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Prepared by Marc Gerard. The author is grateful to Luc L. Hagenaars and Silvia S.T. Koerhuis for their kind support, useful insights, and help accessing data, as well as to Anvar Musayev for outstanding research assistance.
In the text figure, the one-off upward increase in public health expenditure in 2006 reflects the reclassification of some private spending under compulsory health insurance in the OECD system of health accounts, as an effect of the reform—see below.
Self-employed workers pay a contribution representing 5.654 percent of their income.
This amount has been frozen for three years in the new coalition agreement.
A new health insurer, IptiQ, a subsidiary of Swiss Re, was nevertheless able to enter the market in 2018.