Front Matter

Front Matter Page

© 2013 International Monetary Fund

March 2013

IMF Country Report No. 13/63

Bangladesh: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers are prepared by member countries in broad consultation with stakeholders and development partners, including the staffs of the World Bank and the IMF. Updated with annual progress reports, they describe the country’s macroeconomic, structural, and social policies in support of growth and poverty reduction, as well as associated external financing needs and major sources of financing. This country document for Bangladesh is being made available on the IMF website by agreement of the member country as a service to users of the IMF website.

Copies of this report are available to the public from

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International Monetary Fund

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Front Matter Page

SIXTH FIVE YEAR PLAN

FY2011-FY2015

Accelerating Growth and Reducing Poverty

Part-1

Strategic Directions and Policy Framework

Planning Commission

Ministry of Planning

Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh

Front Matter Page

A Note on this Edition: This edition is for Parliament Members and also available in the Planning Commission Web Site: www.plancomm.gov.bd for general access. Regular edition of the Sixth Five Year Plan will be published in both English (original) and Bangla, immediately after the 10th session of the 9th Parliament (Jatio Sangsad).

July 2011

Copies Printed: 800

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • List of Figures

  • List of Boxes

  • ABBREVIATIONS

  • SUMMARY

  • CHAPTER 1: DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT, SIXTH PLAN TARGETS AND STRATEGY

    • DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT

    • SIXTH PLAN CORE TARGETS IN THE CONTEXT OF VISION 2021

    • SIXTH FIVE YEAR PLAN STRATEGY

List of Tables

  • Table 1.1: Growth performance in the Five Year Plans

  • Table 1.2: Headcount Poverty Rate (%)

  • Table 1.3: Status of Millennium Development Goals in Bangladesh

  • Table 1.4: Sixth Five Year Plan (SFYP) Targets

List of Figures

  • Figure 1.1: Annual average GDP growth rate of comparators

  • Figure 1.2: Trend in Labor Force and Employment 1974-2009, millions

  • Figure 1.3: Youth unemployment rate (percent of total labor forces ages 15-24)

List of Boxes

  • Box 1.1: Achievements during Fifth Five Year Plan (1997-2002)

Abbreviations

ABCN -

Area-Based Community Nutrition

ACC -

Anti-Corruption Commission

ADP -

Annual Development Programme

ADR -

Alternative Dispute Resolution

AMC -

Alternate Medical Care

ANC -

Antenatal Care

AQMP -

Air Quality Management Project

BAPA -

Bangladesh Paribesh Andolon

BARD -

Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development

BCAS -

Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies

BCCSAP -

Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan

BELA -

Bangladesh Environmental Lawyers’ Association

BEMP -

Bangladesh Environment Management Project

BBS -

Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics

BBA -

Bangladesh Bridge Authority

BG –

Broad Gauge

BIFF -

Bangladesh Infrastructure Financing Facility

BMA -

Bangladesh Medical Association

BMD -

Bangladesh Meteorological Department

BMRC -

Bangladesh Medical Research Council

BNH -

Bangladesh National Herbarium

BPPA -

Bangladesh Private Practitioners Association

BPDB –

Bangladesh Power Development Board

BTEB -

Bangladesh Technical Education Board

CCA -

Climate Change Adaptation

CDM -

Clean Development Mechanism

CER -

Certified Emission Reduction

C-SBA –

(Community) Skilled Birth Attendants

CEDAW –

Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women

CIP -

Country Investment Plan

CRC –

Convention on the Rights of the Child

CSD -

Centre for Sustainable Development

CFW -

Cash for Work

CGE -

Computable General Equilibrium

CHT -

Chittagong Hill Tract

CPR -

Contraceptive Prevalence Rate

DAE -

Department of Agricultural Extension

DG -

Dual Gauge

DMC -

Disaster Management Committees

DOE –

Department of Environment

DOF -

Department of Fisheries

DPP -

Development Project Proposal

DPEC -

Departmental Project Evaluation Committees

DRF-

Development Result Framework

DRR -

Disaster Risk Reduction

DTE -

Directorate of Technical Education

ECA -

Environment Conservation Act

ECNEC -

Executive Committee of the National Economic Council

ESP -

Essential Service Package

ETP –

Effluent Treatment Plant

FFW -

Food for Works

FFWC -

Flood Forecasting and Warning Centre

FDI -

Foreign Direct Investment

FWVTI -

Family Welfare Visitors Training Institutes

GED -

General Economics Division

GR -

Gratuitous Relief

GHG -

Green House Gas

HFA -

Hyogo Framework for Action

HIES –

Household Income and Expenditure Survey

HPN -

Health, Population and Nutrition

ICT -

Information and Communication Technology

ICOR -

Incremental Capital Output Ratio

IDCOL -

Infrastructure Development Company Limited

IMED -

Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation Department

IPCC -

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPHN -

Institute of Public Health Nutrition

IT -

Information Technology

ITEC -

Independent Textbook Evaluation Committee

IWT -

Inland Water Transport

IUCN -

International Union for the Conservation of Nature

LAPM -

Long Acting Permanent Method

LFS -

Labor Force Survey

LGED -

Local Government Engineering Department

LNG –

Liquefied Natural Gas

LPI -

Logistics Performance Index

MDG -

Millennium Development Goal

MG -

Meter Gauge

M&E -

Monitoring and Evaluation

MOFL -

Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock

MOHFW -

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

MTBF -

Medium Term Budgetary Framework

MIC -

Middle Income Country

MW –

Mega Watt

NASP -

National AIDS/STD Program

NCDs -

Non-Communicable Diseases

NCTB -

National Curriculum and Textbook Board

NCWD -

National Council for Women’s Development

NEC -

National Economic Council

NEG -

New Economic Geography

NFE –

Non Formal Education

NGO -

Non-Governmental Organization

NIPORT -

National Institute of Population Research and Training

NPDM -

National Plan for Disaster Management 2010-15

NPL -

Non-Performing Loan

NPWA -

National Policy for Women’s Advancement

NNP -

National Nutrition Program

NSDC -

National Skill Development Council

OMS -

Open Market Sales

PEP -

Partnership for Environment Protection

PESP –

Primary Education Stipend Programme

PKSF -

Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation

POA -

Plan of Action

PPP -

Public-Private Partnerships

PPP -

Purchasing Power Parity

PSC -

Public Service Commission

REB -

Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

R&D -

Research and Development

REDD -

Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation

RMG -

Ready-Made Garment

ROR -

Record of Rights

SAP -

Strategic Action Plans

SBA -

School Based Assessment/Skill Birth Attendant

SCBs -

State-owned Commercial Banks

SFYP –

Sixth Five Year Plan

SMEs -

Small and Medium Enterprises

SOD -

Standing Orders on Disasters

SPEMP -

Strengthening of Public Expenditure Management Program

SPARRSO -

Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization

SRF -

Sundarbans Reserve Forest

SSNP -

Social Safety Net Program

STD –

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

SWAp –

Sector Wide Approach

TIB -

Transparency International Bangladesh

TFR -

Total Fertility Rate

UNCAC -

UN Convention against Corruption

UPHC -

Urban Primary Health Care

UPR-

Universal Periodic Review

VAT -

Value Added Tax

VAW -

Violence against Women

VDP -

Village Development Party

VGD -

Vulnerable Group Development

VGF -

Vulnerable Group Feeding

VOIP –

Voice Over Internet Protocol

VTE -

Vocational and Technical Education

WARPO -

Water Resources Planning Organization

WID -

Women in Development

WTO -

World Trade Organization

Summary

Over the past 40 years since independence, Bangladesh has increased its real per capita income by more than 130 percent, cut poverty rate by sixty percent, and is well set to achieve most of the millennium development goals. Some of the underlying specific achievements include, reducing total fertility rate from 7.0 to 2.7; increasing life expectancy from 46.2 years to 66.6 ; increasing the rate of economic growth from an average rate of 4% in the 1970s to 6% in the 2000s; increasing the savings and investment rates from below 10 percent each in the 1970s to 24 percent (investment rate) and 30 percent (savings rate) in FY10; achieving gender parity in primary and secondary education; and more than tripling of the production of rice (from 10 million tonnes in FY73 to 32 million tonnes in FY10) thereby achieving near self-sufficiency in normal production years. The economy today is lot more flexible and resilient, as indicated by the ability to withstand the global financial crisis with minimum adverse effects. Bangladesh also is now much more capable of handling natural disasters with minimum loss of life. Bangladesh achieved this remarkable progress with development despite numerous internal and external constraints.

Notwithstanding this past progress, the Government recognizes that Bangladesh is still a low income country with substantial poverty, inequality and deprivation. An estimated 47 million people are living below the poverty line with a significant proportion living in households which are female headed, in remote areas, and consisting of socially excluded and other vulnerable people. Most of the labor force is engaged in informal low productivity and low income jobs. The access to secondary and tertiary education is limited and the quality of education at all levels is deficient. The poor group of the population is severely disadvantaged in terms of ownership of assets and has inadequate access to institutional finance as well as to basic services including quality education, healthcare, water and sanitation. These people, and among them especially women and children, are also disproportionately affected by natural disasters and the adverse effects of climate change. Despite expansion, publicly supported mitigating measures in the form of social protection programs are still inadequate.

In recognition of the long -term development challenges, the Government under the leadership of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina adopted the Vision 2021. The Vision 2021 and the associated Perspective Plan 2010-2021 have set solid development targets for Bangladesh by the end of 2021. Those targets if achieved will transform socio-economic environment of Bangladesh from a low income economy to the first stages of a middle income economy. Along with higher per capita income, Vision 2021 lays down a development scenario where citizens will have a higher standard of living, will be better educated, will face better social justice, will have a more equitable socio-economic environment, and the sustainability of development will be ensured through better protection from climate change and natural disasters. The associated political environment will be based on democratic principles with emphasis on human rights, freedom of expression, rule of law, equality of citizens irrespective of race, religion and creed, and equality of opportunities. The Bangladesh economy will be managed within the framework of a market economy with appropriate government interventions to correct market distortions, to ensure equality of opportunities, and to ensure equity and social justice for all.

The implementation of Vision 2021 will be done through two medium term development plans, with the first spanning FY11-15. This Five Year Plan is the sixth in the series of development plans in Bangladesh starting in 1973. The Government recognizes that in a market economy like Bangladesh where the bulk of the economy is privately owned and managed, the role of planning is essentially indicative and strategic in nature. A key focus of the plans will therefore be on strategies, policies and institutions to help guide the private sector in helping Bangladesh achieve the goals set in Vision 2021. Yet, the experiences of Bangladesh and elsewhere show that without proper government regulations and public spending in core areas, the social and economic results can be devastating and unsustainable. The experience of the global financial crisis is a good example of this. So, ensuring a proper balance between providing incentives to private sector and instituting regulatory policies for safeguarding public interests will be a major guiding principle of the policy and institutional framework of the Sixth and the Seventh plans. Similarly, the balance between private and public spending, especially in regard to the investment programs in the plans, will receive major attention.

At the operational level the fundamental task of the Sixth Five Year Plan is to develop strategies, policies and institutions that allow Bangladesh to accelerate growth and reduce poverty. An essential pre-requisite for rapid reduction of poverty is to attain high economic growth such that it provides the foundations for sustainable productive employment and incomes for the growing Bangladeshi labor force. As is evident from international experience, productive employment is the most potent means of reducing poverty on a sustained basis. But this is not easily achieved. This requires strategies and actions on the demand side of the labor market (driven primarily by economic growth) as well as strategies and policies on the supply side (labor force growth and quality). The employment challenge in Bangladesh is not just to create any job but to create high income jobs in the formal sectors. Presently some 78 percent of the labor force is engaged in low-income, low productivity jobs in the informal sectors. The employment target for the Sixth Plan will be to create adequate number of high productivity, high income jobs not only for new entrants but also to allow a substantial transfer of labor from the informal sector to the formal sector.

On the demand side, the rate of economic growth and its composition will both matter for job creation. Acceleration of the growth rate will require a substantial increase in the rate of investment from the present 24.4 percent of GDP level to 32.5 percent of GDP by the end of the plan period. Much of the higher investment will need to be deployed to reduce and eventually eliminate the infrastructure constraint (primarily power and transport) and to finance human development. A large part of the financing will come from the domestic public resource mobilization and from higher private savings, including from remittances. This is consistent with the expected growth of national savings. Yet some critical level of financing from foreign sources that are strategic in nature and allow transfer of technology will be necessary. In addition to proper policies and institutions to provide incentives to private investment in priority areas of infrastructure and human development, strong efforts will be made to enter into Public Private Partnerships (PPP) to finance these investments.

In absolute terms, the total investment requirement under the Sixth Plan has been estimated at Bangladesh Taka (BDT) 13.5 trillion in FY2011 constant prices. Public investment would amount to BDT 3.1 trillion (22.8% of total Plan investment). Private Sector contribution has been estimated at BDT 10.4 trillion (77.2% of total Plan investment). Domestic financing is projected at BDT (90.7% of total Plan investment). External financing requirement has been estimated to be BDT 1.3 trillion (9.3% of the Plan investment) of which BDT 0.4 trillion is projected to come from FDI sources. These modest levels of foreign financing are realistic in relation to current trends and consistent with prudent external borrowing strategy of the Government.

Rapid economic growth, its composition, and absorption of labor in high productivity, high income jobs are inter-linked. Low income elasticity of basic food items, land constraint and difficulties of penetrating the world agricultural export markets limit the ability of agriculture to grow at the same pace as manufacturing or services. Presently, the average labor productivity and income in agriculture are also low. Similarly a large part of the labor force is occupied in informal services with low productivity and income. Accordingly, the economic growth process in the Sixth Plan needs to be appropriately balanced, thereby creating more employment opportunities in the manufacturing and organized service sectors and allowing a transfer of a large number of workers engaged in low productive employment in agriculture and informal services sector of the economy to these higher income jobs.

Therefore, much of the high productivity, high income jobs will need to come from a labor-intensive manufacturing sector based on domestic and export markets and from organized services. Both large and small enterprises need to contribute to this growth. Emphasis would be placed on sub-contracting system in manufacturing and diversification into products dependent on imported contents but employing large labor force. Examples of such activities include furniture, toys, foot-wear and consumer durables. The role of small enterprises is particularly important to provide the employment base. The promotion of small enterprises in rural areas needs to be a major strategic element for creating higher income and employment in the rural economy, which is critical for sustained poverty reduction.

The dynamism in manufacturing sector will benefit from greater outward orientation. Bangladesh has seen this from the highly positive experience of the Ready Made Garments (RMG) sector. Experiences from Korea, China, India, Thailand and Vietnam about the role of exports in manufacturing development are similarly positive. To increase the export potential as well as to diversify the export base, the Sixth Plan will seek to further reduce trade barriers within the context of the World Trade Organization (WTO) framework as well as to seek more effective cooperation with neighbors. Bangladesh will actively participate in concerned international and regional/sub-regional fora aimed at increasing access to international export markets, easing and eventually eliminating any non-trade barriers to Bangladeshi exports, encourage investments, increase trade in services including energy, promote regional connectivity, and establish best possible economic relations with all strategic countries including neighbors.

The growth and employment re-balancing process must be accompanied by strategies to enhance the income-earning opportunities of workers remaining in agriculture by raising land productivity and increasing diversification of agriculture production. A strong agriculture remains fundamental to poverty reduction as well as for food security. With land becoming a binding constraint in view of growing population and urbanization pressures, enhancing the productivity of land is a top priority. The emphasis on productivity improvements will also be helpful in reconciling food security objectives with farmer incentives. Consistent with the need to ensure food security, emphasis will also be placed on agriculture diversification in both crop and non-crop sectors. This diversification will help promote commercialization of agriculture and raise farm incomes. The National Food Policy (NFP) and its Plan of Action 2008-2015 (NFP/POA) provides a set of guidelines regarding inter-ministerial coordination, sectoral planning and budgeting with a view to promoting food security. In May 2010 the Government approved the Bangladesh Country Investment Plan (CIP), which provides guidance on investments to increase and diversify food availability in a sustainable manner and to improve access to food and nutrition. The proper implementation of the CIP will help attain the MDG target on hunger. This is a major step forward towards harmonizing and aligning of Government and development partner objectives in line with the Paris Declaration and the five Rome Principles on food security.

Employment abroad and associated remittances have played a major development role in Bangladesh. This element of the employment strategy will be strengthened. In addition to the current strategy to export low skilled manpower, the effort would focus on the ability to export well trained skilled and semi-skilled manpower to existing as well as new destinations. Women being a significant contributor to the domestic and export oriented industries (e.g. Ready Made Garments) are still concentrated in the low income jobs. Therefore targeted programs will be undertaken to improve their skill base. Efforts will also be made to send more migrant workers to international markets from the lagging regions of the country.

Bangladesh is currently experiencing ‘demographic transition’ as a result of slower population growth. Even so entry of young population in the labor force will continue due to demographic factors. This demographic dividend will need to be properly harnessed. The quality of labor force is weak due to low access and low quality of education; women are especially lagging behind. The Sixth Plan will seek to address these by developing and implementing a well thought out education and training strategy and associated policies and institutions. The strategy needs to be particularly sensitive to reduce the access gap of the poor, especially in the under-developed or lagging regions of the country, and to improve the skill base of women. A significant part of the additional investment for higher growth will be deployed to the development of the labor force.

Although factor accumulation (i.e. growth of labor and capital) would be the main source of economic growth during the Sixth Plan, strong efforts will be made to increase the growth contribution of total factor productivity in all areas of production including manufacturing, agriculture and services. Among the contributing policies envisaged for the Sixth Plan is the introduction of appropriate information and communication technology (ICT) based on the implementation of the ‘Digital Bangladesh’ initiative championed by the Prime Minister, transfer of technology from abroad based on strategic partnerships with foreign investors, and strong emphasis on technical education and labor training.

Along with focus on economic growth and employment, substantial attention needs to be given to reduce the growth of population. Notwithstanding past progress with the reduction in the growth of population, Bangladesh is amongst the most densely populated country in the world. Land and other non-renewable natural resources are becoming increasingly scarce as population pressures in both rural and urban areas further intensify. Renewed efforts must be made to further slow down the growth of population. Building on the lessons of the past experience, the Sixth Plan population strategy will emphasize girl’s education, female reproductive health, population control service delivery based on public-private partnership, and social mobilization.

Being one of the most densely populated countries in the world, land has become the scarcest factor of production in Bangladesh. This is reflected in galloping land prices throughout the country but especially in the metropolitan cities. Future growth strategy must take this binding constraint into account in order to ensure its sustainability. Efforts to reduce the growth of population will help, but better management of land is of paramount importance for sustaining rapid growth in Bangladesh. Sound land management also has a direct effect on people’s welfare and poverty reduction. Landless farmers are amongst the poorest of the poor. Land is also essential for housing. The rapidly expanding slum population and rising land prices in urban areas are indications of increasing difficulties Bangladesh faces in providing people with proper shelter.

The main goal of the government’s land use policy and management is to ensure best possible use of land resources and delivery of land related services to the people through modernized and efficient land administration for sustainable development including accelerated poverty reduction. The lack of coordination between different departments responsible for preparation and maintenance of Record of Rights often leads to confusion, conflicts and many instances of litigation causing suffering of the people especially the small and marginal farmers. To mitigate this problem, the Ministry of Land has already undertaken projects to conduct digital surveys and introduce e-governance. Land records will be computerized and land mutation will be made automatic. The Government intends to modify and simplify all land-related laws, which is expected to remove many of the land related disputes. A special committee will be set up to come up with recommendations in this regard. Planned use of land according to Land Zoning Maps prepared on the basis of present and potential land uses will be ensured through enforcement of the provisions of relevant laws. The provisions of the Town Improvement Act of 1953 will also be more strictly enforced. The Government will take up projects for the development of rural townships where specific areas are to be earmarked for housing, marketplaces, industries and infrastructure. Land acquisition act and policy would be rationalized along with a system of fair and equitable compensation for acquired land.

Growth experiences in Bangladesh and elsewhere demonstrates both a tendency towards urbanization as well as uneven regional growth. The urbanization problem has become particularly acute in Bangladesh owing to the primacy of Dhaka. The unbalanced growth of Dhaka shows both a large concentration of wealth and income as well as unsustainable pressure on Dhaka’s already fragile infrastructure and available land. Concerning regional disparities, the divisions of Dhaka, Chittagong and Sylhet seem to do better in terms of both growth and poverty reduction as compared with Rangpur, Barisal, Khulna and Rajshahi, The Sixth Plan will make efforts to address both these spatial dimensions of growth.

On the urbanization front the strategy will emphasize a more balanced growth of urban centers across the entire country through proper institutional reforms that involves the establishment of locally elected and accountable municipalities and city corporations. Property tax base will be reformed to strengthen their financial autonomy along with block grants from the budget based on principles of equity and population. Special emphasis will be given to improving land administration and management to arrest the spiraling urban land prices that is becoming a binding constraint to the expansion of manufacturing and modern services as well as limiting the ability to provide affordable housing.

Regarding regional disparities, the Plan would strive to address the lagging regions problems, especially focused on Rangpur, Barisal, Khulna and Rajshahi Divisions, through a strategy that involves public expenditure in infrastructure and human development, by improving the access to financial services, by promoting international migration of workers from these divisions, and by facilitating more trade and investment in the border districts with neighbors including India. Particular attention will be given in the Sixth Plan to offset the geographical disadvantage of the coastal Division of Barisal, which has the second highest incidence of poverty partly owing to the adverse effects of natural disasters. Through programs in agriculture, environment, climate change and disaster management, the Sixth Plan will seek to reduce the vulnerabilities of Barisal and other coastal belt regions. Government of Bangladesh has undertaken a task to prepare a comprehensive ten year master plan to provide a road map for an integrated development effort in Bangladesh’s coastal zone. For reducing regional disparities, especially the geographical disadvantage of Barisal Division, implementation of Padma Bridge at Mawa-Janjira will be a key instrument which will induce new income generating activities in the transportation, SME and agro business sub sector.

While rapid growth has helped lower poverty in Bangladesh, there is evidence of growing income inequality. Results show that the distribution of income is much more unequal than the distribution of consumption. Income inequality as measured by the gini coefficient for the distribution of income rose substantially during the 1980s and the 1990s. During 2000 and 2005 the income gini coefficient increased further from 0.451 to 0.467 due to an increase in rural income inequality. Thus, the rural income gini coefficient increased from 0.393 in 2000 to 0.428 in 2005. The urban income gini coefficient remained unchanged at 0.497. However, the latest data show that income gini coefficient at the national level declined slightly to 0.458 in 2010 though it was still higher than the level in 2000. The urban income gini coefficient also declined to 0.452 and it was lower than the level in 2000. On the whole, income inequality is a serious problem in Bangladesh and reversing the trend in a sustainable manner will be a major challenge for the Sixth Plan.

Inequality emerges from a combination of greatly unequal distribution of physical assets as well as human capital. Lack of factor endowment such as land, capital, credit and skills have been preventing the poor of Bangladesh to participate in productive economic activities and have compelled them to remain in a disadvantageous situation. There are also significant social barriers for women to participate more effectively in economic activities outside home. Opportunity to break the low factor endowment trap through better human capital based on utilizing essential public services (such as education, training, safe drinking water, sanitation and other health facilities) has not been fully effective due to poor people’s, and among them women and girls’, limited access to those provisions.

The strategy for enhancing the factor endowment of the poor including women in the Sixth Plan will be focused on ensuring their better access to irrigated water, fertilizer, electricity, rural roads and institutional finance. The government’s public expenditure policies and programs and the financial sector strategies and policies will pay specific attention to reducing income inequality owing to unequal distribution of physical assets and access to means of production.

The access to essential services for enhancing human capital for the majority of the population depends not only on their income levels but also on the quality and efficiency of the service delivery through the publicly funded and operated systems. Accordingly, the Sixth Plan’s strategy of poverty reduction will include substantial expansion as well as quality enhancement of the supply of these essential services. The strategy will also include developing a system of accountability and transparency in the delivery of these essential services to ensure availability of appropriate and adequate services for the poor. The human development strategy of the Sixth Plan will focus on these inclusive and holistic aspects in the design of strategies, policies and programs.

Even with higher growth, better jobs and better access to essential services, a part of the under-privileged population - among them poor women and people from ethnic groups and socially excluded groups - still will likely be left out. Additionally, substantial risks are posed by natural disasters and climate change for this vulnerable population. To address this challenge, the Sixth Plan aims at significantly strengthening the social protection programs. The strategy will be to design and implement a range of social protection programs that meets the needs of this under-privileged group. In this regard, existing programs will be reviewed and reformed to establish better targeting with a view to ensuring that all under-privileged groups including the disable, the elderly, the tribal population, and children and women at risk are given priority in the distribution of benefits. Particular attention will be given to strengthening the underlying institutions. In view of large financing needs for social protection programs, options will be explored to move towards contributory social protection schemes including participation by the private sector. Emphasis will also be given to design social protection programs that create assets and employment opportunities.

Establishing equal opportunities for women in all sections of the society with the objective of integrating them much better into social and economic sphere is a core strategic element underlying the Sixth Plan. It acknowledges the critical role of women in nation building and ensures that their needs, rights, entitlements and contributions are appropriately reflected in the Plan document. The human development and social protection strategies underlying the Plan will place particular emphasis on gender and social inclusion aspects of development. It is also recognized that women are a heterogeneous groups such that their situations, deprivations, and needs vary according to their locations within various communities, religions, and regions. Thus, along with promoting rights and entitlements of women, Sixth Plan envisages to cater to all these differential and specific requirements ensuring equal access of women to political, economic and social space.

Another key strategic element of the Sixth Plan is a firm commitment to pursue an environmentally sustainable development process. Natural resources like land and water are limited and their per capita availability is diminishing due to rising population on the one hand and also due to excessive use of common pool resources on the other hand. Excessive and indiscriminate use of our natural common pool resources has degraded them to an unusable state. The degradation of natural resources reduces the well-being of people; especially the poor and women suffer more, as they depend much more on natural common property resources for fuel and water. Thus, the focus of the Sixth Plan’s environmental management strategy would be the conservation and maintenance of natural resources, reducing air and water pollution, and liberating encroached rivers, water bodies, forest areas and khas land.

Bangladesh is a victim of climate change caused by rapid urbanization, industrialization and economic development activities worldwide. The growing evidence on climate change suggests that Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, resulting from the cumulative action of developed and emerging economies, would have serious deleterious effects in near future, unless effectively contained. It is predicted by international agencies that Bangladesh will be adversely affected by climate change in the form of melting of Himalayan glaciers, global warming and rising sea level, intensified natural calamities, and greater water scarcity leading to loss of livelihood, rising unemployment and poverty. Furthermore, a rise in the sea level, leading to coastal submergence (i.e. 17 % of Bangladesh) would cause large-scale displacement of people. Therefore, effective steps must be explored and adopted in collaboration with the international community in the Sixth Plan period to help Bangladesh address the adverse consequences of climate change. An acceptable and workable collaboration strategy must include fair and just burden sharing for mitigation as well as adaptation strategies across nations.

The challenge of ensuring good governance for sustaining development cannot be over-emphasized. Capacity constraints in public administration, occasional weaknesses in economic management, and corruption lie at the heart of overall shortcoming in national governance in Bangladesh. The Government recognizes that without fundamental reforms of core institutions, improvement in public administration capacity and a strong anti-corruption strategy, the ability to implement Vision 2021 and the underlying 5 year development plans will be seriously compromised. The Government also recognizes that these are long-term challenges and require long-term coordinated and sustained efforts.

Good governance and institutions are interlinked. Ensuring good governance requires establishing strong institutions. For the Sixth Plan the governance improvement strategy will focus on a number of key areas that require immediate attention. These include: continued efforts to ensuring equality of opportunity and full mobility for all with freedom and dignity, and without religious, social or political barriers; utmost attention will be given to the review of the national laws and their proper implementation by strengthening the law enforcement agencies and the judiciary; priority will be given to the implementation of E-governance through the ‘Digital Bangladesh’ initiative in all government offices and at all district levels to provide better and speedier service, and to improve the transparency and accountability of public service agencies; attention will be focused on developing and strengthening a number of core public institutions including the Central Bank, the Ministry of Finance, the Tax Department, the Planning Commission, Audits and Accounts, the parliamentary sub-committees, land administration, and the public utilities; emphasis will be given to improving service delivery in education, health, population, nutrition and water supply; emphasis will be placed on strengthening public administrative capacity; efforts will be made to implement the medium-term budgetary framework in all line ministries and to institute and implement an effective Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Framework for public programs; and finally all efforts will be made to reduce corruption in public services and take appropriate actions when corruption happens, ensuring a fair and transparent process as envisaged under the law.

The Sixth Plan’s strategy for capacity development consists of four pillars: strengthening the civil service; promoting devolution to local governments; strengthening public-private partnerships; and reforming planning and budgetary processes. Regarding the civil service, the strategy is to develop a long term program for re-building the civil service that is grounded in the socio-political realities in Bangladesh. The basic features of the reform strategy for civil service includes merit-based recruitment and promotion; strong training; ensuring a proper incentive and work environment; establishing and enforcing clear rules of business and codes of conduct; and seeking feedback on performance through a citizen’s charter.

Regarding the local government, the strategy will be to institute strong elected local governments that are vested with adequate financial autonomy and accountability for results. The local governments will be strengthened and much of the responsibility for delivering basic services such as irrigation, district roads, education, health, population management, water and sanitation services will progressively be decentralized to local governments.

Partnership with the private sector for delivery of critical economic services such as electricity and roads through PPP arrangements will be further strengthened on the basis of a well defined policy and legal framework. The opportunities for PPP arrangements in social sectors will also be explored. Additionally, the Government will build on the existing positive track record of collaboration with NGOs in the delivery of health, education and micro-credit services to further enhance this collaboration.

In an environment of weak administrative capacity and limited budgetary resources, efficient planning and budgetary systems can play an important role in helping improve the efficiency of public spending. The Government has been taking a number of steps to improve planning and budgetary processes. One major initiative is the implementation of a Medium Term Budgetary Framework (MTBF) process as a replacement for incremental budgeting. A second initiative is to move away from the traditional public-investment focused plans to more strategic and indicative planning that puts emphasis on strategies, programs and policies for the entire economy. A third initiative is to link better the medium-term development plans to the MTBF process by making the plan a living document with annual review of performance.

The Sixth Plan will further improve the planning and budgetary processes by building on the above initiatives. Specifically, following actions will be taken: (i) Annual performance review will focus on implementation of strategies and policies and look at broad economy-wide and sectoral outcomes rather than simply at financial progress of publicly funded investment projects. The results of the annual reviews will be used to determine changes in plan goals, targets, strategies and policies as necessary in light of the changing global and local economy and the results of the plan implementation. (ii) Capacities of line ministries will be substantially strengthened to do proper planning and budgeting in the context of the implementation of the MTBF. Line ministries will need to ensure that proposed projects and programs are consistent with the objectives and framework of the Sixth Plan. (iii) The project approval process will be strengthened and streamlined to reduce delays and proliferation of tiny projects. The project approval process will be substantially strengthened. All projects that go to the Planning Commission must provide a proper appraisal report along with sound analysis that shows the consistency and relevance of the project to sectoral/economy-wide objectives, strategies and policies. (iv) Proliferation of projects and long implementation lags are a perennial problem. The Sixth Plan will seek to break this logjam by doing a proper review of all approved and active projects in the pipeline in cooperation with the line Ministries. The review of this portfolio will seek to clean out dormant or irrelevant projects and help line ministries close the projects that are facing implementation problems through restructuring or through other relevant interventions. (v) Technical capacities of the Ministry of Finance, the Planning Commission, IMED and BBS will be substantially strengthened through proper staffing and training to ensure the timely implementation of the Sixth Plan and the MTBF.

The proper implementation of the Plan will require careful monitoring and evaluation of the underlying policies and programs. In the past the focus has been on monitoring public spending in terms of achieving financial targets. In the Sixth Plan the emphasis will shift to monitoring of results. To achieve this, the capacities of the Planning Commission and the line ministries to undertake results-based M&E will be strengthened. This will entail adopting proper M&E Frameworks, improving the database, and strengthening technical skills. This Framework will be monitored by GED under the guidance of the Planning Minister.

Being indicative in nature, the Sixth Plan should be considered as a living document. The implementation of the Plan will be reviewed on an annual basis. Development spending priorities and allocations will be reassessed on an annual cycle to ensure the consistency of these allocations in light of actual resources that are available, effectiveness of implementation and changing priorities in the context of a changing global environment.

The Sixth Five Year Plan document is organized into three parts. The first part (Part I) of the Sixth Five Year Plan provides the strategic directions and policy framework for implementing the main socio-economic targets of the Vision 2021. It focuses on the underlying strategies, policies and institutions for achieving the major targets for economic growth, employment, human development, poverty reduction, social protection and environmental management. The required macroeconomic framework and aggregate financing strategies and resource requirements are discussed here. Detailed sectoral strategies, plans and programs are presented in Part II of the Plan document. Indicative sectoral development resource allocations are provided on the basis of achieving sectoral plan targets. The sectoral allocations are made consistent with the overall resource envelope presented in Part I. These investment allocations are indicative in nature and will be reviewed and made consistent with the available resource envelope in the framework of the annual national budget cycle. Part III contains an annex on selected national data and a description of the general equilibrium model used for ensuring the consistency of national and sectoral targets with policies and resources underlying the Sixth Plan.

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • List of Figures

  • CHAPTER 2: GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT STRATEGIES

    • OVERVIEW

    • LESSONS OF PAST GROWTH EXPERIENCE

    • SFYP STRATEGY FOR HIGHER GROWTH AND CREATING GOOD JOBS

    • MANAGING THE LAND CONSTRAINT

    • MANAGING THE SPATIAL DIMENSIONS OF GROWTH

List of Tables

  • Table 2.1: Basic Labor Force and Employment (in millions)

  • Table 2.2: Labor Force Participation Rate by Gender (%)

  • Table 2.3: Sectoral Distribution of Employment (%)

  • Table 2.4: The Structure of Bangladesh Manufacturing Sector, FY75-FY10

  • Table 2.5: GDP Contribution of the Services Sector and Others FY81-FY10

  • Table 2.6: Current Trade Regimes in South Asian Countries

  • Table 2.7: Hydro-Power Potential in Northeast South Asian Countries

  • Table 2.8: Growth of Transport Output and Modal Shares

List of Figures

  • Figure 2.1: Illustrative Growth Path for Vision 2021

  • Figure 2.2: Recent Growth Paths in Bangladesh and India, FY3–FY09

  • Figure 2.3: Bangladesh Long-term Growth Trend FY74-FY10

  • Figure 2.4: Sectoral Growth Rates FY74-FY09

  • Figure 2.5: Structure of the Bangladesh Economy, FY74-FY09

  • Figure 2.6: International Comparison Structure of Economy, 2006

  • Figure 2.7: Average Trend in National Savings and Investment, FY74-FY09

  • Figure 2.8: Average Savings and Investment Rates, FY06-FY09

  • Figure 2.9: Average Labor productivity, FY07

  • Figure 2.10: Bangladesh: Structure of Agriculture, FY81-FY10

  • Figure 2.11: International Comparison of Rice Productivity, FY10

  • Figure 2.12: Average Nominal Protection and Para-tariffs

  • Figure 2.13: Bangladesh: Total Market Capitalization

  • Figure 2.14: Bangladesh Capital Market Developments

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • List of Figures

  • List of Boxes

  • List of Annex Tables

  • CHAPTER 3: MEDIUM TERM MACROECONOMIC FRAMEWORK

    • PROJECTED GROWTH PATH OF THE SIXTH FIVE YEAR PLAN

    • JOB CREATION AND REBALANCING OF EMPLOYMENT

    • INVESTMENT AND SAVINGS

    • BALANCE OF PAYMENTS AND EXCHANGE RATE MANAGEMENT

    • MONETARY MANAGEMENT

    • RISKS AND UNCERTAINTIES

List of Tables

  • Table 3.1: Macroeconomic Scenario of Sixth Five Year Plan

  • Table 3.2: Agricultural Growth Projection for SFYP

  • Table 3.3: Growth Projection of Industry and Services for SFYP

  • Table 3.4: Shift in the Structure of Employment, 2005/6-09

  • Table 3.5: Projected Pattern of Employment in the SFYP (Millions)

  • Table 3.6: Budget ADP Allocation and Actual Spending, FY05-FY11

  • Table 3.7: Projection for Electricity Generation

  • Table 3.8: Recent Export Performance from FY06 to FY10

  • Table 3.9: Recent Export Performance

List of Figures

  • Figure 3.1: Comparison of Sectoral Employment

  • Figure 3.2: Pattern of Private Investment Growth

  • Figure 3.3: Public Investment and ADP in relation to GDP

  • Figure 3.4: Infrastructure and Total Investment in Bangladesh

  • Figure 3.5: Gross National Saving Rebound and its Key Drivers

  • Figure 3.6: Developments in the Exchange Rate and External Reserves

  • Figure 3.7: Selected Monetary Aggregates

List of Boxes

  • Box 3.1: Explaining Inflation in Bangladesh

  • Box 3.2: Bangladesh Bank’s Strategic Action Plans, 2010-2014

List of Annex Tables

  • Annex Table 3.1: Bangladesh: Key Economic Indicators, FY10 to FY15

  • Annex Table 3.2: Bangladesh: Central Government Operations, FY10 to FY15

  • Annex Table 3.3: Bangladesh: Balance of Payments, FY10 to FY15

  • Annex Table 3.4: Monetary Survey (Stock) (Taka billions)

  • Annex Table 3.5: Bangladesh: Debt Sustainability Indicators (FY10-FY15)

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • List of Figures

  • List of Boxes

  • List of Annex Tables

  • CHAPTER 4: FINANCING THE PLAN

    • THE OVERALL RESOURCE ENVELOPE FOR THE INVESTMENT PROGRAM

    • FINANCING OF TOTAL PUBLIC SECTOR OUTLAYS DURING THE SFYP: ROLE OF FISCAL POLICY

    • DEBT MANAGEMENT STRATEGY OF THE SFYP

    • PUBLIC INVESTMENT PRIORITIES

    • RISKS AND CHALLENGES

List of Tables

  • Table 4.1: Financing of Sixth Five Year Plan Investment (FY2011 prices)

  • Table 4.2: Revenue Projections for the Sixth Plan

  • Table 4.3: Sixth Plan Sectoral Public Investment Allocation

  • Table 4.4: Sixth Plan Sectoral Public Investment Allocation

List of Figures

  • Figure 4.1: Bangladesh and Indian Tax-GDP Ratio

  • Figure 4.2: Bangladesh: Trend in Tax GDP Ratio

  • Figure 4.3: Bangladesh: Debt Dynamics during FY01-FY10

  • Figure 4.4: Bangladesh: Debt Services Ratio during FY01-FY10

  • Figure 4.5: Bangladesh: External Debt Dynamics for SFYP

  • Figure 4.6: Debt Amounts and Cost of Financing

List of Boxes

  • Box 4.1: Factors contributing to a positive turnaround at the National Board of Revenue

  • Box 4.2: Public Investment Breakdown

List of Annex Tables

  • Annex Table 4.1: Ministry- Wise Public Investment Allocation in the Sixth Plan

  • Annex Table 4.2: Ministry-Wise Public Investment Allocation in the Sixth Plan

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • List of Figures

  • CHAPTER 5: HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    • OVERVIEW

    • EDUCATION AND TRAINING

    • HEALTH, POPULATION AND NUTRITION

List of Tables

  • Table 5.1: Progress in Health, Population and Nutrition, 1993-2007

  • Table 5.2 Health, Population and Nutrition Targets for the SFYP

  • Table 5.3: Distribution of Population by Age Group

  • Table 5.4: Trends in Current Fertility Rates

List of Figures

  • Figure 5.1: Average Years of Schooling by Education Level (Population over Age 15)

  • Figure 5.2: Rates of Return to an Additional Year of Schooling, by Region

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • List of Figures

  • CHAPTER 6: POVERTY, INCLUSION AND SOCIAL PROTECTION

    • THE POVERTY REDUCTION CHALLENGE

    • STRATEGY FOR POVERTY REDUCTION IN THE SFYP

    • PARTICIPATION, SOCIAL INCLUSION AND EMPOWERMENT

    • SOCIAL PROTECTION PROGRAMS FOR THE POOR AND VULNERABLE

List of Tables

  • Table 6.1: Gini Index of Per Capita Income

  • Table 6.2: Annual Average Growth Rate of Share in Income of Different Quintiles of Households

  • Table 6.3: Gini Index of Per Capita Expenditure

  • Table 6.4: Head Count Poverty under Different Elasticity Assumptions

  • Table 6.5: Poverty Elasticities for Selected Developing Countries

  • Table 6.6: The Main Types of Social Protection Programs in Bangladesh

  • Table 6.7: Trends in Old Age Allowance Program

List of Figures

  • Figure 6.1: Long-term Poverty Trends (Headcount Rates)

  • Figure 6.2: Headcount Poverty Trends for Divisions

  • Figure 6.3: Trend in Transfers

  • Figure 6.4: Poverty Incidence and SSNP Recipient by Divisions, 2010

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • List of Boxes

  • CHAPTER 7: MANAGING REGIONAL DISPARITIES FOR SHARED GROWTH AND SUSTAINED POVERTY REDUCTION

    • ASPECTS OF REGIONAL DISPARITY

    • FACTORS AFFECTING REGIONAL DISPARITY

    • SPECIFIC TARGETS FOR REDUCTION OF REGIONAL DISPARITY IN THE SFYP

    • SFYP STRATEGIES AND POLICIES TO ADDRESS REGIONAL DISPARITIES

List of Tables

  • Table 7.1: Incidence of Poverty (head count rate) by Divisions, 1995-96 to 2010

  • Table 7.2: Number and Density of Poor Population by Division, 2010

  • Table 7.3: Key Education Outcomes, 2009

  • Table 7.4: Trends in Infant Mortality Rate by Division, 1996-20081

  • Table 7.5: Under 5 Mortality Rate, per 1,000 Live Births, 20081

  • Table 7.6: Maternal Mortality Ratio by Division, 2003 and 20081

  • Table 7.7: Road Density by District, 2000 to 2009 (in meter per sq km)

  • Table 7.8: Density of Bank Branches (Branches per 100,000 population)

  • Table 7.9: Per Capita Deposits and Advances by Division, 2009 and 2010

  • Table 7.10: Division Wise Distribution of Expatriate Workers 1976-2007

  • Table 7.11: Target 1- Head Count Poverty

  • Table 7.12: Target 2 Monthly Household Income (Taka)

  • Table 7.13: Target 3.1 Maternal Mortality Ratio

  • Table 7.14: Target 3.2 Infant Mortality Rate

  • Table 7.15: Target 3.3 Under Five (5) Mortality Rate

  • Table 7.16: Target 4.1 Net Enrolment Rate

  • Table 7.17: Target 4.2 Survival Rate in Primary Education

List of Boxes

  • Box 7.1: Paying Special Attention to the Problems of the Coastal Region of Barisal Division

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • CHAPTER 8: ENVIRONMENT, CLIMATE CHANGE AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINED DEVELOPMENT

    • OVERVIEW

    • ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    • MANAGING CLIMATE CHANGE

    • DISASTER MANAGEMENT

List of Tables

  • Table 8.1: Sixth Plan Benchmark and Proposed Target Programs

Contents

  • List of Annex Tables

  • CHAPTER 9: IMPLEMENTING THE PLAN: THE CHALLENGES OF GOOD GOVERNANCE, ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY, AND MONITORING AND EVALUATION

    • THE GOVERNANCE CHALLENGE IN BANGLADESH

    • DEVELOPING ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY

    • STRENGTHENING THE FOCUS ON RESULTS THROUGH ENHANCED MONITORING AND EVALUATION

List of Annex Tables

  • Annex Table 9.1: Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for the Sixth Five Year Plan

Front Matter Page

SIXTH FIVE YEAR PLAN

FY2011-FY2015

Accelerating Growth and Reducing Poverty

Part-2

Sectoral Strategies, Programs and Polices

Planning Commission

Ministry of Planning

Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • List of Figures

  • ABBREVIATIONS

  • CHAPTER 1: STRATEGY FOR RAISING FARM PRODUCTIVITY AND AGRICULTURAL GROWTH

    • INTRODUCTION

    • PERFORMANCE OF AGRICULTURE SECTOR

    • KEY CHALLENGES

    • CROP SECTOR

    • FORESTRY

    • NON–CROP SECTOR: LIVESTOCK

    • FISHERIES SUB-SECTOR

    • FOOD SECURITY AND MANAGEMENT

    • WATER RESOURCES

    • RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    • MASTER PLAN FOR AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOUTHERN DELTA OF BANGLADESH

    • DEVELOPMENT RESOURCE ALLOCATIONS FOR AGRICULTURE, WATER RESOURCES AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

List of Tables

  • Table 1.1: Growth Performances of Agriculture Sub-Sectors

  • Table 1.2: SFYP Targets of Water Sector

  • Table 1.3: Development Resource Allocation for Agriculture, Water Resources & Rural Development in the Sixth Plan

  • Table 1.4: Development Resource Allocation for Agriculture, Water Resources & Rural Development in the Sixth Plan

List of Figures

  • Figure 1.1: Trends in Rice (Paddy) Yield in Bangladesh: FY 1971/72-FY2008/09

Abbreviations

AEZ –

Agro-Ecological Zone

AIS -

Agricultural Information Services

AMC -

Alternate Medical Care

APP -

Alternative Private Providers

APSCL -

Ashuganj Power Station Company Limited

AQMP -

Air Quality Management Project

ATIs -

Agricultural Training Institutes

BADC -

Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation

BAEC -

Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission

BANSDOC -

Bangladesh National Scientific and Technical Documentation Centre

BAPA -

Bangladesh Paribesh Andolon

BARI -

Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute

BARC -

Bangladesh Agriculture Research Council

BAS -

Bangladesh Academy of Science

BASIS -

Bangladesh Association of Software and Information Services

BCC -

Bangladesh Computer Council

BCCSAP -

Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan

BCSIR -

Bangladesh Council for Scientific and Industrial Research

BPDB -

Bangladesh Power Development Board

BDCC -

Buyer-Driven Commodity Chains

BELA -

Bangladesh Environmental Lawyers’ Association

BEPZA -

Bangladesh Export Processing Zones Authority

BHWDB -

Bangladesh Haors and Wetland Development Board

BIMSTEC -

Bangladesh India Myanmar Sri Lanka Thailand Economic Cooperation

BIWTA -

Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority

BIWTC -

Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Corporation

BJMA -

Bangladesh Jute Mills Association

BMA -

Bangladesh Medical Association

BMD -

Bangladesh Meteorological Department

BMDA –

Barind Multipurpose Development Authority

BMDC -

Bangladesh Medical and Dental Council

BMET -

Bureau of Manpower, Employment and Training

BOO -

Build, Own and Operate

BOT -

Build, Own and Transfer

BNC -

Bangladesh Nursing Council

BPC -

Bangladesh Pharmacy Council

BPPA -

Bangladesh Private Practitioners Association

BPC -

Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation

BRMSS -

Bangladesh Road Materials and Standards Study

BRDB -

Bangladesh Rural Development Board

BRTA -

Bangladesh Road Transport Authority

BRRI -

Bangladesh Rice Research Institute

BRWT -

Buddha Religious Welfare Trust

BSCIC -

Bngladesh Tourism Board

BTEB -

The Bangladesh Technical Education Board

BTILS -

BIMSTEC Transport Infrastructure and Logistics Study

BTN -

Bangladesh Telecentre network

BWDB -

Bangladesh Water Development Board

CAAB -

Civil Aviation Authority

CAMS -

Continuous Air-quality Monitoring Stations

CASE -

Air and Sustainable Environment

CBAs -

Collective Bargaining Agents

CCA -

Controller of Certifying Authority

CDA -

Chittagong Development Authority

CDM -

Clean Development Mechanism

CDMP -

Comprehensive Disaster Management Program

CDS -

Coastal Development Strategy

CDS -

Central Depository System

CEA -

Country Environmental Analysis

CeC -

Community e-Centre

CEGIS -

Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services

CERDI -

Central Extension Resources Development Institute

CFW -

Cash for Work

CIC -

Community Information Centers

CMS -

Central Monitoring and Management System

CPA -

Chittagong Port Authority

CSD -

Centre for Sustainable Development

CSBA -

Community Skilled Birth Attendants

CSR -

Corporate Social Responsibility

CZPo-2005 -

Coastal Zone Policy

DAE -

Department of Agriculture Extension

DAM -

Department of Agricultural Marketing

DESCO -

Dhaka Electric Supply Company

DGHS -

Directorate General of Health Services

DGFP -

the Directorate General of Family Planning

DLS -

Department of Livestock Services

DMC -

Disaster Management Committees

DNS -

Directorate of Nursing Services

DoF -

Department of Fisheries

DPHE -

Department of public Health Engineering

DPP -

Development Project Proposal

DSHE -

Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education

DTC -

District Technical Committee

DTE -

Directorate of Technical Education

DTCB -

Dhaka Transport Coordination Board

DUTP -

Dhaka Urban Transport Project

DYD -

Department of Youth Development

EBA –

Everything But Arms

ECA -

Environment Conservation Act

ECA -

Ecologically Critically Area

ECNEC -

Executive Committee of the National Economic Council

EEF -

Equity and Entrepreneurship Fund

EGCB -

Electricity Generation Company of Bangladesh

ESP -

Essential Services Packages

EPZs -

Export processing zones

FAP 17 -

Flood Action Plan 17

FCD -

Flood Control and Drainage

FCDI -

Flood Control, Drainage and Irrigation

FBCCI -

Federation of Bangladesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry

FDI -

Foreign Direct Investment

FERI -

Foundation of Education Research and Education

FMD -

Foot-and-Mouth Disease

FFW –

Food for Work

FMRP -

Financial Management Reform Program

FRB -

Feeder Road type-B

FTA –

Free Trade Agreement

GATS -

General Agreement on Trade in Services

GC -

Growth Centers

GHG -

Green House Gas

GPWM -

Guidelines for Participatory Water Management

GR -

Gratuitous Relief

GSP -

Generalized System of Preferences

GTI -

Graduate Training Institute

HBB -

Herring Bone Bond

HBRI -

House Building Research Institute

HCFC -

Hydro chlorofluorocarbons

HCR -

Head Count Rate

HED -

Health Engineering Department

H5N1 -

Highly pathogenic avian flu

HNP -

Health, Nutrition and Population

HOBC -

High Octane Blending Compound

HRWT -

Hindu Religious Welfare Trust

HTP -

High Tech Park

HVDC -

High Voltage Double Circuit

HYV -

High Yielding Variety

IAT -

Institute of Appropriate Technology

ICAO -

International Civil Aviation Organization

ICG -

International Consultancy Group

ICT -

Information and Communications Technology

ICZM -

Integrated Coastal Zone Management

IDDP -

Intensive Dairy Development Program

IEDCR -

Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research

IGA -

Inter-Government Agreement

ILS -

Instrumental Landing System

IMED -

Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation Division

IMT -

Intermittent Modes of Transport

IMMTP -

Integrated Multi-Modal Transport Study

INVIL -

Information Network Village

IPM -

Integrated Pest Management

IPHN -

Institute of Public Health and Nutrition

IPPs -

Independent Power Producers

IPTV -

Internet Protocol TV

IT -

Information Technology

ITEC -

Independent Textbook Evaluation Committee

IUCN -

International Union for the Conservation of Nature

IUU -

Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated

IWM -

Institute of Water Modelling

IWRM -

Integrated Water Recourse Management

IWT -

Inland Water Transport

JBD -

Jamuna Bridge Division

JMBA -

Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge Authority

JRC -

Joint Rivers Commission

KAM -

Knowledge Assessment Methodology

KDA -

Khulna Development Authority

KEI -

Knowledge Economy Index

KOICA -

Korea International cooperation Agency

LAPM -

Long Acting and Permanent Method

LCC -

Leaf Color Chart

LEI -

Light Engineering Industry

LGI -

Local Government Institutions

LMIS -

Logistics Management Information System

LOB -

Line of Business

MAMS -

Mobile Air-quality Monitoring Stations

MARP -

Maroondah Addictions Recovery Project

MCWC -

Mother and Child Welfare Center

MDG -

Millennium Development Goal

MFA -

Multifibre Arrangement

MFI -

Microfinance Institutions

MIDAS -

Micro Industries Development Assistance and Services

MMCFD -

Millions of Cubic Feet Daily

MMR -

Measles, Mumps and Rubella

MNH -

Maternal and Neonatal Health

MOHPW -

Ministry of Housing and Public Works

MOH -

Ministry of Health

MOE -

Ministry of Environment

MoI -

Ministry of Information

MOLGRD -

Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development

MoSICT -

Ministry of Science and Information and Communication Technology

MS -

Motor Spirit

MSE -

Micro and Small Enterprises

MTBF -

Medium Term Budgetary Framework

MVO -

Motor Vehicle Ordinance

NAEP -

New Agricultural Extension Policy

NARS -

National Agricultural Research System

NAWASIC -

National Water Supply & Sanitation Information Centre

NCA -

Non-Crop Agriculture

NCS -

National Conservation Strategy

NCST -

National Council for Science and Technology

NFE -

Non-Formal Education

NGN -

Next Generation Network

NHA -

National Housing Authority

NIB -

National Institute of Biotechnology

NIPORT -

National Institute of Population Research and Training

NLTP -

National Land Transport Policy

NMST -

National Museum of Science and Technology

NNS -

National Nutrition Service

NPAII –

Second National Plan of Action

NPWA -

National Policy for Women’s Advancement

NSDC -

National Skill Development Council

NSTP -

National Science and Technology Policy

NTCC -

National Technical Co-ordination Committee

NTP -

National Telecommunications Policy

NWMP -

National Water Management Plan

NWPGC -

North West Power Generation Company

NWRD -

National Water Resources Database

NWPo -

National Water Policy

ODC -

Over Dimensional Cargo

OECD -

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OMS -

Open Market Sales

OPEX -

Operational Expenditure

PC -

Privatization Commission

PDBF -

Palli Daridra Bimachan Foundation

PDCC -

Producer-driven commodity chains

PESP -

Primary Education Stipend Programme

PFDS -

Public Food Distribution System

PKI -

Public Key Infrastructure

PKSF -

Palli Karma-Sahayak Foundation

PMMU -

Program Management and Monitoring Unit

PSIG -

Private Sector Investment Guideline

PWD -

Public Works Division

QR -

Quantitative Restrictions

R&D –

Research & Development

RACON -

Radar Transponder Beacon

RAM -

Road Asset Management

RAMS -

Road & Bridge Asset Management System

RDA -

Rajshahi Development Authority

RDA -

Rural Development Academy

REB -

Rural Electrification Board

RHD -

Roads and Highways Department

RMG -

Ready Made Garments

RMP -

Road Master Plan

RNFA -

Rural Non-Farm Activities

ROB -

Roads Over Bridges

ROIP -

Road Overlay and Improvement Project

ROSC -

Reaching Out-of-school Children

RR -

Rural Roads

RRI -

River Reserceh Institute

RTC -

Regional Technical Committee

SASEC -

South Asian Sub-regional Economic Cooperation

SBA -

School based assessment

SCITI -

Small and Cottage Industries Training Institute

SEC -

Securities and Exchange Commission

SEDA -

Sustainable Energy Development Authority

SESIP -

Secondary Education Sector Improvement Project

SEZ -

Special Economic Zones

SDF -

Sector Development Framework

SICT -

Support to ICT Task Force Project

SLIP -

School-Level Improvement Plans

SMF -

State Medical Faculty

SOE -

State-Owned Enterprises

SP -

Service Provider

SPARSO -

Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization

SPS -

Sanitary and Phytosanitary

SRDI -

Soil Resource Development Institute

SRI -

System of Rice Intensification

SRMT -

Regional Multi Modal Transport Study

SRMTS -

SAARC Regional Multimodal Transport Study

SSWR -

Small Scale Water Resources

STD -

Sexually Transmitted Disease

STEP -

Support to Training and Employment Program for Women

STP -

Strategic Transport Plan

SWAp -

Sector-Wide Approach

TAR -

Trans Asian Railway

TBIs -

Technology Business Incubators

TBT -

Technical Barriers to Trade

TFYP -

Third Five Year Plan

TB -

Tuberculosis

TBA -

Traditional Birth Attendants

TIC -

Technology Innovation Centre

TQI -

Teaching Quality Improvement

TRIMS -

Trade-related Investment Measures

TRIPS -

Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

UDD -

Urban Development Directorate

UNCRD -

United Nations Centre for Regional Development

UET -

University of Engeneering and Technology

UHC -

Upazila Health Complex

UPCs -

Union Parishad Complexes

UPHC -

Urban Primary Health Care

URCs -

Upazila Resource Centers

USG -

Urea Super Granules

VAT -

Value Added Tax

VAW -

Violence against Women

VCT -

Voluntary Counseling and Testing

VDP -

Village Development Party

VGD -

Vulnerable Development program

VIC -

Vehicle Inspection Center

VTE -

Vocational and Technical Education

WARPO -

Water Resources Planning Organization

WID -

Women in Development

WIPO -

World Intellectual Property Organization

WMIP -

Water Management Improvement Project

WSS -

Water Supply and Sanitation

WZPDC -

West Zone Power Distribution Company

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • List of Figures

  • List of Boxes

  • List of Annex

  • CHAPTER 2: DIVERSIFYING EXPORTS AND DEVELOPING A DYNAMIC MANUFACTURING SECTOR

    • OVERALL MANUFACTURING PERFORMANCE, STRATEGIES AND POLICIES

    • SPECIFIC LARGE AND MEDIUM SCALE MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES

    • SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs)

    • DEVELOPMENT RESOURCE ALLOCATIONS IN THE SIXTH PLAN

List of Tables

  • Table 2.1: The Structure of Bangladesh Manufacturing Sector, FY1975-FY2010

  • Table 2.2: Export Performance of Major Commodities (in millions of USD)

  • Table 2.3: Shift in the Structure of Employment, 2005/6-09

  • Table 2.4: Investment Climate in Doing Business 2010

  • Table 2.5: Projection of Sectoral Growth and shares in GDP

  • Table 2.6: Manufacturing Growth Projection for SFYP

  • Table 2.7: Fiscal Incentives for EPZ Firms

  • Table 2.8: Non-Fiscal Incentives for EPZs

  • Table 2.9: Import Duty Concessions

  • Table 2.10: Corporate Tax Structure in Bangladesh

  • Table 2.11: Growth of the RMG sector

  • Table 2.12: Bangladesh RMG Exports to EU and US (in million USD)

  • Table 2.13: Regional Product Concentration of LEI

  • Table 2.14: Export of Light Engineering Products (million US$)

  • Table 2.15: Summary of Key Manufacturing Sub-sectors

  • Table 2.16: Total Non-Farm Enterprises in Bangladesh, 2003

  • Table 2.17: Contribution of Large & Medium scale and Small Scale Industries to GDP (%)

  • Table 2.18: Value Addition by Small Industry and its Growth

  • Table 2.19: Gross Value Added Relative to Value of Gross Output in Six Sectors

  • Table 2.20: Material Cost as Percentage of Total Cost

  • Table 2.21: Employment per Firm across Four Size Classes in Six Sectors

  • Table 2.22: Percentage of Revenue from Domestic Sales

  • Table 2.23: Percentage of Revenue from Export

  • Table 2.24: Average Number of Machines in Use across Six Sectors, 2007

  • Table 2.25: Capital-Labor Ratio across Six Sectors

  • Table 2.26: Labor Productivity per Worker

  • Table 2.27: Policy Suggestions by Survey Respondents (percentage of firms in an industry)

  • Table 2.28: SME Loan Disbursement Target set by Bangladesh Bank

  • Table 2.29: Allocation of Development Resources Manufacturing in the Sixth Plan

  • Table 2.30: Allocation of Development Resources for Manufacturing in the Sixth Plan

List of Figures

  • Figure 2.1: FDI Investments in Bangladesh

List of Boxes

  • Box 2.1: Additional incentives to export oriented and export linkage industries

  • Box 2.2: Product Lines of LEI

List of Annex

  • Annex Table 2.1 : Cross-Country Comparison of Manufacturing Performance

  • Annex Figure 2.1 : Structure of the Bangladeshi Economy, 1973-2008

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • List of Figures

  • CHAPTER 3: ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PLAN TO SUPPORT HIGHER GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT

    • BACKGROUND AND STRATEGIC CONTEXT

    • ENERGY STRATEGY IN THE SIXTH PLAN

    • POWER SECTOR

    • PRIMARY ENERGY SECTOR

    • RENEWABLE ENERGY

    • DEVELOPMENT RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN POWER AND PRIMARY ENERGY SECTOR DURING THE SIXTH PLAN

List of Tables

  • Table 3.1: Hydro-Power Potential in Northeast South Asian Countries

  • Table 3.2: Per Capita Electricity Consumption 2009 (Kwh)

  • Table 3.3: Present Power Generation Capacity in Bangladesh (FY10)

  • Table 3.4: Electricity Generation Capacity by Public and Private Sectors (FY2010)

  • Table 3.5: Primary Energy Use in Power Generation

  • Table 3.6: List of Projects that will be implemented by 2011

  • Table 3.7: List of Projects that will be implemented by 2012

  • Table 3.8: List of Projects that will be implemented by 2013

  • Table 3.9: List of Projects that will be implemented by 2014

  • Table 3.10: List of Projects that will be implemented by 2015

  • Table 3.11: Progress with Rural Electrification Up to June 2010

  • Table 3.12: Planned Important Transmission Projects

  • Table 3.13: Year wise Power Generation during the Sixth Plan

  • Table 3.14: Power Supply-Demand Balance in the Sixth Plan

  • Table 3.15: Sector-specific Projected Demand for Gas during the Sixth Plan

  • Table 3.16: Short Term Plan completed by December 2010

  • Table 3.17: Medium Term Plan to be completed by June 2013

  • Table 3.18: Program to be completed by 2015

  • Table 3.19: Coal Reserves of Five Coal Mines

  • Table 3.20: Development Resource Allocation for Energy in the Sixth Plan

  • Table 3.21: Development Resource Allocation for Energy in the Sixth Plan

List of Figures

  • Figure 3.1: Sources of Energy Annual Energy Supply 2009

  • Figure 3.2: Current Sectoral use of Gas in percent (2009)

  • Figure 3.3: Sector wise annual average growth rate of use of gas, 1991-2010

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • CHAPTER 4: EFFICIENT TRANSPORT SERVICES TO REDUCE COST AND IMPROVE WELFARE

    • BACKGROUND AND DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT

    • TRANSPORT SECTOR OBJECTIVES, STRATEGIES, AND POLICIES IN THE SIXTH PLAN

    • ROADS AND HIGHWAYS DEPARTMENT

    • BANGLADESH ROAD TRANSPORT AUTHORITY (BRTA)

    • BANGLADESH ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION

    • LOCAL GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

    • BANGLADESH BRIDGE AUTHORITY

    • DHAKA CITY TRANSPORT

    • BANGLADESH RAILWAY

    • INLAND WATER TRANSPORT

    • PORTS AND SHIPPING

    • AIR TRANSPORT AND TOURISM

    • DEVELOPMENT RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR TRANSPORT SECTOR IN THE SIXTH FIVE YEAR PLAN

List of Tables

  • Table 4.1: Mechanized Surface Transport Output and the Share of Road Transport in Carriage of passenger and Freight Traffic in Selected Years

  • Table 4.2: Progress with Paved Road Development under RHD, 1947-2009

  • Table 4.3: Road Network under RHD by Category and Status of Construction (Kilometers)

  • Table 4.4: Allocation and Expenditure of Fund under RHD in Different Plan Periods

  • Table 4.5: RHD Physical Targets for the SFYP

  • Table 4.6: Status of Rural Roads

  • Table 4.7: CPA Traffic Projection

  • Table 4.8: Summary of Total Investment Requirement for Major Transport Projects during the Period 2008/09-2020/21

  • Table 4.9: Development Resource Allocation for Transport Sector in Sixth Plan

  • Table 4.10: Development Resource Allocation for Transport Sector in the Sixth Plan

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • List of Figures

  • List of Annex Tables

  • CHAPTER 5: MANAGING THE URBAN TRANSITION

    • INTRODUCTION

    • THE URBANIZATION CHALLENGE IN BANGLADESH

    • URBAN POVERTY IN BANGLDESH

    • POLICY AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK IN THE URBAN SECTOR

    • INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR URBAN GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT

    • A REVIEW OF PAST POLICIES AND PROGRAMS FOR MANAGEMENT OF URBANIZATION

    • URBANIZATION STRATEGY UNDER THE SIXTH PLAN

    • SUB-SECTORAL GOALS, TARGETS, STRATEGIES AND PROGRAMS FOR THE SIXTH PLAN

    • ALLOCATION OF DEVELOPMENT RESOURCES FOR THE URBAN SECTOR IN THE SIXTH PLAN

List of Tables

  • Table 5.1: Growth of Urban Population in Bangladesh

  • Table 5.2: Number of Urban Centers by Census Year and Size Classes

  • Table 5.3: Poverty Head Count Ratio by Divisions, 2005-2010

  • Table 5.4: Hierarchy of Urban Local Governments

  • Table 5.5: Housing Sector Performance

  • Table 5.6: Allocation and Expenditure under PPWS&H Sector in Municipalities during

  • Table 5.7: Physical Targets and Achievements of PPWS&H Sector in Municipalities during 2002-09

  • Table 5.8: Allocation and Expenditure of Six City Corporations under ADP Allocation and Block Grants during 2002-2009

  • Table 5.9: Achievements of Development Activities of the Six City Corporations under ADP and Block Grants during the Period from 2002 to 2009

  • Table 5.10: Water Supply- Target Coverage at the end of SFYP*

  • Table 5.11: Sanitation- Target Coverage at the end of SFYP

  • Table 5.12: Development Resource Allocation for the Urban Sector in the Sixth Plan

  • Table 5.13: Development Resource Allocation for the Urban Sector in the Sixth Plan

List of Figures

  • Figure 5.1: World’s Fastest Growing Megacity

  • Figure 5.2: Dhaka’s Share of Bangladesh’s Total Population

List of Annex

  • Annex Table 5.1 : Indicative Costs for Proposed Programs/Projects

  • Annex Table 5.2 : Indicative Costs for Proposed Programs/Projects

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • List of Figures

  • List of Boxes

  • List of Annex

  • CHAPTER 6: BOOSTING THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY FOR HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY

    • OVERVIEW

    • DEVELOPMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

    • INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)

    • STRENGTHENING THE SUPPLY SIDE OF ICT

    • STRATEGY FOR KNOWLEDGE DISSEMINATION

    • RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN THE SIXTH PLAN

List of Tables

  • Table 6.1: Growth of ICT Sector-wise companies in Bangladesh

  • Table 6.2: Development Resource Allocations for Knowledge Economy in the Sixth Plan

  • Table 6.3: Development Resource Allocations for Knowledge Economy in the Sixth Plan

List of Figures

  • Figure 6.1: Overall KEI 1995 Vs Most Recent

  • Figure 6.2: Comparison of KEI component parts for World Regions with South Asian Countries (most recent in top line, compared to 1995 bottom line for each group)

  • Figure 6.3: Value of Bangladesh Software Exports (US$ m)

  • Figure 6.4: Composition of the IT Sector in Bangladesh

List of Boxes

  • Box 6.1. Converting Post Offices into Development Centers

List of Annex

  • Annex 6.1 : Targets and Strategies: Connecting Citizens

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • CHAPTER 7: EDUCATION, TRAINING, SPORTS, CULTURE AND RELIGION

    • INTRODUCTION

    • OVERALL PERFORMANCE OF THE EDUCATION SECTOR

    • MAJOR CHALLENGES IN THE EDUCATION SECTOR

    • SFYP GOALS AND OBJECTIVES FOR EDUCATION SECTOR

    • SFYP EDUCATION SECTOR STRATEGIES AND POLICIES

    • EDUCATION SUB-SECTORAL PERFORMANCE AND STRATEGIES

    • PRIMARY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

    • NON-FORMAL EDUCATION AND ADULT LITERACY

    • SECONDARY EDUCATION

    • HIGHER EDUCATION

    • ISSUES RELATED TO TRAINING

    • SPORTS

    • CULTURE

    • RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS

    • ALLOCATION OF DEVELOPMENT RESOURCES IN THE SIXTH PLAN

List of Tables

  • Table 7.1: Indicators of Performance of Primary and Mass Education

  • Table 7.2: Indicators of Performance of Secondary and Higher Education (SFYP: 2011-2015)

  • Table 7.3: Allocation of Development Resources for Education, Religious Affairs, Sports and Culture, and Labor and Manpower in the Sixth Plan

  • Table 7.4: Allocation of Development Expenditure for Education, Religious Affairs, Sports and Culture, and Labor and Manpower in the Sixth Plan

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • List of Figures

  • CHAPTER 8: HEALTH, POPULATION AND NUTRITION SECTOR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS

    • PAST PROGRESS AND CHALLENGES IN THE HPN SECTOR

    • GOALS, OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS FOR HPN IN THE SFYP

    • HEALTH SECTOR STRATEGIES AND POLICIES IN THE SFYP

    • POPULATION PLANNING AND WELFARE

    • NUTRITION ISSUES AND MANAGEMENT IN THE SIXTH PLAN

    • INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR MONITORING PROGRESS WITH IMPLEMENTATION OF HPN PROGRAMS IN THE SIXTH PLAN

    • ALLOCATION OF DEVELOPMENT RESOURCES FOR HEALTH SECTOR IN THE SIXTH PLAN

List of Tables

  • Table 8.1: International Comparison of Health spending in Bangladesh, 2006

  • Table 8.2: HPN Targets for the Sixth Plan

  • Table 8.3: Percentage of Women who Received ANC from a Medically Trained Provider

  • Table 8.4: Percentage of Delivery Assisted by Medically Trained Provider

  • Table 8.5: Problems Faced by Households Due to Health Expenditure: by Income Groups

  • Table 8.6: Type of Problems Faced by Households due to Expenditures Incurred for Treatment Purposes

  • Table 8.7: Trends in Current Fertility Rates

  • Table 8.8: Development Expenditure Allocation of Health Sector in the Sixth Plan

  • Table 8.9: Development Expenditure Allocation of Health Sector in the Sixth Plan

List of Figures

  • Figure 8.1: Utilization of Health facilities by Age and Gender

  • Figure 8.2: Percent of Household Income spent on treatment by Income

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • List of Figures

  • List of Annex

  • CHAPTER 9: REACHING OUT THE POOR AND THE VULNERABLE POPULATION

    • INTRODUCTION

    • STRATEGIES FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN SFYP

    • STRENGTHENING THE PARTICIPATION OF THE POOR IN GROWTH ACTIVITIES

    • SOCIAL PROTECTION PROGRAMS FOR THE POOR AND VULNERABLE

    • PARTICIPATION, SOCIAL INCLUSION AND EMPOWERMENT

    • DEVELOPMENT RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR SOCIAL PROTECTION DURING THE SIXTH PLAN

List of Tables

  • Table 9.1: Headcount Poverty Rate (%)

  • Table 9.2: Distribution of Poverty by Divisions

  • Table 9.3: Poverty Rate and Occupation 2005

  • Table 9.4: Land Ownership and Poverty in Rural Bangladesh

  • Table 9.5: Targeted Agricultural and specialized Credit Program through Public Sector Banks and Cooperatives

  • Table 9.6: Bangladesh Micro Finance –Operational Outreach

  • Table 9.7: Financial outreach of the MFIs, 2003-08

  • Table 9.8: Trend in Number of Employment Abroad and Amount Remittances

  • Table 9.9: The Main Types of Social Protection Programs in Bangladesh

  • Table 9.10: Trends in Old Age Allowance Program

  • Table 9.11: Development Resource Allocation for Social Protection under the Sixth Plan

  • Table 9.12: Development Resource Allocation for Social Protection under the Sixth Plan

List of Figures

  • Figure 9.1: Poverty headcount ratio at $1.25 a day (PPP) (% of population) in 2005

  • Figure 9.2: Trend in Total Transfers

  • Figure 9.3: Poverty Incidence and SSNP Recipient by Divisions

List of Annex

  • Annex Table 9.13: Social Safety Net Programmes

Contents

  • List of Tables

  • CHAPTER 10: ENVIRONMENT, CLIMATE CHANGE AND DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT

    • SECTORAL OVERVIEW

    • SUB SECTORAL STRATEGIES UNDER THE SFYP

    • MANAGING CLIMATE CHANGE

    • DISASTER MANAGEMENT

    • DEVELOPMENT RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR ENVIRONMENT, CLIMATE CHANGE AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN THE SFYP

List of Tables

  • Table 10.1: Sixth Plan Benchmark and Proposed Target Programs

  • Table 10.2: Development Resource Allocation for Environment and Disaster Management in the Sixth Plan

  • Table 10.3: Development Resource Allocation for Environment and Disaster Management in the Sixth Plan

Front Matter Page

SIXTH FIVE YEAR PLAN

FY2011-FY2015

Accelerating Growth and Reducing Poverty

Part 3

Statistical Annex and Technical Framework

Planning Commission Ministry of Planning Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh

Table of Contents

  • Part 1: Statistical Annex

  • A. Macro and Fiscal Block

    • 1. National Accounts

      • Table 1: GDP at Constant Prices (1972/73 -78/79), 1985-86=100

      • Table 2: GDP at Constant Prices (1979/80-85/86), 1995-96=100

      • Table 3: GDP at Constant Prices (1986/87-92/93), 1995-96=100

      • Table 4: GDP at Constant Prices (1993/94-99/00), 1995-96=100

      • Table 5: GDP at Constant Prices (2000/01-04/05), 1995-96=100

      • Table 6: GDP at constant prices (2005/06-2009/10), 1995-96=100

      • Table 7: GDP at current market prices (1972/73-78/79)

      • Table 8: GDP at current market prices (1979/80-85/86)

      • Table 9: GDP at current market prices (1986/87-1992/93)

      • Table 10: GDP at current market prices (1993/94-99/00)

      • Table 11: GDP at current market prices (2000/01-2004/05)

      • Table 12: GDP at current market prices (2005/06-2009/10)

      • Table 13: Sectoral Share of GDP (%) at current market prices (1979/80-1984/85)

      • Table 14: Sectoral Share of GDP (%) at current market prices (1985/86-1991/92)

      • Table 15: Sectoral Share of GDP (%) at current market prices (1992/93-1998/99)

      • Table 16: Sectoral Share of GDP (%) at current market prices (1999/00-2004/05)

      • Table 17: Sectoral Share of GDP (%) at current market prices (2005/06-09/10)

      • Table 18: GDP Growth by Industrial Sector (1980/81-86/87), 1995/96=100

      • Table 19: GDP Growth by Industrial Sector (1987/88-1993/94), 1995/96=100

      • Table 20: GDP Growth by Industrial Sector (1994/95-99/00), 1995/96=100

      • Table 21: GDP Growth by Industrial Sector (2000/01-2005/06), 1995/96=100

      • Table 22: GDP Growth by Industrial Sector (2006/07-09/10), 1995/96=100

      • Table 23: GDP by Expenditure Categories at current market price (FY 1990-FY 95)

      • Table 24: GDP by Expenditure Categories at current market price (FY 1996-FY 00)

      • Table 25: GDP by Expenditure Categories at current market price (FY 01-FY 05)

      • Table 26: GDP by Expenditure Categories at current market price (FY 2006-FY 2010)

    • 2. Revenue

      • Table 27: Fiscal Components as % of GDP (FY73-FY87)

      • Table 28: Table: Fiscal Components as % of GDP (FY88-FY03)

      • Table 29: Fiscal Components as % of GDP (FY04-FY10)

      • Table 30: Revenue Components as % of GDP (FY73-FY90)

      • Table 31: Revenue Components as % of GDP (FY91-FY02)

      • Table 32: Revenue Components as % of GDP (FY03-FY09)

    • 3. Expenditure

      • Table 33: Expenditure Components as Percent of GDP (FY73-FY85)

      • Table 34: Expenditure Components as Percent of GDP (FY86-FY98)

      • Table 35: Expenditure Components as Percent of GDP (FY99-FY09)

      • Table 36: Expenditure Components

    • 4. Debt

      • Table 37: Debt Components as % of GDP (FY73-FY86)

      • Table 38: Debt Components as % of GDP (FY87-FY98)

      • Table 39: Debt Components as % of GDP (FY99-FY09)

    • 5. Money and Prices

      • Table 40: Monetary Development

      • Table 41: Monetary Development

      • Table 42: Domestic Credit Development

      • Table 43: Credit Development

      • Table 44: Interest Rates

      • Table 45: Average Exchange Rate

      • Table 46: Yearly Average Consumer Price Index (CPI)

      • Table 47: Nominal Wage Rate Indices

      • Table 48: Nominal Price of Rice

    • 6. Balance of Payments

      • Table 49: Balance of Payments of Bangladesh

  • B. Poverty and Social Safety Net Block

    • 1. Poverty

      • Table 50: Incidence of poverty

      • Table 51: Percentile Distribution of Income and Gini Coefficient

      • Table 52: Dimensions of poverty by CBN method across regions (in percent)

      • Table 53: Gini index of per capita expenditure

    • 2. Social safety net tables

      • Table 54: Targeted Agricultural and Specialized Credit Program through Public Sector Banks and Cooperatives

      • Table 55: Trend in Number of Employment Abroad and Amount of Remittances

      • Table 56: Bangladesh Micro Finance- Operational Outreach

      • Table 57: Financial outreach of the MFIs, 2003-08

      • Table 58: Social Protection Programs in Bangladesh, 2009/10

      • Table 59: Serious Floods and Damages in the Last 25 Years

  • C. Human Development

    • 1. Education

      • Table 60: Population Size and Growth Rates, 1951- 2001

      • Table 61: Age Sex Composition of Population by Age Group, 2001

      • Table 62: Population Projection of Bangladesh (2006-2051)

      • Table 63: Population Projection of Bangladesh by 5 year Age Group 2006-2021 (Million)

      • Table 64: Projected Pre-primary Age- (4-5) Population 2005-2020

      • Table 65: Projection Primary Age Population (6-10) of Bangladesh for 2006-2020

      • Table 66: Projected 11-13 year age group population for 2005-2020

      • Table 67: Projection 14-15 years age group and 11-15 year age group population for 2006-2020

      • Table 68: Projection Population for the 16- 17 years age group for 2006-2002

      • Table 69: Projected 18-21 and 22-24 Age Group Population for 2006-2020

      • Table 70: Time series data of Pre Primary Students (2001-2008)

      • Table 71: Time series data of Pre Primary Students (2001-2008)

      • Table 72: Projection of Pre-Primary Education Enrolment, 2010, 2015, 2020

      • Table 73: Primary Education Statistics of Schools, Teachers, Student by Type of School and Gender: 2008

      • Table 74: Primary Education Statistics of Schools, Teachers, Student by Type of School and Gender: 2008

      • Table 75: Class 1-5, Enrolment of Students in Absolute Numbers

      • Table 76: Projection of Primary School Enrolment for 2008, 2010, 2015, 2020 (in million)

      • Table 77: Number of Students in Post Primary Education (1990-2008)

      • Table 78: Number of Students in Post Primary Education (1990-2008)

      • Table 79: Projected GER in Junior Secondary Education (in percent)

      • Table 80: Projection of Enrolment in Junior Education, 2010-2020, (in lacs)

      • Table 81: Projected GER for 2008 to 2020 for the Age Group 14-15 yrs

      • Table 82 Projected Secondary Enrolment for 2008-2020, (in million)

      • Table 83: Projected Higher Secondary Enrolment for 2008 - 2020 (in million)

      • Table 84: Number of Secondary Educational Institutions in General Stream by Year and Level of Education

      • Table 85: Number of Secondary Educational Institutions in Madrasa Stream by Year and Level of Education

      • Table 86: Number of Secondary Students in General

      • Table 87: Number of Secondary Students in Madrasa Stream by Year and Level of Education

      • Table 88: Pass Rates in the SSC/Dakhil Examination by Year

      • Table 89: Pass Rates in HSC/Alim Examinations by Year

      • Table 90: Number of Institutions and Teachers by Management and type of Secondary Educational Institution

      • Table 91: Government Expenditure on Secondary Education as % of GNI

      • Table 92: Average Private Expenditure for Secondary Education

    • 2. Health Indicators

      • Table 93: Percentage Population by Sex and Age Group (1974-2001)

      • Table 94: Human Development Indicators (1981-2008)

    • 3. Human Resource Development

      • Table 95: Training capacities in Public and Accredited Private Institutions, 1998 and 200568

      • Table 96: Capacity Utilization in the VET System

      • Table 97: Status of VET Students after Graduation

  • D. Regional Disparity Block

    • Table 98: Population Growth in Greater Districts, 1974 to 1991

    • Table 99: District-wise Population Density in 2001 and Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in Rural Areas, 2001 to 2007

    • Table 100: Land Utilization Statistics of Bangladesh, 1984-85 to 2005-06

    • Table 101: Intensity of Cropping Statistics of Bangladesh, by Former Districts, 1999-00 to 2004-05

    • Table 102: Percent of High Yielding Variety (HYV) in Cropped Area by Former Districts, 2001-02 to 2005-06

    • Table 103: Percentages of Non-firm and Farm Households by Land Ownership by District, 2005-06

    • Table 104: Literacy Rate for Persons aged 7 years and above by District, 1991 and 2001

    • Table 105: Road Density by District, 2000 to 2005 (in meter per square k.m.)

    • Table 106: 14 Maximum Demand for Electricity

    • Table 107: Growth Rate of Male Agricultural Day Laborer’s Nominal Daily Wage by Region,

    • Table 108: Growth of Regional Farm and Non-Farm Per Capita Incomes by District and Division,

    • Table 109: Allocation of Public Expenditure (Development) — Recent Trends

    • Table 110: Allocation of Public Expenditure (Non-Development) — Recent Trends

    • Table 111: Acreage and Production of Rice in Greater Districts (1990-91 to 2005-06)

    • Table 112: District and Division-wise Share of Manufacturing in Regional GDP,

    • Table 113: Economically Active Population (15+) (in ‘000) and Labour Force Participation Rates, 2005-06

    • Table 114: Unemployment Rate (15 years and above) by Division and District, 2005-06

    • Table 115: Some Indicators for Eastern and Western Region

    • Table 116: Distribution of Households Receiving Benefits of Social Safety Net Programmes, 2005

    • Table 117: Reductions in Central Government Transfers (Government grants to Pourashavas, 1996-2002)

Table of Contents

  • Part 2: Technical Framework

  • Macroeconomic Scenario for the Sixth Five Year Plan (2011-2015)

Table of Contents

  • Results from the Dynamic CGE Model of Bangladesh

Bangladesh: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
Author: International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept