Japan: Generational, Gender and Regional Considerations,” in “Japan: Selected Issues,” IMF Country Report 18/334.
Hamaguchi, N. and K. Kondo, 2017, “Regional Employment and Artificial Intelligence,” RIETI Discussion Paper, 17-K-023. Research Institute of Economy, Trade, and Industry, Tokyo.
Hong, G., S. Lizarazo Ruiz, A. Peralta-Alva, and Y. Yao, forthcoming, “Is Automation the Answer to Japan’s Demographic Challenges?”, IMF Working Paper.
Kitao, Sagiri, 2015, “Fiscal Cost of Demographic Transition in Japan,” Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Vol. 25, pp. 37–58.
Lizarazo Ruiz, S., A. Peralta-Alva, and D. Puy, 2017, “Macroeconomic and Distributional Effects of Personal Income Tax Reforms: A Heterogeneous Agent Model Approach for the U.S.” IMF Working Paper 17/192.
McGrattan, E., K. Miyachi, and A. Peralta-Alva, 2018, “On Financing Retirement, Health, and Long-Term Care in Japan,” IMF Working Paper 18/249.
Nordhaus, William, 2015, “Are We Approaching an Economic Singularity? Information Technology and The Future of Economic Growth,” Cowles Foundation Discussion Paper No. 2021, New Haven: Yale University.
Prepared by Gee Hee Hong (APD), Sandra Lizarazo Ruiz (SPR), Adrian Peralta-Alva (AFR) and Yuki Yao (University of Minnesota).
The ‘Society 5.0’ initiatives are to create a society that address various social challenges that Japan faces by incorporating the innovations of the fourth industrial revolution into every industry and social life (https://www.japan.go.jp/abenomics/_userdata/abenomics/pdf/society_5.0.pdf).
For details on such a model tailored to Japan, see McGrattan et al. (2018) and Hong, Lizarazo Ruiz, Peralta-Alva and Yao (forthcoming).
According to the OECD, Japan’s last observed (2015) market income Gini coefficient was 50.4—almost identical to the market Gini coefficient for the United States in 2015 (50.6).
According to the OECD, Japan’s disposable income Gini was 33.9 in 2015.