Bratsberg, B., E. Fevang, and K. Roed, 2010, “Disability in the Welfare State: An Unemployment Problem in Disguise,” IZA Discussion Paper Series No. 4897.
Bratsberg, B., O. Raaum, and K. Roed, 2014a, “Immigrants, Labor Market Performance and Social Insurance,” The Economic Journal, Vol. 124.
Bratsberg, B., O. Raaum, and K. Roed, 2014b, “Labor Migrant Adjustments in the Aftermath of the Financial Crisis,” Center for Research and Analysis of Migration Discussion Paper Series No. 19/14.
Duell, N., S. Singh, and P. Tergeist, 2009, “Activation Policies in Norway” OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Paper No. 78.
Prepared by Giang Ho and Kazuko Shirono.
Tripartite framework agreements decide on major parameters. At the national level, the union confederations and national employers associations set the framework for collective bargaining through the basic agreements, which are negotiated every four years. Collective bargaining takes place at the sectoral level, with manufacturing (the tradable goods sector) setting the norm for the wage growth in the rest of the labor market (sheltered sector). See e.g. Loken and Stokke (2009).
See Duell and others (2009). They note that an important share of the population outside of the workforce due to illness and disability in Norway would be classified as unemployment benefit recipients or social assistance recipients in other OECD countries.
For more detail, see Ho and Shirono (forthcoming).
EU rules on social security coordination ensure that entitlements are transferred to the country of employment. This means that, for example, Eastern European labor immigrants to the Nordic countries immediately gain access to the same welfare transfers and insurance programs as natives. See e.g. Bratsberg and others (2014b).
Time-invariant bilateral migration costs such as linguistic/colonial links and geographical distance are captured by country pair fixed effects, and common shocks by year fixed effects.
This suggests the inclusion of a more targeted variable that better captures the cyclical employment conditions of these immigrants (e.g., performance of the construction sector, which employs a disproportionately large share of lower-skilled immigrants).
While refugees in Norway have a right and duty to language training and other integration programs, labor migrants from within the EU generally do not.