This paper discusses Guinea’s 2016–20 National Economic and Social Development Plan (PNDES). The PNDES represents the second generation of planning under the Third Republic, after the 2011–15 Five-Year Plan. Through the 2016–20 PNDES, the authorities intend to address the various development challenges posed by the socioeconomic and environmental situation while ensuring post-Ebola public health surveillance and alignment with international development agendas. The principal beneficiaries of the PNDES are the Guinean populations, but particularly poor and vulnerable groups, the government itself, the private sector, and the regions, including urban and rural areas.

Abstract

This paper discusses Guinea’s 2016–20 National Economic and Social Development Plan (PNDES). The PNDES represents the second generation of planning under the Third Republic, after the 2011–15 Five-Year Plan. Through the 2016–20 PNDES, the authorities intend to address the various development challenges posed by the socioeconomic and environmental situation while ensuring post-Ebola public health surveillance and alignment with international development agendas. The principal beneficiaries of the PNDES are the Guinean populations, but particularly poor and vulnerable groups, the government itself, the private sector, and the regions, including urban and rural areas.

Introduction

1. The 2016-2020 National Economic and Social Development Plan (PNDES) represents the second generation of planning under the Third Republic, after the 2011-2015 Five-Year Plan (Plan Quinquennal, PQ). It reflects the political will clearly expressed by the Prime Minister’s General Policy Statement1 to make the PNDES the single frame of reference for all development interventions. The PNDES is also intended to further the Vision 2040 of an emerging, prosperous Guinea over the 2016-2020 period.

2. The product of a participatory process involving the Prime Minister’s office, the ministries through their strategy and development bureaus (BSD), the private sector, civil society, the subnational jurisdictions (collectivités locales, which are the regions and communes), and the technical and financial partners (TFP), the 2016-2020 PNDES was prepared as the economy recovered from weak performance during the 2013-2015 period – an economic context in contrast with the slowdown of social progress (aggravation of poverty and missed Millennium Development Goals.

3. Through the 2016-2020 PNDES, the authorities intend to address the various development challenges posed by the socioeconomic and environmental situation while ensuring post-Ebola public health surveillance; alignment with international development agendas – the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, the Paris Accord, the African Union 2063 Agenda, the New Deal, and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Vision 2020.

4. The principal beneficiaries of the PNDES are the Guinean populations, but particularly poor and vulnerable groups (young persons, women and the elderly, persons living with disabilities), the government itself, the private sector, and the regions, including urban and rural areas.

5. This paper is an extract of the main PNDES document. It focuses on the following points: (i) lessons learned from implementation of the PQ; (ii) key development issues; (iii) the PNDES strategic framework; and (iv) the PNDES implementation, monitoring, and evaluation framework.

1. Lessons Learned from Implementation of the 2011-2015 Five-Year Plan

6. In 2011, Guinea aspired to reinvent its future, with the ambition of moving toward emergence in the next 25 to 30 years. The initial years of implementation of the PQ, which expressed this aspiration, benefited from democratic, economic, and social advances, notably (i) the 2013 election of a new National Assembly, completing Guinea’s return to constitutional order; (ii) the implementation of a program of reforms that served to stabilize the macroeconomic framework and revise economic activity; (iii) the improvement of the populations’ living conditions, including support for agricultural campaigns to ensure food security, subsidies for a number of food staples, and full coverage of the cost of childbirth. This performance was capped by the achievement of the completion point under the HIPC Initiative in September 2012, which unlocked a substantial reduction of the stock of debt.

7. However, the outcome of the PQ, through its different components, reveals that all of these efforts did not suffice to fulfill the prospects of the PQ by 2015. The factors most detrimental to the implementation of the 2011-2015 PQ were socio-political tension, the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) and the weak capacities of institutions to effectively implement priority actions, including the delivery of quality public service and management of major disasters. These fragilities diverted Guinea from the path of strong growth. Compared to the projected annual average growth of 5 percent between 2011 and 2015 (or even 8 percent with the start of production of Simandou), growth averaged only 2.3 percent over the period as a number of fragility risks materialized that had not been correctly assessed and incorporated in the strategic planning at that time.

2. Key Development Issues

8. The lessons learned from the implementation of the PQ, supported by the findings of the retrospective analyses of the past 50 years in the context of the National Long-Range Study (ENP), “Guinea 2040,” point to four key development issues: (i) the fragility of the “Guinea” system (ii) structural rigidities in the economy, (iii) inadequate human development, and (iv) environmental pressures.

2.1. Fragility of the “guinea” system

9. Guinea was ranked2 12th among the world’s 178 most fragile countries in 2016. The assessment at different phases of fragility conducted under the New Deal methodology3 in 2016 found Guinea to be far from a statistics of resilience. Of the New Deal’s five Peace-building and State-building Goals,4 the third goal, Justice, is the only area in which appreciable progress has been made: Guinea is in the stabilization phase with respect to this goal, but is in a crisis phase with respect to the economic goal (PSG4). For the other goals, legitimate, inclusive politics (PSG1, security (PSG2), and revenue and services (PSG5), Guinea is in the reconstruction phase.

10. The leading factors of fragility include (i) weak enforcement, lack of enforcement, and even the violation of laws, mechanisms, and procedures; (ii) weak capacities at all levels, (iii) corruption and impunity; (iv) the small tax base; (v) an impasse in political dialog and constant divergence among political actors concerning the management of the country’s affairs; (vi) inequalities and marginalization with respect to women and ethnic or regional groups in access to employment; and (vii) a lack of civic-mindedness in regard to respect for public property, use of the legal system, and payment of taxes.

11. Fragility, as one of the major development issues, is the manifestation of general trends in governance of the “Guinea system” during the period 2011-2015, as highlighted by the ENP. The retrospective analysis of governance over the past five decades in the context of that study characterizes Guinea as (i) a country where pluralism will take time to be fully accepted by political actors; (ii) a country where the tendency to instrumentalize ethnic issues could be a source of political violence; (iii) a country where the government still lacks sufficient capacities to perform essential public service missions and promote the well-being, security, and prosperity of all.

2.2 Structural rigidities in the economy

12. From a structural standpoint, the analysis of long-term growth points to lackluster performance reflecting rigidities at a number of levels. The Guinean economy is vulnerable, insufficiently inclusive, and dominated by the informal sector, and the mining sector’s potential has not been adequately exploited. Despite significant progress in recent years in business facilitation (165th place in the 2016 Doing Business ranking compared to 179th in 2012), issues of the economy’s overall competitiveness and corruption remain relatively larger concerns for Guinea than for other countries of the subregion.

13. The key factors of rigidity include: (i) the disconnect between the mining sector and the rest of the economy; (ii) the underdevelopment of value chains; (iii) limited public– private dialogue; (iv) inadequate supply and high cost of factors of production (energy, transportation, ICT, etc.); (v) lack of adequate financing aligned with private sector needs; and (vi) weak human capital and shortage of required expertise.

14. Of all the factors highlighted above, the decline in both public and private investment calls for particular attention. Guinea’s investment rate (14.5 percent between 2010 and 2014 compared to an average of 20.9 percent in sub-Saharan Africa) is well below the average investment rate of medium-income countries5 (more than 25 percent). The decline in public investment has not been offset by increased private investment. Despite the end of the Ebola epidemic and a more stable political situation, foreign institutions continue to list Guinea among the high-risk countries (Coface rating of D).

2.3. Inadequate human development

15. With respect to human development, the marked decline in per capita income over the 2011-2015 period aggravated poverty, exacerbated inequalities, and weakened human development. Monetary poverty increased from 53 percent in 2007 to 55.2 percent in 2012 or even higher in view of the impact of the Ebola outbreak. At the same time, the country’s Gini index declined from 0.312 in 2007 to 0.317 in 2012, signifying increased income inequality. As a result, the Human Development Index is estimated at 0.411 (compared to an average of 0.52 for sub-Saharan Africa), placing Guinea 182nd out of 188 countries in terms of human development.6

16. Moreover, Guinea’s population is vulnerable to several types of risk: (i) covariant shocks (institutional instability, falling export prices, socio-political tension and, more recently, Ebola virus disease); (ii) idiosyncratic risks (i.e., risks present at key stages of life); and (iii) social risks (food insecurity, high rates of morbidity and chronic illness). The combination of these risks have weakened the country and aggravated the vulnerability of its people. Yet the response capacity of the social protection system is limited, and there is little or no coverage for the serious risks faced by the poorest households.

17. From the standpoint of international development goals, none of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) targeted for 2015 were achieved, and although Guinea was able to stop the spread of the Ebola virus, the stigma of the virus persists, a reminder of the structural ineffectiveness of the healthcare system. Yet the country faces widespread deficiencies in the availability of and access to basic social services, compounded by an underdeveloped social protection system still unable to provide adequate coverage for vulnerable groups. Youth unemployment and lack of women’s empowerment combined with underperformance of social services hinder human capital development in a context where the beginnings of the demographic transition offers hope of a dividend in the near future.

2.4. Environmental pressures

18. The exploitation of Guinea’s natural resources generates diverse pressures on the environment caused by illegal harvesting, unsustainable modes of production, and the release of pollutants. Water resources are threatened, resulting in reduced flow rates. silting of riverbeds, water pollution, and more. Forest resources are dwindling to the detriment of plant cover and biodiversity. Mining also contributes to the loss of various resources through pollution of the air, soil, groundwater, and surface waters and degradation of the landscape.

19. These pressures, attributable mainly to human activities important to survival or social, economic, and cultural development are accentuated in Guinea by climate factors manifested increasingly through (i) more frequent meteorological events (flooding, drought, and heat waves, especially in Upper Guinea); (ii) health risks relating to the transmission of animal diseases potentially harmful to humans; and (iii) population displacements.

20. Living conditions are also threatened by inadequate waste management and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which have risen since 2007 due to the rapid increase in the number of automobiles. However, compared to the average for sub-Saharan Africa, Guinea is not a large emitter of CO2. Land tenure, closely associated with living conditions, is now an issue of such great concern that some observers refer to disputes over illegal subdivisions and monopolization of agricultural lands as the “land tenure bomb.”

3. Pndes Strategic Development Framework

What stage of economic and social development does Guinea hope to attain by 2020? How does it plan to do so? Which direction should it take? And what opportunities and issues face the country?

3.1. Development opportunities

In overcoming key development challenges, Guinea can rely on a number of assets including (i) the institutional and political stability it has enjoyed since 2010, (ii) macroeconomic stability and progress in key structural reforms (private sector and business environment), (iii) its geographic location, which offers opportunities for trade and transport with neighboring countries, (iv) the propitious distribution of natural potential over the national territory, conducive to harmonious regional development, vis-à-vis) an abundance of water resources, an advantage for hydropower, agriculture, fishing, stock farming, and transportation, (vi) other significant natural riches (arable land, vast continental plateau, surface minerals, diversity of landscapes, microclimates, flora, and fauna, artisanal industries), endowing it with sufficient growth potential to lift the country from poverty and support inclusive, sustainable development.

3.2. Development issues

21. Guinea has enormous natural potential to adequately respond to critical development challenges. But it must first develop them in order to transform them into real drivers of progress. Therein lie the major challenges Guinea must face in the coming years. The issues are institutional as well as political, economic, social, and environmental.

22. With respect to political and institutional issues, promoting good governance in the political, social, economic, judicial, security, environmental, and local spheres is imperative for Guinea as the foundation for any economic and social development process. The major issues, which are dictated by the country’s fragility and the urgent need to establish resilience, concern: (i) consolidation of the rule of law, security, and social peace; (ii) strengthening justice and human rights; and (iii) improving the administrative, economic, local, and environmental dimensions of governance.

23. In regard to economic governance, the structural transformation of Guinea’s economy is essential to ensure faster, inclusive, and sustainable economic growth. The major challenges here are to (i) boost the transformation of economic structures; (ii) improve Guinea’s economic attractiveness; and (iii) transition to a green economy.

24. In the area of human capital, the major challenges are: (i) rapid conversion of the demographic transition to a demographic dividend; (ii) social inclusion; (iii) human security7 in all its dimensions; and (iii) improving the populations’ living conditions.

25. The environment is emerging as a critical dimension of economic and social development in Guinea more than elsewhere, due to the pressures exerted by different forms of pollution on natural resources and living conditions. The major challenges in this area are: (i) preserving the environment; (ii) optimizing natural resources; and (iii) addressing issues of adaptation to climate change.

3.3. PNDES objectives and final results

26. Based on the Constitution, Vision 2040, the President’s Plan for Society, and the African and international development objectives, the PNDES adopted the overall objective of “promoting strong, quality growth to improve the well-being of Guineans and bring about the structural transformation of the economy in order to set the country on the path to sustainable development.”

27. In the authorities’ view, strong growth is in fact a prerequisite to eliminating poverty and improving the populations’ living conditions. Quality growth is inclusive growth that does not exacerbate inequalities and preserves the environment and the country’s natural resources. The authorities are aware, however, that strong, quality growth is not in itself sufficient to bring about structural change. It must also be supported by diversification of production and meaningful job creation over a relatively long period of time: in other words, economic growth that promotes structural transformation, an essential condition to increase national wealth and create prosperity.

28. Two final results are expected from this overall objective. The first final result is “by 2020, the well-being of the Guinean population is improved, inequalities are reduced, and intergenerational equity is ensured,” and the second final result is “the structural, sustainable transformation of the Guinean economy has begun.”

29. In terms of impact, the first final result should be reflected by (i) an increase in Guinea’s Human Development Index (HDI) from 0.411 in 2014 to at least 0.482 in 2020; (ii) a reduction of at least 10 points in the incidence of poverty; (iii) a reduction in the Gini index from 0.317 in 2012 to 0.250 in 2020; and (iv) a reversal of the loss of forests, evidenced by an increase in forest cover from 25.9 percent in 2014 to at least 28 percent in 2020.

30. The second final result relates to the need for Guinea to set the structural transformation of its economy in motion in order to achieve inclusive, sustainable prosperity. From the perspective of the PNDES, the structural transformation will result in (i) a more productive agriculture sector that ensures food and nutritional security and contributes to the development of the national agri-food industry and exports; (ii) a more diversified and competitive secondary sector offering commercial outlets to the primary sector with steadily increasing spillover effects for the mining subsector, notably in terms of local purchases; (iii) a more modern tertiary sector based, in particular, on the increasingly competitive tourism, hotel, and export subsectors; (iv) an accelerated demographic transition enabling the country to take advantage of the demographic dividend at the appropriate time.

3.4. General strategic objectives

31. To accomplish the changes planned by 2020, the authorities aim to make the PNDES (i) an integrated strategic framework, (ii) a framework for acceleration of the African Mining Vision (VMA), (iii) a unifying framework for the current sector and topical strategies and programs, (iv) a frame of reference for future development reforms, policies, programs, and projects and for interventions by the TFPs, and (v) a coherent strategic framework.

32. PNDES, an integrated strategic framework. In keeping with the final results expected by 2020, the general strategy of the 2016-2020 PNDES will consist, first, of establishing the solid institutional bases essential to economic, social, and environmental progress; developing human capital capable of maximizing the demographic dividend; and the acceleration of economic growth and reduction of inequalities. Secondly, it will consist of (i) developing the agriculture/forestry/livestock/fisheries sector to make it a genuine catalyst in reducing poverty and ensuring food security; (ii) promoting manufacturing industries integrated with the primary and mining sectors so as to exploit all the value chains and their respective subsectors; and (iii) integrating the mining sector into the rest of the economy through the promotion of competitive SMEs and SMIs providing domestic goods and services to mines and investing a substantial proportion of mining revenue in the agriculture/forestry/livestock/fisheries sector.

33. PNDES, a framework for acceleration of the VMA. The PNDES is intended to serve as a framework for accelerating the VMA,8 which advocates the “equitable and optimal exploitation of mining resources with a view to strong, sustainable growth and sustained socioeconomic development.” With this aim, the PNDES will make the mining sector the catalyst in the structural transformation of the Guinean economy through: (i) the integration of mines in the local, national, and continental economy, (ii) the accelerated creation of value added and jobs, (iii) the promotion of local content, and (iv) the effective use of mining resources.

34. The PNDES will aim to create the conditions required to fulfill this vision nationwide by means of (i) downstream links, through the development and processing of minerals, (ii) upstream links, by satisfying requirements for mining equipment, inputs, and services, (iii) lateral links with infrastructure (electricity, logistics, communications, water), and the development of expertise and technologies (HRD, R&D),9 (iv) mutually advantageous partnerships between the government, the private sector, civil society, local communities, and other stakeholders, (v) comprehensive knowledge of the country’s mineral resources, (vi) the integration of artisanal and small-scale mining operations into the economy, (vii) the development of sustainable livelihoods for mining communities, and (viii) the diversification of mining operations.

35. PNDES, a unifying strategic framework. The PNDES is the unifying framework for the topical and sector policies in effect, which are in turn integral components of the Plan. The PNDES ensures the synergy between all those strategies with a view toward better coordination of public action during the Plan period and greater effectiveness in terms of development results.

36. Accordingly, PNDES will (i) consolidate the gains of the 2015-2017 Post-Ebola Recovery and Socioeconomic Resilience Strategy; (ii) continue and complete the implementation of the different components of that strategy, (iii) inaugurate the use of its financial instrument, the Post-Ebola National Recovery and Resilience Fund (FNRRPE), and (iv) sustainably preserve the positive results of its interventions.

37. In the same manner, the PREFIP, the State Reform and Government Modernization Program (PREMA), the Investment Promotion Strategy, the Private Sector Development Strategy (SDSP), and the National Strategy for Biological Diversity to implement the Aichi objectives in Guinea (SNDB), and the National Social Protection Policy, the 2017-2020 Accelerated Food and Nutritional Security and Sustainable Agricultural Development Program (PASANDAD) are also integral components of the PNDES.

38. PNDES, a single frame of reference for development actions. The PNDES is intended to serve as the single frame of strategic and/or programmatic reference for all development policies, strategies, reforms, programs, and projects instituted nationwide during the 2016-2020 period. Through the strategic options associated with each expected effect, the different development actors are offered points of entry to define development objectives and make their strategic choices. Through the priority actions, they have a basis for their programming, while the development targets provide them reference points on which to base their own performance measurement framework.

39. Specifically, the PNDES is the single strategic reference for the programmatic frameworks of the TFPs, which must align their interventions with the Plan in accordance with the principles of the Paris Declaration. The PNDES is also intended to serve as a mechanism for political dialogue between the TFPs and the government and for the exercise of mutual responsibility for development management.

40. PNDES, a coherent strategic framework. The PNDES also aims to provide a coherent response to the major development issues by basing its strategies on four pillars10:

  • Pillar 1: promotion of good governance in the service of sustainable development;

  • Pillar 2: sustainable, inclusive economic transformation;

  • Pillar 3: inclusive human capital development; and

  • Pillar 4: sustainable management of natural capital.

41. These pillars are supported by three vectors of structural change: (i) investments in the mining sector that will serve as catalysts (e.g., energy, roads, ports, airports, ITC), underpinned by good mining governance; (ii) productivity gains in the agriculture/forestry/livestock/fisheries sector driven by investments in preparation of lands, equipment and tools, the development of expertise, increased trade, and foreign capital; and (iii) non-mining industrial diversification with the development of value chains upstream and downstream from regional agro-industrial centers.

3.5. Objectives, expected effects, strategic options, and actions by priority domain

42. Each pillar of the PNDES is divided into priority areas as follows:

  • Three priority domains for Pillar 1: (i) political and social governance, (ii) an effective government, and (iii) economic and environmental governance;

  • Four priority domains for Pillar 2: (i) agricultural and food and nutritional security, (ii) extractive and manufacturing industries, (iii) economic infrastructures, innovation, and research, and (iv) trade, tourism, hotels, artisanal industries, and culture;

  • Seven priority domains for Pillar 3: (i) population and development, (ii) health and HIV/AIDS, (iii) education and training, (iv) domestic living conditions, (v) employment of vulnerable groups, (vi) empowerment of vulnerable groups, and (vii) social protection; and

  • Four priority domains for Pillar 4: (i) sustainable management of ecosystems, (ii) quality of living conditions, (iii) disaster management, and (iv) climate change.

3.5.1. Political and social governance

Intermediate objectives: (i) consolidate the rule of law and democracy, and (ii) strengthen defense, security, and social cohesion.

Expected effects:

  • The rule of law and equal access to justice and information for all are assured; and

  • Guinea’s democratic foundation is consolidated;

  • Defense, security, and civil protection are strengthened; and

  • National unity and social cohesion are preserved.

A) THE RULE OF LAW AND EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE AND INFORMATION FOR ALL ARE ASSURED

43. Strategic options: The authorities believe the 2014-2024 National Justice Reform Program (PNRJ) can legitimately serve as a frame of reference to achieve this effect. Through the PNRJ, then, the PNDES will provide a systemic response to the structural constraints that limit the effectiveness of the Guinean justice system, as identified during the March 2011 national conferences. This response will be coordinated in terms of the following four PNRJ pillars of intervention: (i) access to the law and justice, (ii) the independence of an accountable judiciary, (iii) strengthening and development of human and institutional capacities, and (iv) the elimination of impunity.

44. Priority actions. The priority actions to be conducted to achieve these results are those set out in the PNRJ 2015-2019 priority action plan. Specifically, the priority actions concern: (i) strengthening the Ministry of Justice, (ii) improving access to justice, (iii) adapting laws to changes in Guinean society and accessibility to justice, (iv) promoting and strengthening the independence and accountability of the judiciary, (v) training and developing professionals of the justice system, (vi) improving the operations of the criminal justice system and enforcing judges’ decisions, (vii) improving justice for women and vulnerable persons, (viii) humanizing and modernizing the penitentiary system, (ix) raising the Guinean peoples’ awareness of their rights and duties, (x) strengthening the country’s capacities in communication and information, and (xi) consolidating freedom of expression.

B) GUINEA’S DEMOCRATIC FOUNDATION IS CONSOLIDATED

45. Strategic options. The authorities are convinced that in order to create the conditions for emergence and prosperity, it is imperative to strengthen Guinea’s democratic foundation. The option here is to uphold the fundamental principles of a democratic political system: participation, inclusion, and free, transparent elections held on the dates established by law.

46. Priority actions. The priority actions planned in this area are: (i) promoting a framework for ongoing, constructive, inclusive, and resilient political dialogue, (ii) securing and ensuring the integrity of the electoral process, (iii) strengthening the capacities and independence of civil society organizations, (iv) strengthening the human capacities of political parties with respect to political dialogue and preventing political conflicts, and (v) promoting the active involvement of women and youth in political affairs.

C) DEFENSE, SECURITY, AND CIVIL PROTECTION ARE STRENGTHENED

47. Strategic options. To bring about this effect, the authorities intend to capitalize on the gains of the Security Sector Reforms (RSS) initiated in 2011 and supported by: (i) the December 2012 RSS policy statement, (ii) the November 2013 National Defense and Security Policy, and (iii) the February 2014 National Priority Action Strategy.

48. Priority actions. The priority actions planned to achieve these objectives concern (i) strengthening the institutional, logistical, and personnel capacities of the defense and security forces, (ii) consolidating discipline and transparency in the defense and security forces, (iii) restoring trust between the civilian population and the defense and security forces, and (iv) strengthening civil protection in the major urban centers. In addition to these actions are the priority supplemental interventions provided for the 2015-2020 period in the Military Programming Law; and in the 2016-2018, 2017-2019, and 2018-2020 Priority Investment Programs (PIP).

D) NATIONAL UNITY AND SOCIAL COHESION ARE PRESERVED

49. Strategic options. The PNDES adopts the work of the Interim National Reconciliation Task Force (CPRN) as a frame of reference in the choice of priority actions by which to achieve the expected effect, with the aim of translating into concrete acts the priority pillars recommended by the summary report from the national consultations on national reconciliation in Guinea. Those pillars are: (i) citizen education and strengthening the capacities of actors in the transitional justice system, (ii) the establishment of a Truth Commission, (iii) the effective functioning of the Truth Commission, and (iv) the implementation of the Truth Commission recommendations.

50. Priority actions. The priority actions concern: (i) consolidating national reconciliation and solidarity, (ii) promoting cultural identity and the intermingling of community and ethnic groups, (iii) strengthening the capacities of civil society organizations in mediating and preventing social conflicts, and (iv) all other complementary actions to further the implementation of the CPRN recommendations.

3.5.2 Government effectiveness

Intermediate objective: promote good administrative and local governance

Expected effects:

  • The quality of services delivered by the government is improved;

  • Accountability and transparency are strengthened on the part of the central government as well as local authorities;

  • The effectiveness of local government is enhanced in terms of the public services offered;

  • Local development management is strengthened;

  • Community participation and democracy are strengthened.

A) THE QUALITY OF SERVICES DELIVERED BY THE GOVERNMENT IS IMPROVED

51. Strategic options. To achieve this effect, the PNDES aims to generate synergies between the PREMA, the code governing subnational jurisdictions (Code des Collectivités Locales, CCL) and the National Decentralization and Local Development Policy Letter (LPNDDL), which continue to serve as the valid strategic and programmatic frameworks during the period covered by the Plan. The PNDES will realize the vision of renewal projected by the PREMA, which is a vision of change management capable of driving development and delivering quality services to the populations. Specifically, the PNDES interventions will be focused on the four following pillars: (i) the rebuilding and strategic repositioning of the government, (ii) renovation of the administrative organization and governance, (iii) improved quality of services delivered to users, and (iv) improved quality of public management and human resources.

52. Priority actions. For the 2016-2020 period, the PNDES will accord priority to the following components of the PREMA: (i) redefining and clarifying the missions of government, (ii) strengthening the capacities of key government institutions (the Prime Minister’s Office, the Secretariat General of the Government, the National Anti-Corruption Agency (ANLC), (iii) strengthening the coordination and effectiveness of the government’s work, (iv) rationalizing the structures and norms of the public administration, (v) modernizing and improving integrity in the management of staffing and the wage bill, (vi) improving personnel management, (vii) rationalizing the legislative framework, (viii) developing human resources, and (ix) strengthening the capacities of the Ministry of Civil Service.

B) ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY ARE STRENGTHENED ON THE PART OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT AS WELL AS LOCAL AUTHORITIES

53. Strategic options. The strategic options are the same as for Effect A.

54. Priority actions. The first priority action adopted in this area is the PREMA component relating to anti-corruption efforts and ethics in public office. Additional actions are: (i) strengthening the central and local governments’ capacities in the areas of oversight and inspection, (ii) improving management procedures within government, and (iii) promoting transparency in the award of public contracts.

C) THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IS ENHANCED IN TERMS OF THE PUBLIC SERVICES OFFERED

55. Strategic options. The PNDES will rely on the CCL and the LPNDDL to frame and guide the actions to achieve this and the following effects.

56. The CCL will serve as the PNDES legal framework for interventions concerning administrative decentralization and local development management during the 2016-2020 period. The LPNDDL, in turn, will define the strategic framework based on four specific challenges: (i) a political challenge, that of local democratization/democracy through elections (with the possibility of independent candidates), and empowerment of populations, and “good” local governance, (ii) an economic challenge of organizing and promoting community development and creating the conditions for local economic development and the facilitation of trade, (iii) a social challenge, to improve access to quality basic public services (health, education, water), and (iv) an institutional challenge, to establish relations between actors, mechanisms, and instruments to ensure that each actor has sufficient capacities to assume his or her role.

57. Thus, the PNDES, through the LPNDDL, will support the emergence over the next 10 years of functional subnational governments, drivers of local development in their respective territories, operating in a reformed institutional context with qualified territorial administration, leading territorial development, ensuring respect for rules, and coordinating efforts with regional technical agencies of the central government.

58. Priority actions. In addition to the PREMA component on consolidating decentralization, the PNDES has identified the following actions: (i) developing dependable, durable, resilient local infrastructures in all regions of the country, (ii) accelerating the establishment of a local civil service, (iii) strengthening local governments’ technical and personnel capacities to provide services, and (iv) expanding and modernizing local public services.

D) LOCAL DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT IS STRENGTHENED

59. Strategic options. The strategic options are the same as for Effect c) above.

60. Priority actions. All of the actions are based on the PREMA component relating to consolidating decentralization: (i) strengthening the local authorities’ personnel and technical capacities in development management, (ii) improving the mobilization of local financial resources, (iii) strengthening decentralized cooperation, (iv) strengthening the local authorities’ planning processes, and (v) instituting regular audits of local management.

E) COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND DEMOCRACY ARE STRENGTHENED

61. Strategic options. The strategic options are the same as for Effect d) above.

62. Priority actions. To achieve this effect, the PNDES will emphasize: (i) strengthening the decentralization process in Guinea, (ii) promoting the participation of women and young persons in the community democratization process, (iii) improving the credibility and integrity of the local electoral process in Guinea, and (iv) strengthening local actors’ capacities in the area of local governance.

3.5.3 Economic and environmental governance

Intermediate objective: increase the effectiveness of economic management and development implementation and coordination.

Expected effects:

  • The stability of the macroeconomic framework is consolidated;

  • Development management and coordination are strengthened;

  • The national statistics system is more effective;

  • Diplomacy, international cooperation, and regional integration are enhanced;

  • The business environment is improved;

  • Mining governance is improved;

  • Legal, institutional, and operational capacities for sustainable environmental management are strengthened.

A) THE STABILITY OF THE MACROECONOMIC FRAMEWORK IS CONSOLIDATED

63. Strategic options. The government views the stability of the macroeconomic framework as a prerequisite to strong, inclusive, and sustainable growth but also as a necessary condition to attract investors and ensure that their investments are profitable. Through the PNDES, the authorities intend to conduct sound macroeconomic policies to create a competitive, non-inflationary environment by controlling exchange rate fluctuations and adhering to the ECOWAS/West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) convergence indicators.

64. Also in the context of consolidating macroeconomic stability, the government intends to pursue the 2014-2018 PREFIP with the aim of: (i) instituting fiscal discipline, (ii) restoring and consolidating the credibility and effectiveness of the budget preparation and execution process, (iii) ensuring increased responsibility and accountability in budget, revenue, and expenditure execution and greater transparency in the budget process, (iv) ensuring efficient allocation and effective use of public resources in the priority sectors in general and basic public services in particular, and (v) raising domestic and external resources effectively and equitably while improving resource management in order to finance priority expenditures under the Plan.

65. In this way, the PNDES incorporates the two-stage strategic approach of the PREFIP in preparation for implementation of the framework budget law (LORF). The first stage will lay the foundation for PFM by experimenting with selected innovations of the LORF on a limited scale. The second stage will consolidate the foundation and implement more ambitious reforms such as (i) sectors MTBFs, (ii) program budgets, (iii) adjustment of controls based on risk, and (iv) accrual accounting.

66. Priority actions. The priority actions adopted in the PNDES to achieve this effect are: [1.] the implementation of the present or future IMF-supported economic and financial program; [2.] the nine PREFIP reforms relating to: (i) budget programming in preparation, (ii) raising and managing domestic revenue, (iii) mobilizing external resources and debt management, (iv) public expenditure management, (v) public property management, (vi) cash flow management, (vii) accounting reform and the financial reporting system, (viii) local finances, and (ix) internal and external control mechanisms; and [3.] the four PREFIP support program concerning: (i) human resources training, (ii) the automation system, (iii) rehabilitation of infrastructures, and (iv) communication.

B) DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT AND COORDINATION ARE STRENGTHENED

67. Strategic options. The PNDES will achieve this result through the gradual integration of all planning, programming, budgeting, monitoring, and evaluation (PPBME) functions in a comprehensive development management framework, accompanied by an integrated, multiyear capacity development and strengthening program for participants at all levels.

68. Priority actions. To achieve these aims, the authorities plan to implement the following actions: (i) develop tools to monitor and evaluate the development actions defined in the PNDES, (ii) put the PNDES institutional monitoring and evaluation mechanism in action, (iii) develop planning, programming, budgeting, monitoring, and evaluation (PPBME) tools (procedures manual, sector policy development guide, framework documents for the national planning system), (iv) strengthen central and sector capacities in PPBME; and (v) establish a more effective public investment management system.

C) THE NATIONAL STATISTICS SYSTEM IS MORE EFFECTIVE

69. Strategic options. In accordance with the statistics law, Law L/2014/019/AN, the government plans to define its interventions in this area in a second-generation National Statistics Development Strategy (SNDS) geared toward fulfilling the monitoring requirements for the SDGs and the PNDES as reflected in a National Multiyear Statistics Program (PSN) and annual work plans corresponding to each annual tranche of the PSN. In parallel, the government will ensure good statistical governance in Guinea. To this end, the PNDES will create the conditions to inaugurate the operations of the National Statistics Board (CNS) and other entities of the National Statistics System (SSN) in accordance with the statistics law.

70. The government intends to use the platform comprised of the CNS, the SNDS, and the programmatic framework (PSN and annual work plans) to organize dialogue with the TFPs on statistics development in Guinea. The objective is to better coordinate support to the INS in order to enhance the effectiveness of the statistical mechanism in terms of satisfying the country’s medium- and long-term information requirements for the purpose of monitoring development actions.

71. Priority actions. These include: (i) strengthening the institutional, technical, and human capacities of the SSN in general and the INS in particular; (ii) preparing and adopting the second-generation SNDS; (iii) implementing the programmatic framework of the SSN (PSN and annual work plans), (iv) holding the mandatory meetings of the key SSN bodies (the CNS and CTS); (iv) launching the platform for dialogue between the MPCI and the TFPs involved in the statistics area; and (v) designing and implementing the statistics information system to monitor and evaluate the PNDES.

D) DIPLOMACY, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, AND REGIONAL INTEGRATION ARE ENHANCED

72. Strategic options. The authorities are aware of the need to assert Guinea’s regional and international leadership. The ambition is to: (i) promote the country’s influence, (ii) limit the risks of fragility inherent to instability in neighboring countries, and (iii) strengthen Guinea’s resilience by taking advantage of its membership and subregional institutions. In this regard, the PNDES will emphasize active diplomacy in service of development cooperation and an influential presence for Guinea in the regional and subregional forums in service of peace building and economic integration.

73. Priority actions. The PNDES provides for (i) promoting effective diplomacy in line with national values, (ii) promoting effective international cooperation in line with national priorities, (iii) strengthening the capacities of the ministries in charge of foreign affairs, international cooperation, and regional integration, (iv) strengthening the capacities of Guinean organizations abroad, and (v) promoting regional integration.

E) THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT IS IMPROVED

74. Strategic options. To achieve this effect, the PNDES draws support from: (i) the Private Sector Development Strategy, (ii) the Investment Promotion Strategy, (iii) the National Small and Medium-Sized Business Policy Letter, and (iv) the strategic options underlying structural reforms, particularly in the area of private sector promotion.

75. Priority actions. The priority actions are: (i) improving access to bank credit and diversified financial services adapted to the needs of the private sector, (ii) simplifying the Guinean tax system in general and the tax provisions applicable to SMEs and SMIs in particular, (iii) simplifying procedures relating to construction [permits], transfer of ownership, and access to water and electricity, (iv) strengthening private sector capacities; and (v) formalizing the Guinean private sector.

F) MINING GOVERNANCE IS IMPROVED

76. Strategic options. The Guinean Mining Code11 is the legal frame of reference for the strategic options of the PNDES to improve mining governance. The framework includes provisions relating to transparency and good governance, including in particular the obligation to publish all mining contracts, the pursuit of a better balance in the allocation of value added and mining taxation, the introduction of provisions addressing the development issues of local content, corporate social responsibility, community participation, and local development (and financing thereof, with the creation of a local development fund). Accordingly, the PNDES will work toward: (i) promoting activities in accordance with the Mining Code (option 1), (ii) ensuring the transparency and integrity of mining transactions (option 2), (iii) ensure the effective and efficient management of mining revenue (option 3), and (iv) strengthening the institutional and technical capacities of sector governance bodies (option 4).

77. Priority actions. To do this, the actions will focus first on (i) adopting implementing regulations under the Mining Code, (ii) strengthening capacities to monitor enforcement of the code by instituting an inspection unit and periodic, regular audit of mining actors’ performance of their obligations, (iii) strengthening capacities to monitor compliance with provisions governing transparency and integrity, (iv) promoting geological research in Guinea in order to improve the database of geological surveys, (v) implementing measures relating to community relations and local content, in particular by improving relations between mining companies and host communities with the implementation of the Local Content Policy, (vi) the effective start of operations of the Local Economic Development Fund (FDEL) and monitoring the remittance and management of mining revenue transferred to the central and subnational governments.

G) LEGAL, INSTITUTIONAL, AND OPERATIONAL CAPACITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ARE STRENGTHENED

78. Strategic options. The PNDES has adopted two options to achieve this effect: (i) the effective implementation of legal and regulatory provisions and other institutional arrangements in effect in the area of the environment and natural resource management; and (ii) the implementation of the strategic and programmatic framework defined by the PNE, the SNDB, and the PNIE.

79. Priority actions. The priorities will be to (i) update the legal and institutional framework for the environment, (ii) strengthen technical and personnel capacities in environmental protection, (iii) develop an effective environmental education system, and (iv) promote environmental compliance.

3.5.4 Agricultural and food and nutritional security

Intermediate objective: promote sustainable, productive agriculture guaranteeing food and nutritional security.

Expected effects:

  • Primary sector productivity is increased;

  • Food and nutritional security is ensured, and

  • Sustainable agriculture is promoted.

A) PRIMARY SECTOR PRODUCTIVITY IS INCREASED

80. Strategic options. As an integral part of the PNDES, the 2017-2020 PASANDAD serves as the framework to guide actions to attain the effects expected in this area. The PASANDAD is both a strategy and program. As a strategy, the PASANDAD is a multi-sector and multidimensional approach to the integrated effort of ending undernourishment, malnutrition, and food insecurity. As a program, the PASANDAD aims to establish the necessary conditions for accelerated crop, livestock, fish, and forestry production; and improved marketing, storage, and processing of foodstuffs to eliminate periodic shortages and eradicate hunger. In addition, reversing the country’s dependence on imported foods is a fundamental option of the PNDES. The PASANDAD also incorporates the issue of agricultural sustainability with the aim of promoting sustainable management of Guinea’s forest and wildlife ecosystems so as to mitigate environmental problems and climate change.

81. Priority actions. To achieve this effect, the PNDES provides first for the gradual creation of agro-industrial centers in all regions of Guinea, with emphasis on segments of high value added. The PNDES also accords priority to the PASANDAD components relating to: promoting an environment favorable to the development of agricultural segments (component 1) and boosting the growth of agricultural segments (component 2).

82. The priority actions that correspond to component 1 include: (i) critical investments in irrigation systems; the development of pastures, ponds and fish farming sites; water and electricity distribution systems; and the construction of laboratories; (ii) improvement of the institutional and regulatory framework for agricultural segments to regulate their development and ensure secure land tenure; (iii) the processing and marketing of agricultural products; (iv) facilitation of access to inputs; (v) implementation of an information system; and (vi) the establishment of an appropriate financing mechanism.

83. The priority actions corresponding to component 2 concern: (i) organizing family farm operations, producer organizations, public actors, and private operators (retailers, processers) in preparation for integrating them into markets; and (ii) promoting production, marketing, and processing activities in the agricultural segments (crop production, stock farming, fisheries and aquaculture).

B) FOOD AND NUTRITIONAL SECURITY IS ENSURED

84. Strategic options. The PNDES also draws on the PASANDAD to realize the authorities’ intention to provide a lasting response to food and nutritional insecurity. The strategy selected to achieve this considers the ratio of men to women in the agricultural segments as the driver of changes expected in this area. In the context of the PNDES, the solutions to food insecurity will be addressed in relation with the issue of gender in the agricultural segments. In light of the foregoing, the PNDES has adopted two strategic options: (i) promoting gender in the agricultural segments, and (ii) improving nutrition.

85. Priority actions. To achieve the expected effects, the PNDES accords priority to the following actions of the PASANDAD: (i) improving the performance of agricultural sectors in which women and youths intervene through assistance in organizing and promoting cooperatives, strengthening individual capacities via training, the provision of inputs, materials, and equipment, and (ii) advocacy to improve the status of women (participating in decision-making bodies, access to land tenure).

C) SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE, RESILIENT TO CLIMATE CHANGE, IS PROMOTED

86. Strategic options. To achieve this effect, the PNDES refers to component 4 of the PASANDAD and the 2016-2025 SNDB.

87. Priority actions. In view of the above strategic options, the PNDES will prioritize the following actions: (i) the development of environmental standards for the agriculture/forestry/livestock sector, accompanied by outreach and dissemination; (ii) improved management of grazing areas and transhumance; (iii) the promotion of sustainable agriculture and stock farming; and (iv) the promotion of techniques for adaptation to climate change in the agriculture/forestry/livestock sector.

3.5.5. Extractive and manufacturing industries

Intermediate objective: promote sustainable, competitive industry that generates productive jobs

Expected effects:

  • The mining sector is the catalyst for structural transformation of the Guinean economy;

  • Manufacturing industries contribute more to productive jobs and wealth creation;

  • Clean industry is promoted.

A) THE MINING SECTOR IS THE CATALYST FOR STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE GUINEAN ECONOMY

88. Strategic options. The strategic choices here should transform the mining sector into a genuine catalyst for structural transformation of the Guinean economy. They should reflect the objective of making the PNDES a framework for acceleration of the VMA. They must also be consistent with the Mining Code, the Mining Policy Letter, the Ministry of Mines and Geology mission letter, and the policy statement for development of local jobs and creation of domestic value added in the mining sector. To this end, the PNDES has adopted for options: (i) strengthening upstream and downstream linkages with mining operations; (ii) capitalizing on the positive externalities of mining sector investments (infrastructure, expertise, technologies, research and development); (iii) creating jobs and improving the communities’ living conditions; and (iv) strategically allocating mining revenue.

89. Priority actions. The corresponding actions are presented as four components: strategic, operational, processing, and jobs.

  • Strategic component: preparing and implementing a national mining sector development strategy based on the VMA and consistent with the Responsible Mineral Development Initiative (RMDI);

  • Operational component: (i) creating a framework conducive to investment, (ii) implementing a master plan for mining-related infrastructure (railroad and port), (iii) developing mining centers composed of extractive industries and competitive, high-value-added SMEs/SMIs integrated into the sector, and (iv) reorganizing the artisanal mining sector to improve organizational and operational performance;

  • Processing component: (i) restore aluminum production and (ii) promote the processing of other mineral resources;

  • Jobs component: (i) training a qualified workforce for mineral resource processing and (ii) promoting local employment in the mining sector.

B) MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES CONTRIBUTE MORE TO PRODUCTIVE JOBS AND WEALTH CREATION

90. Strategic options. The first option is industrial deepening, which aims to create more upstream and downstream spillover effects and complementarities between the industrial sector and the others sectors of the economy. This option is aligned with the general strategic objectives of the PNDES and the specific strategy choices to make (i) the agriculture sector the catalyst for reducing poverty and food insecurity and (ii) the mining sector the catalyst for structural transformation of the Guinean economy. The second strategic option of the PNDES is industrial diversification, which implies the creation of new industrial capacities through sector diversification and the promotion of heretofore nonexistent manufacturing activities. The third option is industrial modernization through the promotion of a more modern and competitive industrial structure through the improvement of products, processes, and functions. These three approaches correspond to the approaches recommended by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)12 in regard to strategic choice and selectivity in facilitating structural change.

91. Priority actions. The priorities concern (i) preparing a strategic framework for industrial development (including, inter alia, a situation assessment, strategic choices, and industrial policy instruments), (ii) promoting SMIs, in particular upstream and downstream of regional agro-industrial centers and mining centers, (iii) development of a competitive agro-industry geared toward national and subregional demand, (iv) improving SME/SMI access to financing adapted to their needs. In addition to these actions is the planned launch of the National Multifunctional Platform Program, submitted for financing by the FNRRPE, and (vi) the UNIDO country program for Guinea.

C) CLEAN INDUSTRY IS PROMOTED

92. Strategic options. The authorities are aware of the need to promote clean industry in order to increase the productivity gains of all factors, including natural capital, and contribute to a sustainable economic transformation. This view is based on two key rationales: (i) clean industry is a means of protecting communities, vital ecosystems, and the global climate against intensified environmental risks and the depletion of natural resources, and (ii) clean industry transforms manufacturing industry and the related industrial sectors, enabling them to contribute more effectively to sustainable industrial development.

93. From this perspective, the PNDES adopts two strategic options: (i) the greening of existing industries through the development and integration of proven practices to reduce resource consumption and pollution in all industrial subsectors and related activities, and (ii) the promotion of new, environmentally respectful industries, i.e., green industry, through the adoption of sustainable and economically profitable modes of production and consumption.

94. Priority actions. In addition to drawing up a strategic framework for industrial development (producing effect 3.2.2 above), the PNDES provides for the promotion of clean industry. The priority actions to this end are: (i) strengthening, outreach, and enforcement of regulations governing polluting industries, (ii) promotion of clean energy in the industrial sector, and (iii) restoration of land and forest resources degraded by mining industries.

3.5.6. Economic infrastructures, innovation, and research

Intermediate objective: increase total factor productivity while strengthening the material bases of structural transformation.

Expected effects:

Road infrastructures are durable and dependable

  • Infrastructures and services for other modes of transportation are durable and dependable;

  • Telecommunication infrastructures and services are durable and dependable;

  • Energy infrastructures are durable and dependable;

  • Research and technological innovation are promoted and developed.

A) ROAD INFRASTRUCTURES ARE DURABLE AND DEPENDABLE

95. Strategic options. The government’s ambition in this area is to significantly improve the condition of roads through substantial investments in road maintenance and renovation of the road network. In regard to international transport, trade with other countries of the subregion (Guinea-Bissau, Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia, etc.) is an important factor in reducing poverty in Guinea, and the national interstate road network is vital from that standpoint. The supporting role of roads for other productive sectors will be strengthened to facilitate the development of cotton, coffee, oil palm, and food crop plantations through the increased serviceability of the prefectural and community road network. The continuing expansion of the capital, Conakry, warrants particular attention in the urban transport policy. This calls for the development and adoption of a specific urban transport promotion strategy in conjunction with expanded coverage of the road network.

96. To summarize, the PNDES strategic options will be based on: (i) improving road connections between the country’s natural regions, (ii) completing the remaining connections between Guinea and neighboring countries via paved roads, (iii) providing road access to at least half of the rural areas, (iv) modernizing the network of urban roads in Conakry and other large cities, and (v) maintain the national road network in good condition by according priority to prefectures lacking paved roads.

97. Priority actions. The priority measures and actions are to (i) adopt a highway and traffic agency structure based on the model used in other countries of the subregion, (ii) begin the operations and use of the road database to manage the condition of the road network, (iii) increase funding for the second generation FER in order to cover road maintenance requirements, (iv) improve the system used to audit the eligibility of second generation FER operations, (v) launch operations of the Public Works Laboratory, (vi) permit the use of local materials, and (vii) adopt a law and implementing regulations on the protection of national roads.

B) INFRASTRUCTURES AND SERVICES FOR OTHER MODES OF TRANSPORTATION ARE DURABLE AND DEPENDABLE

98. Strategic options. The PNDES as a whole is based on a multimodal approach to the development of transportation integrated with agricultural production and mining operations. With respect to railroads, the PNDES draws on the strategic framework of the National Transportation Plan and makes the re-launch of the central Conakry-Kankan line the priority for the subsector. The preferred option is to combine the transportation of passengers and goods with mining operations. In the area of maritime transportation, transportation services will be integrated with the road and railroad networks to meet the growing demand for transit to the more remote areas. From that perspective, the docking capacities of the Conakry Port will be expanded and port operations geared toward non-mining activities such as dry or deepwater ports for ore carriers. In regard to air transportation, the PNDES will maintain existing facilities, consisting of three regional airports, seven secondary airports and five smaller airfields built and operated by mining companies. With respect to operation, the re-launch of Air Guinea’s activities is a PNDES strategic option.

99. Priority actions. The PNDES provides for (i) expansion of the Conakry Port capacity and the development of marine and River landings, (ii) the development of land, railroad, and air transportation infrastructures and services, (iii) completion of the Trans-Guinean project and exploitation of the potential opportunities it represents, (iv) a study on the future of the Conakry Port and the rail barrowing function over the first 38 kilometers, and a comparative study of the continued expansion of the Conakry Port capacity combined with a dry port project on the city’s outskirts, (v) the possibility of using a surface metro in a future study for the development of an urban transit plan for the Conakry metropolitan area, and (vi) the further development of studies on the resumption of Air Guinea operations.

C) TELECOMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTURES AND SERVICES ARE DURABLE AND DEPENDABLE

100. Strategic options. The government’s strategic choice to achieve the expected result during 2016-2020 is “to make ITC an engine of economic and social development in Guinea.” The authorities view telecommunications and the digital economy as indispensable factors of development and a cross-cutting sector with direct multiplier effects on all other sectors of economic activity. The PNDES reflects this view by drawing on the six main levers of telecommunications development in Guinea13: (i) the development of broadband networks, (ii) increasing the supply of energy, (iii) the sharing of infrastructures, (iv) strengthening of regulations through a “strong and effective regulatory authority,” (v) strengthening the capacities of telecommunications and ITC sector managers, and (vi) the emergence of a telecommunications/ITC ecosystem.

101. Priority actions. The PNDES provides for: (i) promoting the conditions for development of the digital economy, (ii) the development of conductivity and digital services throughout the national territory, (iii) the development of e-government, and (iv) the preparation of a strategic and programmatic framework for medium-term development of the sector.

D) ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURES ARE DURABLE AND DEPENDABLE

102. Strategic options. Through the PNDES the authorities intend to implement the Energy Sector Development Policy Letter and associated general policy statement and 2009-2025 action plan. The strategic PNDES option in this regard is to help promote a model of sustainable energy development based on social and regional equity, renewable energies, and environmentally sound management of energy production and consumption.

103. In terms of priorities, this will entail (i) the rehabilitation of production and distribution facilities for the electricity subsector, (ii) reform of the institutional framework, (iii) mobilizing Guinea’s hydroelectric potential, including major as well as micro and mini plants, (iv) promotion of “decentralized” solutions involving subnational governments and the private sector in rural areas, (v) promotion of solutions for the preservation of natural resources, (vi) the use of innovative techniques such as biogas digesters, and (vii) the implementation of a program to provide access to energy services for rural and suburban populations aligned with the objectives of the ECOWAS White Paper on Energy Access.

104. Priority actions. The PNDES provides for (i) major hydropower projects, including Souapiti (515 MW) and Poudaldé (90 MW) and other projects prepared and approved during the period covered by the Plan, (ii) the continuation and completion of the central and local structural institutional reforms initiated in the sector (including the implementation of an appropriate legal and regulatory framework and restoring the financial stability of national electric utility EDG, (iii) rural electrification, (iv) network extension in suburban areas, (v) diversification of energy sources with emphasis on renewable energies, especially micro hydropower plants, solar and wind energy, biomass and household waste, and (vi) participation in the interconnection of subregional electricity networks.

E) RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION ARE PROMOTED AND DEVELOPED

105. Strategic options. Addressing questions of sustainability to enhance productivity and bring about rapid structural transformation calls for particular attention to research and innovation. The PNDES advances this vision by promoting innovation and technological breakthroughs to further the adoption of more sustainable modes of production and consumption in all sectors of the economy.

106. Priority actions. Three actions are planned for this purpose: (i) promotion of research geared toward sustainable development, (ii) promotion of technological innovation in connection with the requirements of the green economy, and (iii) commercial development of the outcomes of research and innovation adapted to the requirements of the green economy.

3.5.7. Trade, tourism, hotels, artisanal industry, and culture

Intermediate objective: promote sustainable trade, tourism, hotels, artisanal industry, and cultural services.

Expected effects:

  • Conditions are in place to better integrate trade in development;

  • Trade, tourism, hotels, artisanal industry, and cultural services contribute more to job and wealth creation.

A) CONDITIONS ARE IN PLACE TO BETTER INTEGRATE TRADE IN DEVELOPMENT

107. Strategic options. The PNDES draws on the results of the Diagnostic Study of Trade Integration (EDIC) in adopting the following pillars as the framework for its strategic options: (i) modernization of the customs service as the means of strengthening trade integration, (ii) improving transport and logistics infrastructures, (iii) developing exports through “servicification,” and (iv) integrating agriculture in the markets.

108. Priority actions. To achieve this effect, the PNDES adopts the following actions from the EDIC matrix: (i) strengthening regional trade integration, (ii) simplifying trade policies, (iii) reducing obstacles to cross-border trade, (iv) simplifying administrative procedures, (v) strengthening personnel capacities of the customs service, (vi) rationalizing customs clearance procedures, (vii) improving physical infrastructures (airports, ports, railroads), viii) developing trade in agricultural products, (ix) promoting trade in services, and (ix) optimizing participation in regional and international value chains.

B) TRADE, TOURISM, HOTELS, ARTISANAL INDUSTRY, AND CULTURAL SERVICES CONTRIBUTE MORE TO JOB AND WEALTH CREATION

109. Strategic options. The PNDES considers tourism to be the engine of the hotel, cultural, and artisanal industries. Guinean tourism will boost development while encouraging diversification of an economy highly dependent on mining operations with all the uncertainties that entails (wide fluctuations in international prices). It represents an alternative source of income for artists and supports community development and job creation in rural and urban areas (restaurants, hotels, tours). It also facilitates access to educational and healthcare infrastructures through rural tourist routes. The development of Guinean tourism, including rural tourism, community tourism, and ecotourism, will promote the creation of new jobs and the development of new means of living in rural areas while contributing significantly to poverty reduction and employment.

110. Priority actions. To achieve the targets, the government plans the following actions: (i) the rehabilitation, development, and promotion of Guinea’s tourist sites, (ii) development and promotion of the hotel industry in general and in tourist areas in particular, (iii) the development of high-value-added artisanal segments that will create jobs, (iv) the promotion of artisanal products, and (v) the promotion of culture as a driver of hotel and tourism development.

3.5.8 Population and Development

Intermediate objective: optimize the current demographic trend in Guinea.

Expected effects:

  • The demographic transition is accelerated.

A) THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION IS ACCELERATED

111. Strategic options. The authorities intend to invest in four areas – family planning, health, education, and the design of public policy – to accelerate the demographic transition and enable Guinea to quickly benefit from the demographic dividend. Investment in family planning is essential to achieve a rapid reduction of fertility. Investment is also needed in improving the health of children, youths, and working adults to ensure the availability of a productive work force at all times. Investment in educational systems will ensure students’ success while instilling the competencies needed to meet the evolving needs of the job market. Finally, we must invest in the design and implementation of socioeconomic policies to enable the economy to create jobs, stimulate investment in labor-intensive sectors, encourage the expansion of infrastructures, promote trade to ensure access to international markets, create a safe environment, and promote FDI.

112. Priority actions. The actions relate to: (i) improving adolescents’ and young persons’ access to birth control services to reduce their fertility rate, (ii) expanding the populations’ access to quality family planning services in rural and urban areas, (iii) controlling illegal emigration of Guinean youths, (iv) strengthening institutional, technical, and human capacities in the observation and management of demographic phenomena.

3.5.9. Health and HIV/AIDS

Intermediate objective: improve access to and the supply of healthcare services and the quality of healthcare delivered to the populations.

Expected effects:

  • Access to and equitable utilization of quality healthcare services are ensured;

  • The nutritional status of mothers, children, and older persons is improved;

  • The prevalence of HIV and the HIV/AIDS mortality rate are reduced

A) ACCESS TO AND EQUITABLE UTILIZATION OF QUALITY HEALTHCARE SERVICES ARE ENSURED

113. Strategic options. The PNDES incorporates the 2015-2024 National Health Development Policy (PNDS) (i) by embracing its vision of a Guinea “where all population groups are in good health, are economically and socially productive, enjoying universal access to quality health services and healthcare, with their full participation,” and (ii) by seeking to realize the changes expected in this area over the 2016-2020 period. The PNDES strategic options are thus consistent with those of the PNDS and are as follows: a) reducing mortality and morbidity associated with communicable and non-communicable diseases and emergency situations, b) improving health at all stages of life, and c) improving the performance of the national healthcare system.

114. Priority actions. The PNDES provides for the following priority actions: (i) improving sector governance, specifically, by strengthening financial, technical, and personnel capacities of the healthcare system to facilitate universal access to healthcare, (ii) expanding health coverage to the entire population, (iii) the establishment of a healthcare system made resilient to health shocks through strengthened capacities in prevention, surveillance, and treatment of diseases and emergency situations (e.g., Ebola, tuberculosis), (iv) improving management of the supply chain for essential drugs, (v) increased vaccination coverage, (vi) increasing and improving the distribution of healthcare professionals, (vii) promoting innovative data collection tools to enhance the healthcare information system, (viii) strengthening the healthcare system at the prefectural and communal levels to increase access to and the equitable use of healthcare services, and (ix) promoting improved healthcare services for mothers, infants, children, adolescents, and the elderly.

B) THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF MOTHERS, CHILDREN, AND OLDER PERSONS IS IMPROVED

115. Strategic options. To achieve this effect, the strategic options adopted for the PNDES are the same as those relating to (i) effect: food and nutritional security is ensured, and (ii) effect above: access to and equitable utilization of quality healthcare services are ensured.

116. Priority actions. The priority actions for the 2016-2020 period concern: (i) improving nutritional surveillance, prevention, and care for children, women, and the elderly, (ii) increasing nutritional support to these vulnerable groups, (iii) promoting nutritional education, and (iv) strengthening health inspections to ensure the quality of food and water.

C) THE PREVALENCE OF HIV AND THE HIV/AIDS MORTALITY RATE ARE REDUCED

117. Strategic options. The PNDES is aligned with (i) the Policy Statement on HIV and AIDS, “Intensify our efforts to eliminate HIV and AIDS,” and (ii) the “Three Zeros” vision: “Zero new HIV infections, Zero discrimination, Zero AIDS-related deaths,” which forms the policy framework for the 2013-2017 National Strategic Framework (CSN). The PNDES also aims to contribute to the achievement of the universal 90-90-90 target.14

118. Priority actions. The priority actions will address: (i) preventing new HIV/AIDS infections, (ii) promoting early screening, (iii) improving universal access for persons living with HIV to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment and quality healthcare services, including nutritional support to enhance the impact of ARV treatment, (iv) protecting the rights of persons living with HIV, and (v) strengthening AIDS response capacities.

3.5.10. Education and Training

Intermediate objective: improve access to and the supply and quality of education and training while adapting them to the needs of the national economy.

Expected effects:

  • Access to quality preschool, primary, and secondary education is guaranteed;

  • Access to quality higher education aligned with the needs of the economy is ensured;

  • Access to quality technical education and vocational training aligned with the needs of the economy is expanded.

A) ACCESS TO QUALITY PRESCHOOL, PRIMARY, AND SECONDARY EDUCATION IS GUARANTEED

119. Strategic options. The authorities’ ambition as presented in the Education Sector Policy Letter (LPSE) for the 2015-2017 period15 is to develop an inclusive, quality educational system capable of producing human capital meeting the needs of the informal and modern sectors of the economy. The PNDES aims to realize this ambition through the following strategic options: (i) pursuing universal quality primary education with a view to expanding basic education to the first cycle of secondary school, (ii) reducing disparities based on gender, urban vs. rural place of residence, and income, in particular promoting the education, retention, and success of girls, (iii) improving the quality and relevance of education and learning at all levels, (iv) developing instructional content adapted to the needs of the national economy in terms of technical, vocational, and higher education, and (v) strengthening sector governance by improving leadership, coordination, and decentralization.

120. Priority actions. The priority actions planned to achieve these targets are (i) strengthening the physical and educational capacities of preschool, primary, and secondary educational institutions according to the needs of the communities and students, (ii) improving the quality of primary and secondary instruction through teacher training, improved educational programs, and the use of student-focused pedagogical approaches, (iii) improving the functioning of the educational system, (iv) expanding the supply of complementary services such as water and sanitation in schools, school cafeterias, etc., (v) strengthening outreach to communities where children and girls are delayed in starting school, (vi) improved access to literacy and non-formal educational programs for youths and adults (male and female) who are illiterate or unschooled or left school at an early age.

B) ACCESS TO QUALITY HIGHER EDUCATION ALIGNED WITH THE NEEDS OF THE ECONOMY IS ENSURED

121. Strategic options. The PNDES promotes the development of higher education and scientific research by 2020 based on the fundamental concept: “Guinean University for an emerging Guinea.” This calls for the promotion and development of a knowledge society constructed around a scientific and technological culture and know-how through an effective, diversified system of higher education and scientific research meeting the country’s needs and capable of accelerating Guinea’s economic and social emergence and preparing competent citizens, determined to live together in a democratic society. In this regard, the PNDES aims to translate the general objective of the 2013-2020 Higher Education and Scientific Research Policy – which is to reform higher education and revitalize research to contribute to Guinea’s political, economic, social, and cultural immersion – into specific strategies.

122. Priority actions. The priority actions planned by the government are to (i) increase the physical capacity as well as technical and personnel capacities of the higher education system, (ii) improve the quality of higher education and training, (iii) adapt higher education to the needs of the job market, (iv) improve governance of higher education, (v) expand access to higher education for girls, and (vi) promote university research.

C) ACCESS TO QUALITY TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING ALIGNED WITH THE NEEDS OF THE ECONOMY IS EXPANDED

123. Strategic options. To achieve this effect, the PNDES aims to fulfill the strategic objectives of the Technical Education and Vocational Training (ETFP) policy letter. It will respond to the requirements for competent, qualified human resources to better prepare them to implement development policies so as to combat unemployment and poverty. To this end, the ETFP system must ensure coherence between introductory, continuing, and qualifying curricula and apprenticeships, taking into consideration the national socioeconomic context and aspects particular to each region and locality. The goal is to provide the majority of target groups with opportunities to more easily access professional and technical training via a professional qualification.

124. Priority actions. The priority actions planned are to (i) strengthen the institutional, technical, and pedagogical capacities of the ETFP system, (ii) expand and diversify technical education and vocational training, (iii) promote access for girls and boys to technical education and vocational training, and (iv) develop a reliable mechanism for socio-professional integration of ETFP graduates.

3.5.11. Domestic living conditions

Intermediate objective: improve access to energy, safe drinking water, and a decent standard of living in urban and rural areas.

Expected effects:

  • Access to quality energy services is improved;

  • Access to safe drinking water, hygiene, and sanitation is improved;

  • Access to decent housing is improved.

A) ACCESS TO QUALITY ENERGY SERVICES IS IMPROVED

125. Strategic options. Inspired by the Energy Sector Development Policy Letter, the PNDES strategic options to achieve this effect are based on two pillars. The first pillar concerns providing access to modern energy for a larger number of persons. This pillar recognizes the populations’ need to access diverse sources of energy for their various needs (lighting, cooking, refrigeration, transportation, communication) that must be clean, sustainable, and financially affordable. This area includes electricity but also fuel wood, charcoal, butane, kerosene, and biogas. The second pillar concerns reducing dependence on fossil fuels. This pillar includes diversifying the energy mix toward renewable energies and improving energy efficiency.

126. Priority actions. Three priority actions are planned: (i) expanding rural electrification through the Decentralized Rural Electrification Bureau, promoting private initiatives and the multifunctional platform program, (ii) promoting renewable energies, particularly biogas, butane, and solar energy, and (iii) extending the network of public street lights to suburban areas.

B) ACCESS TO SAFE DRINKING WATER, HYGIENE, AND SANITATION IS EXPANDED

127. Strategic options. The PNDES opts to increase access to safe drinking water in urban and rural areas by expanding supply capacities through new investments (Wells and pumps) combined with a coherent, effective strategy for maintaining water distribution structures. In parallel, the PNDES will promote actions to increase access to and quality of water and sanitation services.

128. Priority actions. To achieve these targets, the priority actions will address (i) strengthening the institutional and legal framework for the water and sanitation sector, (ii) rehabilitating and extending water distribution systems in urban centers, (iii) rehabilitating, developing, and maintaining drinking water supply points in rural areas of all villages, (iv) improving wastewater and garbage collection and treatment systems in urban centers, (v) increasing households’ access to hygienic latrines in rural areas and slums through the use of simple, reliable technologies, (vi) developing and maintaining public latrines in congested areas of urban centers, and (vii) expanding outreach and education on hygiene and sanitation.

C) ACCESS TO DECENT HOUSING IS EXPANDED

129. Strategic options. The PNDES shares the strategic vision (Vision Habitat 2021) of the national housing policy to “establish a healthy, secure living environment through the promotion of accessible housing meeting the populations’ needs, with a view to balanced regional development and effective, ecologically sustainable, and socially equitable economic development.” The strategic option that emerges from this is the sustainable planning, development, and equipping of national and urban spaces to implement coherent, consensus-based action with actors from the private sector and civil society. This will mean facilitating access to decent housing for a larger number of Guineans in the context of controlled urban development.

130. Priority actions. The priority actions, based directly on the Vision Habitat 2021, are: (i) spatial and land development around the balance between urban and rural centers, (ii) promotion of large-scale construction of decent, affordable housing, (iii) urban restructuring and the development of urban infrastructures to eliminate precarious housing, and (iv) improved governance in the planning and management of Guinea’s space and land.

3.5.12. Employment of Vulnerable Groups

Intermediate objective: promote employment and entrepreneurship among the young, women, and persons living with disabilities.

Expected effects:

  • Productive employment and entrepreneurship are promoted for young persons;

  • Productive employment and entrepreneurship are promoted for women;

  • Productive employment and entrepreneurship are promoted for persons living with disabilities.

A) PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP ARE PROMOTED FOR YOUNG PERSONS

131. Strategic options. The PNDES incorporates the National Policy for Youth Employment (PONEJ), which aims to achieve full employment and a substantial reduction of poverty by offering rural and urban youths ages 15 to 35 opportunities for qualifying training to improve their employability; productive, paid, independent jobs; and empowerment through access to credit from microfinance institutions.

132. Priority actions. The priority actions for the 2016-2020 period concern (i) strengthening the institutional, technical, and personnel capacities of the job market intermediation and information system, (ii) improving the employability of young graduates, (iii) improving training and apprenticeships for youths in areas offering productive employment in industry subsectors and mining-related activities, and (iv) promoting youth entrepreneurship through access to appropriate training and innovative forms of support.

B) PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP ARE PROMOTED FOR WOMEN

133. Strategic options. The PNDES will pursue the following options to achieve the expected effect: (i) promoting the rights and economic independence of women, in particular access to jobs, appropriate working conditions, and economic resources, (ii) equal access for women to resources, jobs, markets, and trade, (iii) providing women, especially those with low incomes, with vocational services, and training resources and access to markets, information, and technology, (iv) strengthening women’s economic capacities and commercial networks, and (v) eliminating professional segregation and all forms of job-related discrimination.

134. Priority actions. For the 2016-2020 period, the priority actions will be (i) strengthening institutional, technical, and personnel capacities in areas relevant to women’s empowerment, (ii) enhancing the employability of female graduates and their access to paid employment in industrial and mining-related subsectors, (iii) improving training and apprenticeships for women in trades leading to productive jobs in connection with agro-industrial and mining centers, and (iv) promoting women’s entrepreneurship through access to training, financial services, and relevant technologies.

135. The PNDES also considers the following priority actions as feasible: (i) assistance to women in business creation (registration and opening bank accounts), (ii) mentorships to promote the development of women-led businesses in the productive and profitable sectors of the economy (traditionally dominated by men) such as the mining and construction sectors, (iii) expansion of business opportunities for women to fishing and carpentry, and (iv) facilitation of women’s access to substantial financing beyond the scope of microfinance programs.

C) PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP ARE PROMOTED FOR PERSONS LIVING WITH DISABILITIES

136. Strategic options. The PNDES considers disabled persons as full-fledged components of society to whom opportunity should be provided to ensure their social inclusion. These opportunities include education, apprenticeship, employability, and employment.

137. Priority actions. the priority actions for the 2016-2020 period will focus on: (i) strengthening institutional, technical, and personnel capacities in areas related to the professional integration of disabled persons, (ii) improving the employability of disabled graduates and expanding their access to paid jobs, (iii) improving training and apprenticeship for disabled persons in segments leading to productive jobs, and (iv) promoting entrepreneurship for disabled persons through access to training, technologies, and appropriate financial services.

3.5.13. Empowerment of Vulnerable Groups

Intermediate objective: promote the empowerment of vulnerable groups.

Expected effects:

  • The social, political, and cultural development of youths is ensured;

  • Women’s social, political, and cultural development is ensured;

  • The social, political, and cultural development of persons living with disabilities is ensured;

  • Childhood is protected.

A) THE SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF YOUTHS IS ENSURED

138. Strategic options. The PNDES regards youths as the drivers of social change. They can be actors of violence as well as peace. They can be forces for progress or retrenchment. Only the environment in which they act determines their role or relative importance in society. The environment should enable them to express themselves through multiple frameworks, sports, culture, and the arts; in the civic, political, or professional spheres. The frameworks may be imposed by others, as in a vertical approach from authority figures toward the young, or determined proactively by young persons themselves. Regardless of the approach, the self-determination sought by youths calls for an enabling framework based on appropriate regulations and investments in infrastructures, equipment, sports activities, and youth organizations.

139. Priority actions. The priority actions concern: (i) strengthening the capacities of youth services and organizations, (ii) rehabilitating and developing social, educational, and cultural infrastructures for youths in all regions of the country, (iii) promoting sports, cultural, and artistic activities for young persons in all regions of the country, and (iv) promoting young persons’ involvement in local political and civic associations.

B) WOMEN’S SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IS ENSURED

140. Strategic options. Aligned with the National Gender Policy, the PNDES: (i) embraces its vision of “a society free of all forms of inequality and inequity that guarantees all citizens (men, women, boys, and girls) the opportunity to realize their full potential,” (ii) incorporates its general objective of promoting, by 2020, equality and equity between men and women through the significant, lasting reduction of all forms of gender-based disparity and discrimination, and (iii) adopts its strategic pillars, i.e., (i) access to basic social services (education, health, HIV/AIDS, water, hygiene, and sanitation), (ii) respect for human rights and the eradication of violence (fundamental rights, young girls, violence, human trafficking), (iii) access to and control of resources and equitable distribution of income (economy, poverty, and environment), (iv) improved governance and equitable access to decision-making bodies (power, the media, institutional mechanisms, armed conflict, ITC), and (v) the integration of gender in the macroeconomic framework.

141. Priority actions. The priority actions concern (i) strengthening the capacities of women’s services and organizations, (ii) rehabilitating and developing socio-educational and cultural infrastructures for women in all regions of the country, (iii) promoting sports, cultural, and artistic activities for girls in all regions of the country, (iv) promoting women’s involvement in local politics and civic organizations, and (v) eradicating all forms of violence against women and girls.

C) THE SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONS LIVING WITH DISABILITIES IS ENSURED

142. Strategic options. The strategic options are the same as for effect 5.1.3.

143. Priority actions. The priority actions concern: (i) strengthening the capacities of organizations and services for disabled persons, (ii) promoting sports, cultural, and artistic activities for disabled persons in all regions of the country, (iii) improving disabled persons’ access to transportation and public infrastructures, and (iv) promoting the participation of disabled persons in local civic and political affairs.

D) CHILDHOOD IS PROTECTED

144. Strategic options. To achieve this effect, the PNDES opts for prevention and suppression of violence, exploitation, and mistreatment of children, including commercial sexual exploitation, child trafficking, child labor, and harmful traditional practices such as female genital mutilation and excision and child marriage.

145. Priority actions. The priority actions concern (i) strengthening the institutional, technical, and personnel capacities of child protection agencies, (ii) rehabilitating and developing preschool and childcare infrastructures, (iii) developing and implementing an integrated, comprehensive system to protect childhood and children’s rights.

3.5.14. Social Protection

Intermediate objective: promote social protection.

Expected effects:

  • Access to social security is expanded

  • Social protections for vulnerable persons are strengthened.

A) ACCESS TO SOCIAL SECURITY IS EXPANDED

146. Strategic options. The PNDES will (i) adhere to the National Social Protection Policy (PNSP) vision for 2021 of “a Guinea… where 35 percent of the population receives social coverage through access to basic social services and protection against economic and social risks, thereby strengthening their capacities to take care of themselves,” (ii) incorporate the PNSP general objective of “gradually building an effective, equitable, and sustainable social protection system in Guinea that protects citizens, residents, and the poor and/or vulnerable by strengthening their economic capacities and human capital.”

147. Specifically, to achieve this effect the PNDES organizes its strategic options on the basis of the following pillars: (i) improving social services to better cover the risks of pregnancy and childbirth, childhood, adulthood, old age, and illness, (ii) extending the scope of coverage of social security to workers of the informal sector and migrants in particular, (iii) the establishment of a social pension system for the elderly, and (iv) high-labor-intensive projects to integrate the growing population, including adolescent mothers, in paid activities.

148. Priority actions. For the 2016-2020 period, the PNDES will prioritize the following actions: (i) strengthening the institutional, technical, and personnel capacities of the social security system, (ii) ensuring effective social coverage for persons outside the career civil service, (iii) the implementation of a social protection mechanism adapted to the informal sector, (iv) studies to define the practical modalities of implementing a social pension system, and (v) implementing high-labor-intensive projects for the construction and installation of water distribution systems and the provision of sanitation services and support to public health organizations.

B) SOCIAL PROTECTIONS FOR VULNERABLE PERSONS ARE STRENGTHENED

149. Strategic options. To achieve this effect, the PNDES will prioritize improving living conditions for the poorest and most vulnerable as the most important objective of social protection. Accordingly, emphasis will be placed on poverty reduction programs but also social and gender promotion and investment, to respond to the dual challenge of social protection, (i) improving living standards for the poorest and most vulnerable groups, and (ii) creating opportunities for them to profit from economic growth by increasing their human capital and access to markets.

150. Priority actions. The priority actions for the 2016-2020 period will concern: (i) a program of transfers in cash and/or in kind to different target groups (children, pregnant women, adolescents, the elderly, the poorest households, children and adults living with disabilities), (ii) high-labor-intensive projects, (iii) community development projects, (iv) support to vulnerable persons in pursuing opportunities for greater autonomy, (v) improving vulnerable persons’ access to basic social services (e.g., health, education, drinking water, decent housing, road and energy infrastructures), and (vi) prevention and management of risks and disasters.

3.5.15. Sustainable Management of Ecosystems

Intermediate objective: preserve and restore land, coastal, and marine ecosystems.

Expected effects:

  • The root causes of biodiversity degradation are addressed at all levels of society;

  • Direct pressures on biodiversity are reduced and sustainable use is encouraged

  • Biodiversity conditions are improved through the protection of ecosystems, species, and genetic diversity

  • The benefits of biodiversity and services provided by ecosystems are enhanced;

  • Knowledge management and capacity building strengthened through participatory planning.

A) THE ROOT CAUSES OF BIODIVERSITY DEGRADATION ARE ADDRESSED AT ALL LEVELS OF SOCIETY

151. Strategic options. The PNDES adopts the 2016-2025 SNDB16 and its vision of biodiversity “…restored, preserved, developed, and utilized wisely by all actors to maintain the ecosystem services provided, preserve ecosystems in good condition, ensure the essential benefits to current and future generations of Guinea.”17 Specifically, to achieve this effect, the PNDES structures its strategic options around the SNDB’s strategic goal A: “Manage the underlying causes of degradation of biological diversity by integrating biodiversity in all government and societal programs.”

152. Priority actions. The PNDES provides for the following priorities during the 2016-2020 period: (i) promoting individuals’ awareness of the value of biodiversity and the measures they can take to preserve it and use it sustainably, (ii) incorporating the values of biodiversity in national and local development planning processes, in the national accounts, and in notification systems, (iii) reforming, gradually reducing, or eliminating incentives, including subsidies that are harmful to biodiversity in favor of positive incentives to promote the preservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in accordance with international obligations, (iv) adopting or implementing measures and plans to ensure sustainable production and consumption and to maintain the impacts of the use of natural resources within ecologically safe limits.

B) DIRECT PRESSURES ON BIODIVERSITY ARE REDUCED AND SUSTAINABLE USE IS ENCOURAGED

153. Strategic options. The PNDES adheres to the SNDB vision. Specifically, to achieve this effect, the PNDES structures its strategic options around the SNDB’s strategic goal B: “Reduce direct pressures on biological diversity and encourage sustainable use.”

154. Priority actions. The PNDES provides for the following priorities during the 2016-2020 period: (i) reduction of the rate of impoverishment of natural habitats, including forests, (ii) the sustainable management and harvesting of all stocks of fish, invertebrates, and aquatic plants in accordance with applicable laws and an approach based on ecosystems, (iii) sustainable management of areas set aside for agriculture, aquaculture, and silviculture with a view toward preserving biodiversity, (iv) the reduction of pollution caused by excess nutrients and the maintenance of nutrients below levels harmful to ecosystem functions and biodiversity, and (v) identification and priority ranking of invasive exotic species and the means and routes by which they are introduced in the environment.

C) BIODIVERSITY CONDITIONS ARE IMPROVED THROUGH THE PROTECTION OF ECOSYSTEMS, SPECIES, AND GENETIC DIVERSITY

155. Strategic options. The PNDES adheres to the SNDB vision. Specifically, to achieve this effect, the PNDES structures its strategic options around the SNDB’s strategic goal “C.”

156. Priority actions. The PNDES will emphasize the following actions: (i) conserving land areas and inland, marine, and coastal waters, (ii) protecting known threatened species from extinction and improving the state of conservation, (iii) preserving the genetic diversity of cultivated plants, livestock, domestic and neglected animals, and (iv) development and implementation of strategies to reduce genetic erosion to a minimum and protect the genetic diversity of plans and animals.

D) THE BENEFITS OF BIODIVERSITY AND SERVICES PROVIDED BY ECOSYSTEMS ARE ENHANCED

157. Strategic options. The PNDES adheres to the SNDB vision. Specifically, to achieve this effect, the PNDES structures its strategic options around the SNDB’s strategic goal D: “Strengthen the benefits of biodiversity for all and enhance the services provided by ecosystems.”

158. Priority actions. The PNDES will prioritize the following actions during 2016-2020: (i) restoring and protecting ecosystems that provide essential services, particularly water, and contribute to the health, livelihood, and well-being of local and autochthonous communities and poor and vulnerable population groups, in relation to the needs of women, and (ii) improving the resilience of ecosystems and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon sinks.

E) KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND CAPACITY BUILDING ARE STRENGTHENED THROUGH PARTICIPATORY PLANNING

159. Strategic options. The PNDES adheres to the SNDB vision. Specifically, to achieve this effect, the PNDES structures its strategic options around the SNDB’s strategic goal “E.”

160. Priority actions. The PNDES provides for the following priority actions: (i) the adoption of measures in accordance with national laws and international obligations to respect the knowledge, innovations, and traditional practices of autochthonous and local communities that are of value to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, (ii) the improvement, transfer, application, and broad sharing of scientifically based knowledge and technologies associated with biodiversity; the values, functioning, and status of biodiversity and associated trends; and the consequences of impoverished biodiversity, (iii) an increase with respect to current levels in financial resources raised to implement the SNDB action plan.

3.5.16. Quality of Living Conditions

Intermediate objective: promote healthy living conditions

Expected effects:

  • The urban waste management system is improved.

A) THE URBAN WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IS IMPROVED

161. Strategic options. To achieve this effect, the PNDES opts for the following strategic choices: (i) strengthening the institutional, technical, and human capacities of the waste management system in cities, (ii) conducting targeted outreach among households on the proper management of household waste, (iii) enlisting the populations’ participation in waste management, (iv) promoting high labor-intensive sanitation projects, and (v) promoting sustainable management of cities and social housing.

162. Priority actions. The PNDES will accord priority to the following actions: (i) increasing household waste collection in urban areas, (ii) promoting the recycling of trash collected in order to create green jobs and protect the environment, (iii) improving the Conakry city sewer network, (iv) promoting the processing and recycling of solid and especially liquid waste by industries, (v) promoting investments in real property, and (vi) promoting cooperative management of land.

3.5.17. Disaster Management

Intermediate objective: strengthen national resilience to disasters.

Expected effect:

  • Capacities to reduce disaster risks are strengthened.

A) CAPACITIES TO REDUCE DISASTER RISKS ARE STRENGTHENED

163. Strategic options. The PNDES is aligned with international development agendas, including the 2015-2030 Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, whose four priorities the PNDES adopts as its strategic options to achieve this effect: Priority 1: understanding disaster risk, Priority 2: strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk, Priority 3: investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience, and Priority 4: enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “build back better” in recovery, rehabilitation, and reconstruction.

164. Priority actions. The PNDES will prioritize the recommendations of the UNDP evaluation of Guinea’s national capacities in risk reduction and disaster management.18

3.5.18. Climate Change

Intermediate objective: combat climate change and its repercussions.

Expected effects:

  • Greenhouse gas emissions are controlled.

A) GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS ARE CONTROLLED

165. Strategic options. The PNDES is intended to be the engine for Guinea’s ambition to become, by 2030, a stabilizer for greenhouse gas emissions in the subregion as provided in the Nationally Determined Contribution pursuant to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) of September 2015. This ambition is reflected in four strategy objectives: (i) the preservation and development of Guinea’s water resources, (ii) in Guinea’s continued role as carbon sink, (iii) the rational exploitation of surface and underground resources, (iv) support for ECOWAS reflections to better integrate the issues of climate change in the regional transhumance plan. The PNDES embraces this outlook and also opts to (v) implement international conventions and records on climate change, and (vi) uphold the commitments provided in the Nationally Determined Contribution under the UNFCCC.

166. Priority actions. The PNDES will prioritize the following actions: (i) strengthening national capacities to combat climate change, (ii) promoting clean energy and energy savings technologies, (iii) mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation and agriculture sectors, (vi) promoting the use of household appliances incorporating clean technologies, and (vii) increasing carbon sequestration capacities through the development of agro-forestry.

4. Implementation Framework

167. The PNDES strategic choices must be adapted to the government’s macroeconomic and financial constraints to ensure that they are implemented by means of realistic, feasible actions.

4.1. Macroeconomic framing, cost, and financing plan

168. The coherence of the macroeconomic framework and the availability of budget resources are essential to better allocation of the domestic and external resources indispensable to implementation of the PNDES. This coherence was insured through the use of the Guinean economy simulation model (MSEGUI) based on two scenarios, a baseline scenario and an optimistic scenario, which is the scenario adopted for the Plan.

169. Consistent with the actions provided in the PNDES, the optimistic scenario calls for a departure from the Guinean economy’s current growth trend in 2018. Economic growth is expected to increase from 5.2 percent in 2016 to an annual average of 9.4 percent over the 2018-2020 period, as a result of the ambitious investment projects planned, particularly in transportation and energy infrastructures. The per capita GDP growth rate should increase from 2.2 percent in 2015 to 7.8 percent in 2020, to reverse the poverty trend and improve the populations’ well-being as expected.

170. The total cost of the 2016-2020 PNDES is estimated at GNF 130,857.7 billion, with Pillar 2 relating to economic transformation accounting for 49.3 percent; Pillar 3 on human capital development, 38.2 percent; Pillar 1 on good governance, 7.3 percent; and finally Pillar 4 on natural capital management, 5.2 percent. Of the total cost, 30.0 percent will be financed from the national budget, 38.2 percent by the private sector under investment projects previously negotiated or being negotiated in connection with public private partnerships (PPP). In terms of financing requirements, the amount to be sought is GNF 41,578.62 billion, or 31.8 percent of the total cost of the PNDES. This requirement could be met by seeking funds from the TFP or through the use of innovative financing mechanisms and PPPs.

4.2. Implementation actors and instruments

171. For the government, the implementation tools are: (i) the sector policies and strategies; (ii) PPPs; (iii) the medium-term budget framework (MTBF) and medium-term expenditure framework (MTEF); (iv) the public investment program (PIP); (v) the government budget; (vi) the ministerial action plans; and (vii) the sector programs. Accordingly, each of these instruments should be aligned with the expected outcomes and priority actions of the PNDES. The subnational authorities will contribute to the implementation of regional economic and social development plans (PRDES), which are an integral part of the PNDES, through the respective local development plans, annual investment programs, and budgets.

172. The private sector is also called upon to join the government in contributing to the achievement of the PNDES objectives. The instruments available to the private sector for this purpose are: (i) the SDSP; (ii) the associated action plan of 15 programs; and (iii) the strategic plan of the Private Investment Promotion Agency (APIP). With civil society, the government will establish a partnership framework based on participation agreements for the achievement of Plan objectives. The frameworks for cooperation (the country strategies/programs) and partnership agreements supported by budgetary assistance, project assistance, etc. are the PTFs’ principal instruments for implementation of the PNDES. These modalities will be used strictly in accordance with the principles of the Paris Declaration.

4.3. Monitoring and evaluation mechanism

173. A mechanism has been established for monitoring and evaluation of the PNDES: the institutional monitoring and evaluation mechanism (IMEM). The principal mission of the IMEM is to formalize and facilitate dialogue with all stakeholders on the performance of the PNDES development actions in accordance with the Plan’s guiding principles. The IMEM brings together five categories of actors: (i) the (restructured) consultation and coordination framework (CCC) between the government and the development partners; (ii) the technical monitoring committee (CTS); (iii) the topical discussion groups (GTD); (iv) the ministries, through the BSDs; and (v) the regions and prefectures through their respective monitoring and evaluation units (CRSE, CPSE).

174. Dialogue on performance in the context of the IMEM will be facilitated through a review mechanism organized around reviews by the ministries, regions, and prefectures in addition to topical, technical, and plenary reviews. The frequency of these different reviews will be semiannual, taking account of the budget cycle defined by the framework budget law (LORF). In year n, the first semiannual reviews will review the implementation of actions during year n-1, and the second semiannual review will consider the programming of actions for year n+1. In addition, the IMEM is provided with three technical tools: the Performance Measurement Framework (CMP), the annual performance reports (RAP), and the annual programming document (DAP).

4.4. Risk factors

175. The successful implementation could be threatened by a number of endogenous or exogenous risk factors. Among these factors are (i) socio-political instability, (ii) weak national leadership, (iii) inadequate mobilization of domestic resources, (iv) a persistent deficit of capacities, (v) an unfavorable subregional and/or international economic context, and (vi) climate hazards and humanitarian emergencies (such as a resurgence of the Ebola virus disease and other diseases). Each of these risk factors should be closely monitored to anticipate their occurrence and take appropriate measures to mitigate the adverse consequences for the results of the PNDES.

1

“… In successfully planning, we plan our success. Our ambition is to rehabilitate the cycle of long-range and medium-term planning – programming – budgeting as well as monitoring and evaluation in order to better manage the process of designing and implementing the national development projects that must be programmed sufficiently in advance and executed in strict accordance with established regulations. To this end, the Government will finalize the long-range study “Guinea Vision 2040,” and will prepare the 2016-2020 Five-Year Plan and the Public Investment Program. The Economic and Social Development Fund will also be made fully operational….” Excerpt from the Prime Minister’s General Policy Statement before the National Assembly, May 5, 2016.

2

http://fsi.fundforpeace.org/rankings. This ranking is prepared each year by the Fund for Peace.

3

Under the New Deal methodology, a fragile country undergoes four phases to achieve resilience (Phase 5): (i) crisis (Phase 1), (ii) reconstruction (Phase 2), (iii) stabilization (Phase 3), and (iv) transformation (Phase 4).

4

English acronym PSG.

5

The comparison between Guinea’s investment rate and that of other medium-income countries provides an idea of the effort to be made by the country in boosting investigating to ensure a fairly high per capita income.

6

UNDP 2015.

7

The 1994 Human Development Report recognized seven dimensions of human security: economic, food, health, environmental, personal, community, and political security.

8

The VMA, adopted in February 2009 at the Summit of African Union Heads of State in Addis Ababa, is the key continental framework for promoting development based on the exploitation of mineral resources and structural transformation on the continent.

9

HRD = human resources development, and R&D = research and development.

10

A pillar is a strategic component of the PNDES. It includes the priority domains in which actions will be deployed to achieve the results defined for the Plan. Consistent with the principle of results-based management, each PNDES component and subcomponent (pillar and priority domain) is associated with a hierarchy of objectives, a series of results, and appropriate indicators. In addition, the different PNDES objectives (strategic and intermediate) are defined in a manner consistent with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

11

As used in the PNDES, the Mining Code comprises two laws, (i) Law L/2011/No. 006/CNT of September 9, 2011, the Mining Code of the Republic of Guinea, and (ii) Law L/2013/No. 053/CNT of April 8, 2013 amending the Mining Code.

12

UNIDO and UNCTAD, 2011. Fostering industrial development in Africa in the new global environment – Special Report.

13

Ministry of Postal and Telecommunications Services and the Digital Economy, August 2016.

14

Documents. 90-90-9-: An ambitious target for treatment to help end the AIDS epidemic. October 8, 2014.

15

Or 2025.

16

Ministry of the Environment, Waters, and Forests (MEEF), UNDP, Global Environment Facility, 2016. 2016-2025 National Biological Diversity Strategy to achieve the Aichi objectives in Guinea. Final Document.

17

See document cited above for the exact wording of the SNDB vision. This quotation was “rewritten” for questions of editorial style only without prejudice to its basic content.

18

UNDP, 2016. Evaluation report, “National Capacities in risk reduction and disaster management in Guinea.”

Guinea: Economic Development Documents
Author: International Monetary Fund. African Dept.