Annex. Sustainable Development Goals and Methodology
The annex provides the set of targets which are used to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and a summary of the methodology used to estimate the cost of meeting the SDGs in health and education by 2030.
Prepared by Preya Sharma.
See Gaspar V., Amaglobeli D., Garcia-Escribano M., Prady D., and Soto M. 2019. “Fiscal Policy and Development: Human, Social, and Physical Investment for the SDGS.” IMF Staff Discussion Note 19/03, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC.
The national poverty line is the Chad specific poverty line rather than the $1.90/day concept used by the World Bank and is defined by the National Statistical Office. It represents the consumption of food required to obtain 2,400 Kcal per day plus the average consumption of non-food items by a population around the food poverty line. Once regional disparities in prices of food are taken into consideration, the total poverty line represents 237,942 CFA (equivalent to US$406) per person per annum deflated to N’Djamena equivalent prices.
Access to education is based on two indicators. Expected years of schooling is the number of years of schooling that a child of school entrance age can expect to receive if prevailing patterns of age-specific enrolment rates persist. Mean years of schooling is the average number of years of education received by people ages 25 and older.
The definition used in the Fund-supported program is broadly based on the expenditure of the following ministries in charge of social sectors, as recommended by the World Bank in the absence of a budgetary functional classification; (i) National Education and Civic Promotion, (ii) Public Health, (iii) Women, Early Childhood Protection and National Solidarity, (iv) Production, Irrigation and Agricultural Equipment, (v) Livestock and Animal Production, (vi) Environment, Water and Sanitation, and (vii) Professional Training and Small Job Promotion.
Benchmarks are set at the median for the parameters averaged from preprimary to tertiary levels. Countries’ GDP per capita in 2030 is used for mapping to the income groups and benchmarked parameters. Three groups are considered by GDP per capita (less than US$3,000; between US$3,000 and US$6,000; and between US$6,000 and US$18,000). High-performing countries are those with an SDG4 education index above 80 in the low-income group, above 82 in the middle-income group, and above 84 in the high-income group. The thresholds are chosen to allow for a representative sample size of high-performing countries in each group.
It is assumed that the ratio of all non-doctor wage to doctor wage to is 0.5. Shares of capital (x) and other current spending (y) in total spending are imputed using World Bank regional and income group averages.
Countries are grouped into three income groups using the same income ranges for education. High performing countries are those with an SDG3 health index above 70 in the lowest income group, above 78 in the median income group, and above 84 in the highest income group.