Appendix I. Oman: Summary of the General Data Dissemination System (GDDS)
The GDDS recommends the following practices under each of the identified dimensions:
Data coverage, periodicity, and timeliness
dissemination of reliable, comprehensive, and timely economic, financial, and socio-demographic data is essential to the transparency of macroeconomic performance and policy
the GDDS contains specific recommendations concerning coverage, periodicity, and timeliness for comprehensive frameworks as well as for data categories and indicators.
Data quality must have a high priority. Data users must be provided with information to assess quality and quality improvements. The GDDS recommends:
dissemination of documentation on methodology and sources used in preparing statistics; and
dissemination of component detail, reconciliations with related data, and statistical frameworks that support statistical cross-checks and provide assurance of reasonableness.
To fulfill the purpose of providing the public with information, official statistics must have the confidence of their users. In turn, confidence in the statistics ultimately becomes a matter of confidence in the objectivity and professionalism of the agency producing the statistics. Transparency of practices and procedures is a key factor in creating this confidence. The GDDS, therefore, recommends:
dissemination of the terms and conditions under which official statistics are produced, including those relating to the confidentiality of individually identifiable information;
identification of internal government access to data before release;
identification of ministerial commentary on the occasion of statistical releases; and
provision of information about revision and advance notice of major changes in methodology.
Access to the public
Dissemination of official statistics is an essential feature of statistics as a public good. Ready and equal access by the public are principal requirements. The GDDS recommends:
dissemination of advance release calendars; and
simultaneous release to all interested parties.
Plans for improvement
The GDDS recommends that plans for improvement be developed for all areas in which shortcomings exist and that these plans be disseminated.
The GDDS also recommends that any needs for assistance be identified in the metadata. This may also be helpful for donors and technical assistance providers to prioritize their activities.
For each participating member country, the GDDS metadata provide descriptions of the dimensions listed above, together with plans for improvement and needs for assistance. This information is posted on the Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board (DSBB); participating countries are encouraged to also post the metadata on their national websites.
Source: The General Data Dissemination System: Guide for Participants and Users, 2013 http://dsbb.imf.org
Appendix II. Oman: Summary of the Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS) System
The SDDS prescribes the following practices under each of the identified dimensions:
Data dimension (coverage, periodicity, and timeliness)
the dissemination of 18 data categories, including component detail, covering the four main sectors (real, fiscal, financial, and external) of the economy, with prescribed periodicity and timeliness.
the dissemination of advance release calendars providing at least a one-quarter advance notice of approximate release dates, and at least a one-week advance notice of the precise release dates; and
the simultaneous release of data to all users.
the dissemination of the terms and conditions under which official statistics are produced and disseminated;
the identification of internal government access to data before release;
the identification of ministerial commentary on the occasion of statistical release; and
the provision of information about revision and advance notice of major changes in methodology.
the dissemination of documentation on statistical methodology and sources used in preparing statistics; and
the dissemination of component detail and/or additional data series that make possible cross-checks and checks of reasonableness.
SDDS subscribers are required to:
post descriptions of their data dissemination practices (metadata) on the IMF’s Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board (DSBB). Summary methodologies, which describe data compilation practices in some detail, are also disseminated on the DSBB; and
maintain an Internet website, referred to as the National Summary Data Page (NSDP), which contains the actual data described in the metadata and to which the DSBB is electronically linked.
The IMF staff is monitoring observance of the standard through NSDPs maintained on the Internet. Monitoring is limited to the coverage, periodicity, and timeliness of the data and to the dissemination of advance release calendars.
Source: The Special Data Dissemination Standard: Guide for Subscribers and Users, 2013 http://dsbb.imf.org.
Appendix III. Oman: Data Quality Assessment Framework—Generic Framework
(May 2012 Framework)
|0. Prerequisites of quality||0.1 Legal and institutional environment—The environment is supportive of statistics.|
0.2 Resources—Resources are commensurate with needs of statistical programs.
0.3 Relevance—Statistics cover relevant information on the subject field.
0.4 Other quality management—Quality is a cornerstone of statistical work.
|0.1.1 The responsibility for collecting, processing, and disseminating the statistics is clearly specified.|
0.1.2 Data sharing and coordination among data-producing agencies are adequate.
0.1.3 Individual reporters’ data are kept confidential and used for statistical purposes only.
0.1.4 Statistical reporting is ensured through legal mandate and/or measures to encourage response.
0.2.1 Staff, facilities, computing resources, and financing are commensurate with statistical programs.
0.2.2 Measures to ensure efficient use of resources are implemented.
0.3.1 The relevance and practical utility of existing statistics in meeting users’ needs are monitored.
0.4.1 Processes are in place to focus on quality.
0.4.2 Processes are in place to monitor quality during the planning and implementation of the statistical program.
|1. Assurances of integrity|
The principle of objectivity in the collection, processing, and dissemination of statistics is firmly adhered to.
|1.1 Institutional integrity—Statistical policies and practices are guided by professional principles.|
1.2 Transparency—Statistical policies and practices are transparent.
1.3 Ethical standards—Policies and practices are guided by ethical standards.
|1.1.1 Statistics are produced on an impartial basis.|
1.1.2 Choices of data sources and statistical techniques, as well as decisions about dissemination, are informed solely by statistical considerations.
1.1.3 The appropriate statistical entity is entitled to comment on erroneous interpretation and misuse of statistics.
1.2.1 The terms and conditions under which statistics are collected, processed, and disseminated are available to the public.
1.2.2 Internal governmental access to statistics prior to their release is publicly identified.
1.2.3 Products of statistical agencies/units are clearly identified as such.
1.2.4 Advance notice is given of major changes in methodology, source data, and statistical techniques.
1.3.1 Guidelines for staff behavior are in place and are well known to the staff.
|2. Methodological soundness|
The methodological basis for the statistics follows internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
|2.1 Concepts and definitions—Concepts and definitions used are in accord with internationally accepted statistical frameworks.|
2.2 Scope—The scope is in accord with internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
2.3 Classification/sectorization—Classification and sectorization systems are in accord with internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
2.4 Basis for recording—Flows and stocks are valued and recorded according to internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices
|2.1.1 The overall structure in terms of concepts and definitions follows internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.|
2.2.1 The scope is broadly consistent with internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
2.3.1 Classification/sectorization systems used are broadly consistent with internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
2.4.1 Market prices are used to value flows and stocks.
2.4.2 Recording is done on an accrual basis.
2.4.3 Grossing/netting procedures are broadly consistent with internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.
|3. Accuracy and reliability|
Source data and statistical techniques are sound and statistical outputs sufficiently portray reality.
|3.1 Source data—Source data available provide an adequate basis to compile statistics.|
3.2 Assessment of source data—Source data are regularly assessed.
3.3 Statistical techniques—Statistical techniques employed conform to sound statistical procedures.
3.4 Assessment and validation of intermediate data and statistical outputs—Intermediate results and statistical outputs are regularly assessed and validated.
3.5 Revision studies—Revisions, as a gauge of reliability, are tracked and mined for the information they may provide.
|3.1.1 Source data are obtained from comprehensive data collection programs that take into account Oman-specific conditions.|
3.1.2 Source data reasonably approximate the definitions, scope, sectorization, classifications, valuation, and time of recording required.
3.1.3 Source data are timely.
3.2.1 Source data—including censuses, sample surveys, and administrative records—are routinely assessed, e.g., for coverage, sample error, response error, and non-sampling error; the results of the assessments are monitored and made available to guide statistical processes.
3.3.1 Data compilation employs sound statistical techniques to deal with data sources.
3.3.2 Other statistical procedures (e.g., data adjustments and transformations, and statistical analysis) employ sound statistical techniques.
3.4.1 Intermediate results are validated against other information, where applicable.
3.4.2 Statistical discrepancies in intermediate data are assessed and investigated.
3.4.3 Statistical discrepancies and other potential indicators or problems in statistical outputs are investigated.
3.5.1 Studies and analyses of revisions and/or updates are carried out and used internally to inform statistical processes (see also 4.3.3).
Statistics, with adequate periodicity and timeliness, are consistent and follow a predictable revisions policy.
|4.1 Periodicity and timeliness—Periodicity and timeliness follow internationally accepted dissemination standards.|
4.2 Consistency—Statistics are consistent within the dataset, over time, and with major datasets.
4.3 Revision policy and practice—Data revisions follow a regular and publicized procedure.
|4.1.1 Periodicity follows dissemination standards.|
4.1.2 Timeliness follows dissemination standards.
4.2.1 Statistics are consistent within the dataset.
4.2.2 Statistics are consistent or reconcilable over a reasonable period of time.
4.2.3 Statistics are consistent or reconcilable with those obtained through other data sources and/or statistical frameworks.
4.3.1 Revisions and/or updates follow a regular and transparent schedule.
4.3.2 Preliminary and/or revised/updated data are clearly identified.
4.3.3 Studies and analyses of revisions are made public (see also 3.5.1).
Data and metadata are easily available and assistance to users is adequate.
|5.1 Data accessibility—Statistics are presented in a clear and understandable manner, forms of dissemination are adequate, and statistics are made available on an impartial basis.|
5.2 Metadata accessibility—Up-to-date and pertinent metadata are made available.
5.3 Assistance to users—Prompt and knowledgeable support service is available.
|5.1.1 Statistics are presented in a way that facilitates proper interpretation and meaningful comparisons (layout and clarity of text, tables, and charts).|
5.1.2 Dissemination media and format are adequate.
5.1.3 Statistics are released on a preannounced schedule.
5.1.4 Statistics are made available to all users at the same time.
5.1.5 Statistics not routinely disseminated are made available upon request.
5.2.1 Documentation on concepts, scope, classifications, basis of recording, data sources, and statistical techniques is available, and differences from internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices are annotat