Republic of Latvia: Staff Report for the 2017 Article IV Consultation—Informational Annex

2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report


2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report

Fund Relations

(As of June 1, 2017)

Membership Status: Joined May 19, 1992; Article VIII

General Resources Account:

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SDR Department:

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Outstanding Purchases and Loans: None

Latest Financial Arrangements:

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Projected Payments to Fund:

(SDR Million; based on existing use of resources and present holdings of SDRs):

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Exchange Rate Arrangement:

As of January 1, 2014, the currency of Latvia is the euro, which floats freely and independently against other currencies. Prior to 2014, the currency of Latvia was the lat, which was introduced in March 1993 to replace the Latvian ruble. The exchange rate was pegged to the SDR from February 1994 to December 2004, within a ±1 percent band. On January 1, 2005, the lat was re-pegged to the euro at the rate 1 euro = 0.702804 lats, and on April 29, 2005, Latvia entered ERM II, maintaining the previous band width. Latvia maintains an exchange system free of restrictions on the payments or transfers for current international transactions. Exchange restrictions maintained for security reasons have been notified to the Fund for approval most recently in January 2013 (see EBD/13/3, January 28, 2013).

Previous Article IV Consultation:

Latvia is on the 12-month consultation cycle. The last Article IV consultation was concluded on June 10, 2016 (IMF Country Report No. 16/171). The Executive Board assessment is available at

Safeguards Assessment:

The safeguards assessment completed on July 8, 2009 concluded that the Bank of Latvia (BoL) operates robust internal audit and control systems. The assessment recommended clarifying the respective roles of the BoL and the Treasury in holding, managing, and reporting to the Fund audited international reserves data. It also recommended amendments to the mandate of the BoL’s audit committee and improvements to the financial statements’ disclosures. The authorities have already taken steps to implement these recommendations, notably by establishing a formal arrangement between the BoL and the Treasury, revising the audit committee charter and expanding the existing accounting framework.

FSAP Participation and ROSCs:

A joint World Bank-International Monetary Fund mission conducted an assessment of Latvia’s financial sector as part of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) during February 14–28, 2001. The Financial Sector Stability Assessment (FSSA) report was discussed at the Board on January 18, 2002, together with the 2001 Article IV staff report (Country Report No. 02/10). An AML/CFT assessment mission took place during March 8–24, 2006, and the report was sent to the Board on May 23, 2007. A joint IMF-World Bank mission conducted an FSAP Update during February 27–March 9, 2007. A World Bank mission conducted an FSAP development module during November 8–18, 2011. Moneyval conducted a follow-up assessment during May 9–13, 2011, and the mutual evaluation report was adopted on July 5, 2012.

ROSC Modules

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Republic of Latvia: Technical Assistance (2007–12)

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Resident Representative Post: Mr. David Moore was appointed Resident Representative from June 11, 2009 to June 11, 2013.

Statistical Issues

Assessment of Data Adequacy for Surveillance

General: Data provision to the Fund for surveillance purposes is adequate (A). Latvia is a subscriber of the Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS) and a link to Latvia’s metadata is available at the IMF’s website for the Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board (DSBB) ().

National Accounts: The CSB compiles and publishes quarterly national accounts with the production and expenditure approaches on a regular and timely basis. Since September 2011, national accounts are calculated with the NACE rev. 2 classifications, determined by the European Commission. However, there are discrepancies between the GDP estimates based on production and those based on expenditure. The statistical discrepancy is included in changes in inventories on the expenditure side.

The underlying data for the production approach are obtained primarily through a survey of businesses and individuals, and are supplemented by data from labor force surveys and administrative sources. The CSB believes that the basic data understate economic activity, particularly in the private sector, and there is an ongoing effort to increase coverage. Additional data for the expenditure-based accounts are obtained from household budget surveys and other surveys from the State Treasury and ministries.

Government finance statistics: Fund staff is provided quarterly with monthly information on revenues and expenditures of the central and local governments and special budgets. With some limitations, the available information permits the compilation of consolidated accounts of the general government. The Government Finance Statistics database in the IMF’s eLibrary website contains cash data in the GFSM 2001 format. Quarterly general government data on an accrual basis are provided through Eurostat for the International Financial Statistics on a timely basis.

Monetary statistics: The ECB reporting framework is used for monetary statistics and data are reported to the IMF through a “gateway” arrangement with the ECB. The arrangement provides an efficient transmission of monetary statistics to the IMF and for publication in the IFS. Monetary statistics for Latvia published in the IFS cover data on central bank and other depository corporations (ODCs) using Euro Area wide and national residency criteria.

Financial sector surveillance: Latvia reports all 12 core and 13 encouraged financial soundness indicators (FSIs) for deposit takers on a quarterly basis. Also, 1 FSIs for non-financial corporations and 2 FSIs for real estate markets are reported on a quarterly basis.

Balance of payments: The BoL assumed responsibility for compiling the balance of payments statistics from the CSB in early 2000. The data collection program is a mixed system, with surveys supplemented by monthly information from the international transactions reporting system (ITRS), and administrative sources. Contrary to international standards—but similar to a number of other EU countries—the BoL includes provisions for expected losses of foreign-owned banks. Between Q4 2008–Q2 2010, this treatment led to the recording of negative reinvested earnings (i.e., losses) of foreign-owned banks as negative outflows. These “inflows” in the income account of the balance of payments thus gave a positive contribution to the current account.

Data Standards and Quality: Latvia is a participant in the IMF’s SDDS since November 1, 1996. A Data ROSC was published in June 2004.

Reporting to STA: The authorities are reporting data for the Fund’s International Financial Statistics, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, the Direction of Trade Statistics, and the Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook.

Republic of Latvia: Table of Common Indicators Required for Surveillance

As of June 1, 2017

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Any reserve assets that are pledged of otherwise encumbered should be specified separately. Also, data should comprise short-term liabilities linked to a foreign currency but settled by other means as well as the notional values of financial derivatives to pay and to receive foreign currency, including those linked to a foreign currency but settled by other means

Both market-based and officially-determined, including deposit and lending rates, discount rates, money market rates, rates on treasury bills, notes and bonds.

Foreign, domestic bank, and domestic nonbank financing.

The general government consists of the central government (budgetary funds, extra budgetary funds, and social security funds) and state and local governments.

Including currency and maturity composition.

Includes external gross financial asset and liability position vis-à-vis nonresidents.

Daily (D), Weekly (W), Monthly (M), Quarterly (Q), Annually (A); Not Available (NA).

Reflects the assessment provided in the data ROSC published in July 2004, the findings of the mission that took place during September 2003 for the dataset corresponding to the variable in each row. The assessment indicates whether international standards concerning concepts and definitions, scope, classification/sectorization, and basis for recording are fully observed (O), largely observed (LO), largely not observed (LNO), or not observed (NO).

Same as footnote 8, except referring to international standards concerning source data, statistical techniques, assessment and validation of source data, assessment and validation of intermediate data and statistical outputs, and revision studies.

Republic of Latvia: 2017 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report
Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.