Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Progress Report

The progress report on Haiti’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper is discussed. The Action Plan for National Recovery and Development of Haiti has been presented to the international community at the United Nations conference in New York in March 2010. The plan presents immediate responses to the losses and damage caused by the earthquake, but also outlines a number of key initiatives for creating the conditions to tackle the structural causes of Haiti's underdevelopment. Policies and measures have been adopted to maintain domestic and external monetary stability by lowering the inflation rate, controlling monetary financing, and having a stable exchange rate.


The progress report on Haiti’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper is discussed. The Action Plan for National Recovery and Development of Haiti has been presented to the international community at the United Nations conference in New York in March 2010. The plan presents immediate responses to the losses and damage caused by the earthquake, but also outlines a number of key initiatives for creating the conditions to tackle the structural causes of Haiti's underdevelopment. Policies and measures have been adopted to maintain domestic and external monetary stability by lowering the inflation rate, controlling monetary financing, and having a stable exchange rate.


Following a broad-based participatory process that lasted more than three months and included the representatives of various government and civil society stakeholders in the country’s ten (10) geographical departments, the government of Haiti prepared a National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (DSNCRP). This paper is considered the unifying framework for the country’s development program. This document, which deals with the period from 2008 to 2010, is based on three pillars supported by specific and cross-cutting policies: Pillar I, The growth vectors: agriculture and rural development, tourism and infrastructure; Pillar II, Human development: education and vocational training, health, water and sanitation; Pillar III, Democratic governance: justice, security, and local governance. The specific and cross-cutting policies are: food security, persons with disabilities, youth and sports, gender equality, land-use planning, the environment and sustainable development, risk and disaster management, social protection, building government capacities, urban development, and culture.

The strategy paper, which aimed to be “a first important step to the desired quantum leap,” included a Priority Activities Matrix (MAP) and Priority Investment Plan (PLIP). The country perceived the DSNCRP as the principal instrument for expressing its vision of change and its prospects for change and development. From the outset, the strategy has been implemented in a difficult institutional context. In December 2009, an independent analysis determined the strengths and weaknesses of the current systems for SNCRP coordination. Through this approach, which the MPCE initiated, the government intended to pave the way for reflection on the conceptualization of a second-generation DSNCRP (DSNCRP II).

The January 12, 2010 tragedy occurred while this process was underway. Moreover, the implementation of DSNCRP I and the preparation of DSNCRP II were necessarily suspended, so that it was obvious that the foundation for national development had to be reexamined. Despite the tragic event of January 12, 2010 and its consequences for governance, the government of Haiti maintained its option for the DSNCRP as a melting pot for its development activities. Thus, the Prime Minister and the Minister of Planning and External Cooperation (MPCE) stated in February 2010, at the launch of the post–disaster needs assessment (PDNA):

“Today, the Minister of Planning and External Cooperation is seeking to share the government’s vision with you. I am beginning with these remarks because we are not really proposing a new vision. This new vision was already proposed in the DSNCRP and, through the different general policy statements that my predecessors made, reflects my vision as well.”2

Nonetheless, it is true that the situation gave the government the opportunity to strengthen the statement of a long-term development vision that seeks to make Haiti an emerging country by 2032. In this context, above and beyond the management of the emergency that the earthquake created, the government plans to continue its work to structure development using the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (SNCRP) and others. To this end, it is necessary to ensure that the Haiti Recovery and Development Action Plan (PARDH) launched in March 2010, that is supposed to be for a period of 18 months to ten years, and the DSNCRP, are aligned. Here, it should be noted that the PARDH consists of four major areas: Territorial Reform; Economic Reform; Social Reform; and Institutional Reform.

Today, the process of preparing the DSNCRP II is beginning more directly. In fact, as indicated in the foreword to the PARDH: “We must act now, but with a clear vision of the future. We must agree on a short-term program and create the mechanisms that will make it possible to develop and implement in detail the programs and projects that will solidify the activities over a period of ten years (PARDH, Foreword, page 3). This plan is divided into two periods: the immediate, which lasts 18 months and consists of the end of the emergency period and the preparation ofprojects to trigger a bona fide renaissance; and the second period over a period of nine (9) years, which will include three programming cycles of the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy.” (PARDH, p. 5)

Therefore, the PARDH addresses the Large Projects for the Recovery and Development of Haiti (Grands Chantiers). After the New York Conference, the government undertook the preparation of a detailed version of the paper. It was thus established that the detailed version of the Large Projects for the Recovery and Development of Haiti will guide the public effort over the coming years and, more specifically, the development of the next DSNCRPs. For this reason, the principal input for preparing the DSNCRP II is the detailed vision of the Grands Chantiers. As early as December 2009, by examining all the systems for managing the DSNCRP I, a certain number of major and glaring institutional, systematic and operational deficiencies were updated, and it was necessary to deal with them in their entirety to plan for moving toward a second-generation DSNCRP that was supposed to adopt and comply with good practices in poverty reduction strategies.

This report consists of eight (8) chapters. Chapter I presents the macroeconomic situation in the three years of DSNCRP implementation, the trend in budgetary expenditures for reducing poverty, the macroeconomic objectives, macroeconomic performances, the reforms that reached the completion point, the status of the debt after the completion point, and the macroeconomic and poverty reduction performances.

Chapter II examines programming and budgetary execution to verify their consistency with the Priority Action Plan (PLAP) in the DNSCRP and the execution of the projects in the 2007-2010 Priority Investment Plan (PLIP). Chapter III presents the implementation of the DSNCRP for each pillar. Chapter IV traces the reform policies implemented in all the sectors.

Chapter V presents the results of the DSNCRP through the change in the product indicators, the Millennium Development Goals, and the retroaction of the population in terms of the projects in the DSNCRP. Chapter VI develops the activities of the management, coordination, monitoring and communication arrangement for implementing the DSNCRP, taking into consideration the different strategic and operational levels, both sectoral and departmental.

Chapter VII presents the strategy for preparing the second-generation DSNCRP through a methodological framework and a schematic diagram of the internal logic for the next DSNCRPs in a long-term vision. Finally, Chapter VIII discusses the findings that can improve the implementation of future generations of DSNCRPs and facilitate achieving the objectives.



The three years of implementation of the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy took place in an environment that was less favorable than expected. Unpredictable factors interfered with the desired results and objectives. Natural disasters, mainly the damage from the hurricanes in 2008 and the infamous January 12, 2010 earthquake, seriously obstructed the expected results.


Although in the first half of fiscal year 2007/2008 the principal indicators performed well, in the second half the economy dealt with domestic and external factors from the outset. In fact, the change in prices for food and oil products in the international market had serious repercussions for the domestic market. Moreover, Hurricanes Fay, Gustave, Hannah and Ike caused considerable damage to the farming, infrastructure and production sector in general and affected GDP by 15 percent. Thus, the outlook for growth had to be revised downward. The GDP growth rate was just 0.8 percent in 2007–2008, well below the 3.7 percent initially projected.

By contrast, 2008-2009 should be considered the best year for implementing the DSNCRP. Although it continued with the aftermaths inherited from the previous year, it ended with an estimated growth rate of 2.9 percent. This trend continued in 2009-2010, which also started off well. According to projections, the stabilization process of the national economy that began in 2009 would continue and have positive impacts on poverty reduction. Unfortunately, all hope vanished early in the second half of the year.

Indeed, the January 12 earthquake reversed all the trends. The various destructions and economic losses were evaluated at roughly 120 percent of gross domestic product. Consequently, GDP fell. According to the preliminary estimates of the Haiti Statistics and Data Processing Institute (IHSI), the growth rate was -5.1 percent in 2009-2010. By affecting all sectors of activity and by causing hardship for all the economic agents, the earthquake had a profound impact on the poverty indicators and therefore the activities to fight poverty were themselves called into question.

Graph 1:
Graph 1:

Change in the real GDP growth rate between 2007 and 2010

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001


Year-on-year, the inflation rate was 7.9 percent in 2007 before it suddenly accelerated considerably in 2008. Beginning in March, due to the combined effects of higher commodity prices in the international market and a drop in domestic supply due to the natural disasters that struck the country, the inflation rate peaked at 19.8 percent. The explanation for this spike in the general level of prices is found primarily in the “food” and “beverages and tobacco” items. These two items account for more than 50 percent of the consumer price index. The result was a significant deterioration in household purchasing power in a country in which 55 percent of families already live in extreme poverty with less than 40 gourdes per person per day.

However, prices plummeted early in fiscal year 2008-09. The inflation rate, which was 18.0 percent year-over-year in October, fell to 1.0 percent in March 2009. And, since May, the trend has been negative at about -4.7 percent in September 2009. This slowdown in prices continued until November 2009. However, prices turned around during fiscal year 2009-2010 with an average inflation rate of 4.6 percent. This moderate increase is explained by the increase in the prices of the “food” and “housing” items, which account for more than half of household spending. Domestic and external factors contributed to this change in prices.

Graph 2:
Graph 2:

Change in the inflation rate year-over-year between 2007 and 2010

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001


Despite interferences that hurt their performances, public finances recorded satisfactory results in the last three years, in terms of tax administration as well as the control of government spending. Tax revenue rose from 23.197 billion gourdes in 2006-2007 to 26.848 billion in fiscal year 2007-2008, for a 16 percent increase in these resources. This performance continued in 2008-09 with an 11 percent increase in tax receipts that amounted to 29.881 billion gourdes.

At the same time, actual budget spending of 26.984 billion gourdes increased by 14 percent to 30.856 billion in 2007-08. The result was a budget shortfall equal to -5 percent of GDP. For 2008-2009, government expenditures were roughly 30.616 billion gourdes. Compared to the previous fiscal year, they were off by 1 percent. Consequently, the deficit fell by about 10 percent.

Despite the damage the earthquake caused in tax administrations and the stoppage of activities of many businesses that pay taxes and make contributions, the trend in revenue improvement remained steady in 2009-2010. Although a certain slowdown was observed in the growth of tax revenue, an amount of 31.425 billion gourdes was recorded. Moreover, it should be noted that action was taken quickly to have the tax institutions resume their work and to make them operational once again to the extent possible. These government entities returned to a certain state of normalcy in terms of the ability to manage government services.

However, budgetary spending resumed its increase, rising from 30.616 billion gourdes in 2008-2009 to 38.709 billion in 2009-2010, so that the increase was 26 percent. This rise is justified by the many urgent interventions carried out after January 12, 2010. Indeed, spending on investment projects that the Public Treasury financed more than tripled, up from 2.574 billion gourdes to 11.408 billion gourdes, for a 343 percent increase. The budget deficit, offset by external grants, was ultimately brought down to -3 percent of GDP during the three years in which the DSNCRP was implemented.


During this period, the monetary authorities carried out a conservative monetary policy to preserve not only the stability of the financial system, but also to strengthen the transparency and effectiveness of monetary policy. Policies and measures were adopted to maintain domestic and external monetary stability by lowering the inflation rate, controlling monetary financing, and having a stable exchange rate. Excessive growth in base money was avoided as well with the same goal of protecting the economy from inflationary pressures.

Thus, the gourde was relatively stable between 2008 and 2010. The exchange rate was remained stable at roughly forty gourdes (40 gourdes) to the US dollar, with periods of pressure and lulls. In 2009-2010, after an increase in value due to transfers, the exchange rate remained below the bar of 40 gourdes per one US dollar until the end of the fiscal year.

The BRH managed interest rates conservatively while keeping in mind the objective of making the terms for accessing bank loans more flexible. Thus, with the slowdown in interest rates in 2009, the principal policy rates for BRH Treasuries for the different maturities were revised downward once again by the Central Bank, as was done early in fiscal year 2007-2008, although rates were gradually increased in the second half of the year due to domestic and external pressures. In fact, in early 2010 interest rates on BRH Treasuries changed to 2 percent, 3.5 percent and 5 percent for maturities of seven days, 28 days and 90 days respectively (they had been 5 percent, 6.5 percent and 8 percent from 2008 to 2009). However, real interest rates remained high throughout the period under study, which hampered investment and job creation.


The current account, offset by transfers, showed a slight deterioration, manifested in a small increase in imports and nearly stagnant exports between 2007 and 2009. However, the situation worsened after the January 2010 earthquake because imports nearly doubled, rising from 2,804.2 million dollars to 4,075.8 million in 2010, causing a drop in the current balance of goods and services to 3,273.3 million.

Graph 3:
Graph 3:

Change in imports and exports between 2007 and 2010

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001


The growth in foreign assets during these last years has thwarted the development of domestic economic activities and proves that the economic agents preferred to invest their money in the foreign market for higher yields. For this reason, the only way to jump-start the economy was to create productive jobs and increase the people’s buying power. The increase in foreign assets is thus an indicator of the weakening and deterioration of the productive base as well as the overall business climate over these last years because a favorable environment has not developed to raise the level of confidence necessary for private investment.


Gross reserves soared between 2008 and 2010, up from 707.8 million dollars in 2008 to 947.5 million dollars in 2009 and to 1.676 billion dollars in 2009-2010. Net BRH exchange reserves continued to perform well throughout the 2007-08 fiscal year. At a total of 259.01 million dollars in September 2007, they reached 293.57 million dollars in September 2008, a level higher than the target in the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility Program (PRGF), which is 289.2 million dollars, or 2.6 in months of imports of goods and services. In fiscal year 2008-2009, reserves reached 416.91 million dollars and in 2009-2010 they climbed to 829.31 million dollars. It should be emphasized that since October 2009, net foreign exchange reserves calculated as months of imports using the new methodology in the Technical Memorandum of Understanding (TMU) amounted to 2.8 months in 2008, 3.7 in 2009 and 4.8 in 2010.

Graph 4:
Graph 4:

Change in net exchange reserves

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001


Private unrequited transfers that the Central Bank recorded amounted to 999.44 million dollars in 2007-2008 and the trend remained good. They reached 1,004.14 billion dollars in 2008-2009 and 1,075.19 billion dollars in 2009-2010, for growth rates of 4.7 percent and 7.1 percent respectively from one period to the next; this stabilized the level of household consumption after the earthquake.

Graph 5:
Graph 5:

Change in private unrequited transfers

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001


Lending is an investment factor that can create jobs and improve household buying power. As a consequence, it can reduce poverty. Over the last three years, lending grew considerably, both in gourdes and dollars. When the sum of credit granted in gourdes as of September 2007 is compared to the same date in 2008, a net increase in lending of roughly 26 percent was noted in one year, rising from 8.343 billion to 10.571 billion. This trend continued into 2008-09 with 11 percent growth or 11.714 billion gourdes, although a certain slowdown was noted. However, the trend changed in 2009-2010 because lending in gourdes slowed in the five months after the earthquake and did not begin to rise again to the level prior to January until June 2010. In fact, lending in gourdes resumed gradually and stood at 12.624 billion gourdes in September 2010 for an average annual increase of 7.7 percent compared to September 2009. Of this lending, the public sector absorbed a considerable portion, amounting to over 75 percent.

Lending in dollars, by contrast, showed an overall upward trend, from 518 million dollars in September 2008 to 563 million in 2009, for an 8.7 percent increase. However, it fell in 2010 to 476 million dollars (-18.3 percent) at the end of the year. In conclusion, lending to the private sector, which grew significantly in 2008-09 by 14.7 percent, fell considerably, by 7.9 percent, in 2009-2010.

Table 1:

Change in the principal macroeconomic variables between 2007 and 2010

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Source: Ministry of the Economy and Finance (MEF), Bank of the Republic of Haiti (BRH), Haiti Statistics and Data Processing Institute (IHSI)


With regard to the commitments the government of Haiti made as part of the Paris Club, a system to automatically monitor public spending specifically for poverty reduction was set up through the general budget. The choice of the areas for intervention was based on the functional classification of budget expenditures. Budget funds from the Public Treasury were allocated to different items according to the major objectives such as employment, food security, energy supply, transportation, sanitation, drinking water, health, education and social protection.

In 2006-2007, 31 percent of budget spending excluding external financing for projects and programs was used to implement activities that were to contribute to poverty reduction. The result was that 8.868 billion gourdes in budget funds were disbursed this year out of a total of 9.860 billion. These amounts came from the operating budget in the amount of 5.781 billion gourdes and 3.088 billion came from the investment budget.

Graph 6
Graph 6

-Change in allocations and expenditures for poverty

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001

For poverty reduction, an amount of 15.141 billion gourdes was credited in the budget for fiscal year 2007-2008. Of this amount, 71.83 percent was used, or 10.876 billion, 7.372 billion of which was in the operating budget and 3.503 billion was in the investment budget. This amounts to a high execution rate for the authorities.

This increase in spending used to reduce poverty continued until 2010 with an allocation of 18.06 billion gourdes, for growth in funding of roughly 19.6 percent. Of this amount, 97.4 percent was spent. This situation attests to the government’s will to fight poverty. However, a comparative analysis shows that the increase in funding was about 35 percent, while the increase in spending was 22 percent.

Table 2

Change in funding and spending to fight poverty in the years 2008 to 2010

(millions of gourdes)

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Source: Ministry of the Economy and Finance, Directorate General of the Budget (DGB), Ministry of Planning and External Cooperation, SE/DSNCRP
Graph 7:
Graph 7:

Trend in spending on poverty between 2008 et 2010

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001

Moreover, the more detailed review of spending based on the breakdown of spending into operations and investment also reveals a recurring theme in the areas the poverty reduction program covers.

The prioritization of current over capital expenditure seriously interferes with the sectors’ ability to achieve the objectives with regard to the reduction of poverty and social marginalization. The example of the education sector shows the full extent of the problem. Although this sector received major resources from the Public Treasury during the implementation of the DSNCRP, the increase in financial resources was absorbed by personnel expenses, as the figures show for fiscal years 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, for which the operating expense to financing ratio is 34.24 percent and 0.9 percent for the ratio of investment spending to financing. The same was found for 2008-2009, with ratios of 35.7 percent and 1.4 percent respectively. The situation is no different for the health sector, for which over 10 percent of funding is used for operating expenses and less than 1 percent for investment expenses. This overview indicates that expenses should be reallocated with greater emphasis on investment spending to carry out the programs that more directly affect the most disadvantaged groups.

Table 3:

Percentage of operating spending and investment spending in the total allocation

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Source: Calculations made using MEF data
Table 4:

Annual change in actual spending to fight poverty

(in percentages)

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Source: Calculations made using data from the Ministry of the Economy and Finance, General Directorate of the Budget (DGB), Ministry of Planning and External Cooperation, SE/DSNCRP
Table 5:

Percentage of operating and investment spending in total spending

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Source: Calculations made using MEF data

In conclusion, spending to reduce poverty during the three years of DSNCRP implementation did not yield the expected results in terms of their impact on poverty reduction.


The macroeconomic objectives adopted in the DSNCRP for the period from 2008 to 2010 projected overall: an average real GDP growth rate of 4.5 percent; an inflation rate under 10 percent; a budget deficit of about 1 percent of GDP; and an exchange rate of about 40 gourdes.


The political, economic and social challenges to be met during the DSNRCP implementation period were significant, such as devastated national production, weak human capital, damage to the country, weak public security, and finally, the failure of the public institutions and the fact that they were nearly totally destroyed in the January 12 earthquake. These challenges made it necessary to prioritize the urgent and structuring measures. The macroeconomic performances expected during the DSNCRP I implementation period were not fully met due to unpredictable factors. The results that were sought in terms of growth were not achieved.


Governance and fiscal management reforms accompanied the implementation of the DSNRCP. Since 2004, the country has engaged in a series of reforms to modernize public finances and to implement poverty reduction and growth facility programs (PRGF). The performance requirements for the reforms are consistent with the Heavily Indebted Poor County (HIPC) initiatives and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It has been necessary to make decisions with respect to trigger point status regarding the achievement of the objectives in each phase of the reform. Quantitative and qualitative performance criteria were set and satisfactory progress was made in this regard. Once these reforms are completed, the country will be eligible for forgiveness of its external debt.

This reform involves several branches of the administration. Each branch was to make arrangements to meet the commitments and achieve the goals. In addition, it was necessary to build a modern economy and make a dynamic administration, one that meets the needs of the citizens. The Haitian authorities therefore implemented a set of actions to complete these reforms.

First, the decision point was reached in November 2007, and thus the country was eligible for interim external debt relief resources. To this end, the first trigger was the use of a participatory process to prepare the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (DSNCRP). The implementation of this paper was accompanied by a macroeconomic stabilization policy that was another component of the issues based on performances achieved. Thus, the principal macroeconomic aggregates changed satisfactorily during the three years of the program. Major structural and social reforms were undertaken as well, particularly in the areas of economic governance, public finance, and debt management. Haiti reached the completion point in June 2009 as part of the initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC), supported by the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility program (PRGF).


The fiscal management reforms continued during the three years in which the DSNCRP was implemented. The goal was to prepare and execute the budget, mobilize government revenue, manage cash flow, control and audit the accounts of the central administration, monitor public spending used to reduce poverty, publish quarterly reports on the expenditures executed over a period of at least six months before the completion point, adopt a new government procurement law in line with international best practices, and enact a law on asset reporting.


The tax administration and customs were strengthened through structural reforms.

First, the improvement and the establishment of customs checkpoints in the different communes should be emphasized, as well as the installation of ASYCUDA III. Customs checkpoints were set up in Ganthier, Morne a Cabri and Terrier Rouge. The ASYCUDA World System is installed at Toussaint Louverture Airport and the ports of Port-au-Prince and Saint Marc. The system will gradually be extended to the ports of the provincial cities that are on the list of HIPC triggers. The equipment is available to operate the system in the provinces, but some buildings require repair. SGS has begun operations in the provincial cities where customs documents are required.

Second, the strengthening of the tax administration led to expanding the use of the central taxpayer database in the Port-au-Prince area and to recording in this database all the taxpayers identified in the tax centers of Cayes, Miragoâne, Saint Marc, Port de Paix, Cap-Haitien, and Fort Liberté. The central taxpayer file that aims to improve income tax yields is used for four (4) major taxes in the provincial cities—specifically, tax registration, vehicle registration, driver’s licenses and registration cards. The earthquake also affected the central database, but it was rebuilt and is operational. The computerized taxpayer identification system in the departmental tax directorates is operational.


Regarding debt management, all information on the external and local debts in foreign currency was centralized in 2009. The finalization of the SYGADE software installation was completed. Quarterly external debt reports were published on the Ministry of the Economy and Finance (MEF) website. However, the system was affected during the earthquake. This system will strengthen MEF capacities in the area of preparing strategies for external financing, negotiation, and analysis of the risks associated with the new financing.


The debt stock, and in particular the external debt stock to international creditors, has fallen since the completion point was reached in June 2009. The corollary was the fall not only in the outstanding external debt, but also in debt service. In fact, the outstanding external debt dropped considerably, from 64.736 billion gourdes in 2007-08 to 35.399 billion gourdes in 2008-09, and to 7.951 billion gourdes in 2009-2010. Debt service was down as well. For the same years it was down from 1.889 billion gourdes to 1.490 billion gourdes and to 546 million gourdes respectively. However, outstanding debt and internal debt service combined continued to rise. The internal debt increased from 21.113 billion gourdes in 2007-08 to 36.780 billion in 2008-09, to reach 47.773 billion gourdes in 2009–2010. However, after the external debt escalated in 2008-09, when it reached 2.691 billion gourdes, it fell by nearly 50 percent to 1.407 billion gourdes in 2009-2010. Consequently, total debt service was down significantly, by 46.7 percent in 2010, so that a larger share of financial resources could be directed toward programs to reduce poverty. Ultimately, total outstanding debt fell by 22.8 percent in 2010.

Table 6:

Outstanding debt and debt service before and after the completion point

(millions of gourdes)

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Source: Ministry of the Economy and Finance/Treasury DirectorateN.B.: The outstanding external debt was calculated based on the exchange rate at the end of the period for 2008, 2009 and 2010.
Table 7:

Change in outstanding debt and debt service as a percentage after the completion point

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Source: Percentage calculated using data from the Ministry of the Economy and Finance/Treasury Directorate



The national growth and poverty reduction strategy is based on three pillars: Pillar 1 -growth vectors; Pillar 2 - human development; and Pillar 3 - democratic governance. These pillars are supported by specific and cross-cutting policies and strategies. In the priority program matrices of the DSNCRP there are 20 general objectives, 95 specific objectives, and 396 priority courses of action.


Government budgets could be only partially linked to the Priority Investment Plan (PLIP) in the DSNCRP during the three (3) years of implementation of the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy. This is explained by the fact that, on the one hand, when the DSNCRP was being prepared, some actions, and in particular the programs and projects financed through international cooperation, were mostly in the process of being implemented; and, on the other hand, the new projects in the DSNCRP PLIP, even though there were few of them, had no documentation available to assess their eligibility according to the criteria that the Executive Secretariat of the Interministerial Coordinating and Monitoring Committee of the DSNCRP adopted. Finally, the 2008–2009 Emergency Program to respond to the weather events delayed the implementation of certain projects designed to meet the country’s poverty reduction and growth objectives.

To evaluate the implementation of the 2008-2010 DSNCRP, the strategy adopted was to identify in the Public Investment Programs (PIPs) all the projects that could be included in the growth and poverty reduction objectives and to distribute them among the DSNCRP pillars, as well as the specific and cross-cutting policies and strategies. The following table presents the division of investment funds by pillar for the period under consideration.

Table 8:

Breakdown of investment funds according to the DSNCRP pillars

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Project financing is consistent with the objectives and pillars of the DSNCRP and accounted for 71 percent, 89 percent and 92 percent respectively of total funding for the Public Investment Programs (PIPs) for fiscal years 2007-2008, 2008-2009 and 2009–2010. These figures show a clear improvement in the government’s taking into account of this urgent necessity of improving economic growth and reducing poverty. Moreover, the source of the funding allocated to the projects that is part of the DSNCRP pillars are as follows: 15 percent from domestic resources and 85 percent from external resources for fiscal year 2007-2008; 14 percent from domestic resources and 86 percent from external resources for fiscal year 2008-2009; and 19 percent from domestic resources and 81 percent from external resources for 2009-2010. The increase in domestic resources reflects the government’s determination to effectively take charge of the initiatives that promote growth and poverty reduction, especially since the aid that was promised after the disasters that hit the country has been delayed.

The following graph shows the growing change in investment appropriations for interventions that are part of the DSNCRP objectives compared to the other interventions included in the Public Investment Programs for the period. In fact, these appropriations were 27 percent in 2007-2008 and rose to 32 percent in 2008-2009 and to 41 percent in 2009-2010.

The weight of the pillars in investment funding was 43 percent for Pillar I, 27 percent for Pillar II, 4 percent for Pillar III, and 26 percent for the specific and cross-cutting policies and strategies respectively.

Graph 8:
Graph 8:

Weight of the pillars in the total of funding allocated to the DSNCRP projects in 2008-2010

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001

Graph 9:
Graph 9:

Weight of the pillars in the DSNCRP

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001

Most of the investment funding is distributed in Pillar 1. This is due to the fact that road infrastructure and agricultural production were given priority since they were seriously affected by the natural disasters the country experienced in 2008.

The efforts of the Technical and Financial Partners (TFPs) and the Public Treasury (PT) for the initial budget after the January 12 earthquake increased the share of the social sectors in Pillar II and agricultural production in Pillar I. This in fact changed nothing in the trend observed since the first year of implementation in terms of the preponderance of investments for Pillar I.


Pillar I: Growth vectors: a growth strategy that combines the necessity for growth with poverty reduction based on four key areas or growth vectors: agriculture and rural development; infrastructure modernization; commerce and industry; and tourism.

Table 9:

Pillar I: Growth vectors

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Pillar I is the leader in funds allocated to the Public Investment Programs (PIPs) for the years in which the growth and poverty reduction strategy was implemented, with 77 percent, 43 percent and 52 percent respectively of total funding for fiscal years 2007–2008, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. This drop observed in funding allocated to the sectors in this pillar is accounted for by the crucial importance of meeting the needs of the victims of the weather events and disasters the country experienced in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010.

Graph 10:
Graph 10:

Trend in funding allocated by sector

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001

Pillar II: Human development based on a significant improvement in the availability of opportunities, including the social services offered to the people so that they can develop to the best of their abilities.

Table 10

- Pillar II: Human development

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Pillar II is in second place for funding allocated to the 2008-2010 PIPs with 23 percent, 27 percent and 24 percent respectively, with the health sector having the largest portion of funding allocated in the last two (2) years of implementing the strategy.

Graph 11:
Graph 11:

Change in funding allocated by sector of Pillar II

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001

Pillar III: Democratic governance, with the priority of establishing the rule of law, more particularly with regard to justice, security and local governance. The implementation of an equitable legal system, a functional judiciary, and a general climate of security are essential conditions for growth and reducing poverty.

Pillar III accounts for 4 percent of all the specific and cross-cutting pillars and policies for the 2008-2010 period.

In Pillar III, the justice and security sector accounts for 94 percent of allocated funding. This sector receives considerable support from external cooperation through their projects to support the National Police of Haiti.

Specific and cross-cutting policies and strategies that are for food security, taking care of people with special needs, youth and sports, gender equality, the environment and sustainable development, risk and disaster management, culture, land-use planning and urban development, and building government capacities.

Table 11:

Pillar 3: Justice and security/local governance

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Graph 12
Graph 12

- Change in funding allocated by sector

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001

Table 12:

Annual breakdown of funding by pillar

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Graph 13:
Graph 13:

2008-2010 Specific and cross-cutting policies and strategies

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001

In conclusion, the analysis addresses investment funds and not expenditures incurred, because the information available on disbursements/expenditures incurred pertains only to the projects that the Public Treasury financed. Yet, roughly 70 percent of the Public Investment Program is financed by bilateral and multilateral donors. The implementing agencies do not report disbursements for the projects these donors finance to the Ministry of Planning. Moreover, the poor implementation of the projects the Public Treasury finances is generally explained by the fact that most of the projects are not documented; in other words, there are no technical documents. The result is that the provisions estimated and programed are generally below actual costs, and therefore this affects the sectors’ absorption capability. However, the funding scheduled over the entire implementation period demonstrated the government’s genuine desire to aim for growth and fight poverty, since they showed a steady increase in the DSNCRP over the three years. It is important to underscore that other projects that seek to achieve the growth and poverty reduction objectives and that are in the PIP are reported in the total of the specific and cross-cutting policies and strategies. Total funding volume allocated to them amounts to 37 percent.


Two major events significantly shaped the implementation of the national growth and poverty reduction strategy. First, it should be noted that in the first year of implementation a series of projects in the process of implementation continued. Most of them were not completely the same as the priorities identified in the DSNCRP priority action matrix.

Furthermore, after the series of four hurricanes that struck the country in 2008, the country had barely recovered when the January 12, 2010 earthquake practically halted many efforts made to achieve growth, reduce poverty and successfully make the quantum leap to promote the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals, give the country a modern economy, strengthen all the institutional components of the government, and make our creativity and historical and cultural heritage available to spur national development.

Despite these three years of events and inconveniences of all types, many programs were begun to address a certain number of challenges. By pillar and sector, this report presents the background (2007), the general objective, the expected situation, performance indicators, and a brief account of the most important achievements of each sector during the three years in which the first-generation DSNCRP was implemented.


The growth strategy that incorporates the requirement to reduce poverty is based on four (4) key areas or growth vectors:

  • Agriculture and regional development

  • Tourism

  • Commerce and industry

  • Infrastructure



Agriculture has always been the backbone of the Haitian economy and in the past made significant contributions (90 percent, 80 percent, and 70 percent) to incoming foreign currency. For about the last four decades, with the arrival of the subcontracting industry, the rural exodus, the deterioration of the environment due to deforestation and the excessive pressure on farmland, its relative importance has decreased considerably. Its contribution to GDP is currently estimated at about 25 percent. Haiti is able to meet only 50 percent of the country’s demand for grains.

This sector is facing a set of structural and economic constraints, some of which can be mentioned here: the small size of farms: an average of 1.2 ha per farm; land insecurity that is a disincentive to land development or optimal management; the low level of technology in farm management; the poor infrastructure coverage, in terms of harnessing water, transportation, harvest processing and packaging; insufficient support from the authorities characterized by a low investment budget which causes 96 percent of agriculture promotion to be dependent on international cooperation (Ref. 2008/2009 PIP); the inadequate organization of associations of producers, making it impossible to obtain economies of scale in the organization of production, processing and marketing; the lack of interest by the financial sector in agriculture, making the rural credit system nonexistent as well as insurance coverage of farming; and the nearly annual decapitalization of farms due to weather events.

Despite it all, agriculture is still the most secure sector in the Haitian economy, contributing in both good and bad years 125 million dollars in foreign currency to the country, and 38 percent of incoming foreign currency for exports. Agriculture employs 50 percent of economically active labor overall and provides 80 percent of jobs in rural areas. It is appropriate that it is the first base of Pillar I, growth vector of the national economy in the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (DSNCRP). Based on the foregoing statements, it is therefore important to revitalize Haitian agriculture. The comprehensive DSNCRP framework may be the channel that leads to such prospects.


The general objective of the sector is to promote modern agriculture that creates wealth and protects the environment to achieve food security for all and improve the standard of living for farmers.


The implementation of the programs in the National Priority Action Plan of the DSNCRP that pertain to agriculture and rural development requires injecting funds. By doing so, we hope to: make land secure, resulting in better farm management; improve the availability of water, inputs, tools and equipment for farms; increase the added value of production; improve the people’s food security, in other words, in the long run produce food in sufficient quantity and quality at an affordable and competitive cost; increase the availability of products of animal origin by promoting livestock, sea fishing and aquaculture; improve the income of male and female farmers and the income of all the stakeholders in the sector, from production to processing and up to packaging; and reduce damage caused by weather events.


The performance indicators of the sector that were selected are: decreased or avoided land conflict, resettled farmers, inputs and tools distributed, volume and value of farm production, area of protected drainage basins, rehabilitated irrigation systems, and incomes of farmers.


The assessment of achievements is brief and addresses the priority actions that were adopted through the programs and projects that were implemented during the period.

Regarding the “Rehabilitation and Protection of Drainage Basins and the Improvement of Land Management,” the following achievements should be mentioned: the treatment of 460 km of ravines; and the reprofiling and protection of about 20 km of river beds.

In the area of “Promoting Agricultural Production Industries” we note the following: 217 trstakeholders and 40 rotary tillers were distributed in the different agricultural regions of the country; 400 irrigation pumps were installed for farmers in the different production areas; 100 associations of irrigators were recapitalized; plowing tools were provided to 43 CBOs; farmers were supplied with 120,000 metric tons of fertilizer; 6,000 metric tons of bean seed; 1,500 metric tons of corn seed; and 800 metric tons of sorghum seed, all at a subsidized price. These seeds were used to plant 20,000 hectares of land. More specifically, for two strategic crops for the country (rice and beans): production more than doubled in the three years of the DSNCRP; rice increased from 77,000 in 2007 to 160,000 tons in 2010, and bean production rose from 50,000 to 85,000 tons for the same period. This farm production support was especially intense after the four hurricanes in 2008 and produced a net increase in production in 2009 that the FAO estimated at an average of 25 percent of the production of agricultural commodities.

“Livestock Promotion” was chosen as a priority action and its accomplishments can be summarized as follows: drug subsidies to support an immunization campaign. Thus, 1,100 vials of subsidized drugs were distributed and 1,053,076 animals were immunized; 28,000 hardy layers were distributed to farmers, along with 90,190 day-old chicks, 8,000 goats and 155 production units of 155 meat-producing chickens were installed in the urban periphery.

For “Rehabilitation and Hydroagricultural Improvements,” the following accomplishments can be mentioned: water was placed in 106 perimeters special areas totaling 57,000 hectares; 2,126 km of canals and drains were flushed out and reprofiled; about 30 dams were rehabilitated and made operational, covering 5,000 hectares; irrigation pumps were repaired and made operational. The 106 special areas that were filled with water exceed by more than three (353 percent) the number of irrigation systems planned and cover almost seven times (354 percent) the area that was targeted. The kilometrage of drain canals flushed out was 254 percent higher than planned.

In the area of “Development of Sea Fishing/Aquaculture Development,” the following achievements are of note: 5,302 fishermen from 27 associations were equipped with fish aggregating buoys.



After several years when Haiti and Cuba were the pioneers and leaders in the region in tourism, the decline of this business sector began in the late 1960s and the early 1970s. At that time, cruise ships stopped visiting the country, which was catastrophic for the souvenir and crafts business. The decline movement accelerated into the 1980s. In that period, several flagship hotels closed in the capital and in the major cities of the provinces. Investments have been made in the sector and it appears that a recovery has begun. In 1995-1996 the government observed the impacts of the tourism business in the countries of the region, and launched the Tourism Master Plan (PDT) with UNDP assistance. What is the status today?

The Tourism Master Plan (PDT) has not been implemented. The level of investment in the sector continues to stagnate due to a lack of clear incentives. Even though an Investment Code was submitted, voted and enacted (in which tourism is included as an eligible sector), the number of visitors fluctuated with the political turbulence and warnings issued by the largest countries that bring in foreign currency. The lodging situation for tourists is equally catastrophic, with fewer than 1,000 guest rooms. According to estimates, the country is able to accommodate 730,000 visitors. The stumbling blocks continue to be primarily a lack of coordination of governmental authorities to implement the sector policy.


This objective is to make tourism one of the levers for development to benefit the people.


The expected situation following the projects that were selected at the sector level can be described as follows: sustainable and equitable development for the sector; ownership of the heritage by the people; increased direct international investments; partnerships with the private sector and local inhabitants; and the number of direct jobs created.


The performance indicators the sector selected are as follows: Four priority zones studied and developed, priority sectoral tourism sites and platforms developed, increased supply of lodging/hotel capacity, positive user perception of the quality of tourism, improved basic and hospitality infrastructure, an increase in the number of extended-stay tourists and cruise ship passengers, and the number of direct jobs created.


Regarding the priority program entitled “Develop a support system for local tourism activities: crafts, restaurants, lodging, guides, hotel training,” we note the following accomplishments: more than 75 managers and manager assistants were trained in hotel management; about ten male and female trainers obtained international certification; they were from the four priority areas (Nord, Ouest, Sud, and Sud-est), which gave them the skills to design, develop and evaluate tourism and hotel training programs; over one hundred journalists from the four priority areas received specialized training in tourism as part of the public tourism awareness project.

The following accomplishments can be linked to the priority program entitled “Promote a decentralized dynamic for tourism:” approval by the Interministerial Investment Commission (CII) of 15 projects that consequently received incentives for 32 applications for investments in tourism that were received; continuation of institutional strengthening for the Jacmel local government to support tourism; official opening of the Labadie Quai on December 3, 2009, which made Haiti competitive relative to the other countries of the region that have the capacity to accommodate Genesis generation ships. The presence of this ocean liner in Haiti means an increase in arrivals of cruise ship tourists and consumer demand for new products linked to the Labadie circuit.



After the decline that occurred between 2001 and 2004 due to the political crises, growth in production resumed beginning in 2005. However, this situation varies considerably from one branch of activity to another. Thus, GDP for agriculture today only accounts for 25 percent of national production and it is decreasing, except for export products and fruit in particular. With the liberalization of the economy that began in the early 1980s, Haitian agricultural products must compete with imported products. By contrast, the processing industries, which lost ground from 1996 to 2001, have increased over the last five (5) years.

The manufacturing sector, by contrast, has increased its share of added value and accounts for 15.6 percent of real GDP in 2002. The “manufacturing industries” and “construction and public works” subsectors are the largest in terms of contributions to added value, and each accounts for more than 7 percent. For the “manufacturing industries,” it appears that activity is resuming for the assembly sector after the substantial drop in production between 1999 and 2003. Several factors negatively affect the sector’s competitiveness; they include: the high cost of the factors of production, especially energy and imported raw materials; the poor productivity of labor and machines, the poor quality of certain products due to the use of inadequate manufacturing methods and processes; the deficient management of businesses; and the high level of financial costs. Some production industries, however, have comparative advantages that can be converted into competitive advantages.

For commerce, the trade liberalization policy, far from fostering growth, caused the decline of local industry, which, due to foreign competition, caused agro-industrial companies to be converted into commercial companies that import consumer goods. Today, the global crisis generated by the soaring prices of food and oil products has accelerated the downturn in the Haitian economy. Since Haiti is a net importer of these products, it is particularly affected by this crisis that has resulted in a considerable rise in the cost of staples at the national level.


The general objective of the sector is to make commerce and industry levers of sustainable development that directly benefit the population.


The expected situation was described as follows: improve the statutory and regulatory framework of commerce and investment; strengthen the institutional capacities of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry; improve the competitiveness of certain businesses in the textile and agro-industry sector; improve infrastructure in the area of standardization, quality control and weights and measures; facilitate and promote private and direct foreign investment; win market shares and seek out other markets; revitalize light industry and crafts; and improve business sector governance.


The sector adopted the following indicators: Agro-industrial production in volume and value; number of newly created SMEs; investments in the commerce and industry sector; and number of jobs created in the sector.


As part of promoting and facilitating investment, it should be noted that in 2007 the Investment Facilitation Center (CFI) was created. Its activities seek to simplify the administrative procedures and facilitate investments and investment monitoring. The programs focus on the following points: facilitation; assistance to businesses and entrepreneurs; dissemination of information and targeted promotion; monitoring the documentation of the Interministerial Investment Commission (CII); prospecting and training missions in Haiti and abroad; etc.

With the new administrative measures that eliminate certain stages and develop a compliance form, the recording and publication process for joint stock companies now takes 30 working days in the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.

As part of improving the governance of the business sector, several corrective measures have been taken in conjunction with the different stakeholders involved in the sectors that are related to investment. The following can be mentioned: extending the period of validity of the income tax clearance for export companies; permit renewing the income tax clearance starting in the second month before the third month expires; simplify the form for applying for incentives; and improving the merchandise control procedure by Société Générale de Surveillance (SGS).



Sustainable development and the creation of wealth depend essentially on basic infrastructure such as: roads, electricity, ports, airports and telecommunications. This infrastructure, which should attract direct foreign and domestic investment, is severely lacking. With about 3,700 km of roads, roughly 80 percent of the national road network is in poor condition. Major investments are required to improve the level of service and reduce the operating expenses that users have to pay. The ports are the principal opening to the outside world and the country only has two (2), with seventeen (17) cabotage ports, a few of which accommodate traffic for foreign trade. Most of this infrastructure is obsolete or in disrepair; in no case is it able to ensure the availability and efficiency of services nor the safety of lives and property. The country has two airports with international flights and five airfields open to domestic traffic. The international airport is the only one that has navigational aids, beacons and a runway that meets international standards to accommodate long-range aircraft.

As part of the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy, infrastructure development is one of the priority areas of government intervention since it supports growth. Through its different entities, the MTPTC also hopes to provide urgent responses to the devastating effects of the series of the last hurricanes.


The general objective of the sector is to improve the people’s access to basic structuring services and infrastructure as a development vector.


The expected situation is as follows: develop regional potential to further a stronger and more competitive Haitian economy; rebalance the national territory by opening up large regional metropolitan areas; ensure territorial continuity by building and renovating civil engineering structures; rehabilitate and protect existing infrastructure; protect the environment; improve the transportation networks; and strengthen the electricity infrastructure.


The indicators the sector adopted are as follows: index of access to basic socioeconomic infrastructure; linear systems of rehabilitated/maintained roads; kilometers of roads built; number of inhabitants of rural areas who live less than 2 km from a road passable in all seasons compared to the total rural population.


Regarding the “Institutional Strengthening” priority program, the following can be noted: acquire equipment for the National Equipment Center (CNE) and the regional equipment centers; and repair public works and transportation equipment.

The following accomplishments can be linked to the priority program entitled “Programs to Fight Poverty:” Rehabilitate Urban and Rural Roads and Drinking Water Supply Systems:”

For the interurban network, the projects rehabilitated: 240.8 km of national roads, or 25 percent of the supplementary network that was repaired to good condition (Titanyen- Xaragua, Grand Goâve - Miragoâne, Miragoâne - Aquin, Port au Prince - Mirebalais (entry to the city of Mirebalais), Miragoâne detour, la Mort – Ouanaminthe intersection); 30.6 km of departmental roads, or 2.3 percent of the supplementary network that was repaired to good condition (Port Salut -Port à Piment). New roads totaling 103 km (Titanyen- Seau d’eau, Carabet - La Chapelle, Lascahobas - Ti fond, Belladère - San Pedro, Hinche - Pandiassou - La Haye, Casale - Cabaret) were built to create alternatives to the existing roads, for an increase in the entire road network of about 3 percent.

Civil engineering structures: Built five (5) major bridges (Pont Bayeux, Pont Lascahobas, completion of Pont Barque, Pont de Torbeck, Pont sur la Rouyonne) and two culverts (Dalots Gressier and Petit Frères); five (5) fords (Gué sur La Thème, Gué d’Ennery, Gué de Montrouis, Gué de Chalon, and Gué sur la rivière Gauche); three (3) bridges (Pont de Montrouis, Pont Limite, Pont sur la rivière de Port à Piment) and two (2) culverts (Mariani) to provide seamless travel in the country after the four (4) hurricanes in 2008.

The accomplishments in terms or air transportation were: (i) the construction of the new terminal in Jacmel; (ii) groundbreaking for building a new international airport in Cap-Haitien to serve the North Region of the country; and (iii) placing in service three jetways at Toussaint Louverture Airport.

In the electricity sector, the accomplishments were the rehabilitation of the power plants of Varreux, Péligre, Carrefour, Port-de-Paix, Hinche and Petit Goâve, and the installation of three (3) oil-fired power plants (one 30 MW unit in Port-au-Prince, one 15 MW unit in Cap-Haïtien, and one 15 MW unit in Gonaïves). The highlight of the period from 2006 to 2010 was a significant increase in power generation. Installed capacity, which was 133.5 MW in 2007 for an available capacity of 61 MW, climbed to 192 MW in December 2009 for an available capacity of 107.2 MW, which was a 43.82 percent increase in installed capacity and a 75.74 percent jump in available capacity.


Human development depends on a significant improvement in the availability of opportunities, including social services, offered to the people so that they can develop to the best of their abilities. These are:

  • Education and vocational training

  • Health

  • Drinking water and sanitation



Due to the recent disasters caused by the last hurricanes, the already overwhelming situation of the education sector has brought about serious consequences for this sector and has accentuated the structural problems of internal efficiency and fairness that it was already facing, not to mention the problems in terms of the sector’s governance. Many schools were seriously damaged and about 30 were completely destroyed. Schoolteachers and principals suffered losses as well. The socioeconomic situation of families worsened further; in addition, school access became difficult for many children and even impossible immediately. School supervision has become nearly impossible in some areas because the roads are impassible.


The general objective of the sector is to improve access to preschool, primary education and vocational training.


The sector expects to improve access to education, improve the quality of education, strengthen the governance of the education system, improve external efficiency, and improve equity in terms of access to education in general.


The sector adopted the following performance indicators: Net admission rate in the first year of primary school, crude enrollment rate in the first and second cycles of primary school, the net enrollment rate in secondary school, the pass rate of students for the official examinations, high ratio of students per teacher, a high ratio per class (first and second cycles of primary school), index of access to basic education, percentage of qualified teachers (first and second cycles of primary school), and percentage of nonpublic schools recognized by the government.


From 2007-2008 to January 2010, the programs of the Ministry of National Education and Vocational Training were divided into three (3) major components: improvements in access, improvement in quality and strengthening sector governance.

Improvements in access: A certain number of programs were undertaken, including:

Creation and supply of new seats in preschools. The Center for the Protection of Young Children in Aquin provides its services to about one hundred children.

Creation and supply of new seats in primary schools. Through a tuition grant begun in 2007, 140,000 children from the first to the third year of elementary education received seats in 2010. For fiscal year 2009-2010, about 1,223 schools received the grant. At the same time, support was provided to several hundred parents to facilitate their children’s access to a nonpublic school. More than 100,000 benefitted from the effects of this program.

Rehabilitation and construction of basic school infrastructure. Construction began on eighteen (18) EFA-CAPs. Roughly 75 schools were renovated or rebuilt through the Emergency School Reconstruction Project (PURES) and the Project to Support the Reconstruction of Educational Infrastructure (PARIE). Likewise, the Economic and Social Assistance Fund (FAES) was used at nearly 80 schools, ten of which had to be rebuilt and 50 of which required repair or maintenance work. Seventy (70) communes were reached under this program.

Secondary school construction and rehabilitation. About 50 secondary schools are currently being built with financing from the Bureau de Monétisation with implementation by the FAES.

Moreover, major natural disasters seriously thwarted government of Haiti efforts to achieve the Education for All (EPT) objectives. Confronted with this situation, eleven (11) schools were rebuilt and 38 were renovated, in addition to support for school kits, teaching materials, uniforms, equipment, tuition grants, school cafeterias, etc. About 150 school sites received hangars from the FAES and USAID through the Haiti Education Reform Support Project (PHARE). These structures were enlisted for nearly 500 schools for a total of 250,000 students using the school consolidation strategy with double shifts in the areas affected by the earthquake. With support from the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), nearly 450 school sites, for a total of 1,500 schools, received tents in the areas affected with appropriate structures to accommodate almost 350,000 students. Tents and tarpaulins were also used to house many migrant or displaced students for a total of 115,000 students in all the hosting departments. It should be mentioned that there were many projects for installing temporary accommodation structures for about 1,500 schools by other education partners such as Save the Children, Plan de parrainage, Concern, Terafund, World Vision, Finn Church Aid, etc.

In terms of improving the quality and requalification of teachers and principals. As part of the Program to Strengthen Education Quality and the Accelerated Initial Training Program (FIA), over 2,300 teachers in training through ten departmental education directorates have already received their bonus as determined under this program. Using reality lessons, 1,700 student-teachers were trained. Currently they are in the second vocational training session in 14 teacher training institutions.

Regarding the New Secondary School, lesson plans were prepared for the second and third years. Information and training sessions were held with the officials of 158 schools involved in the pilot phase of the project. Moreover, modules were prepared for the second and third year of the New Secondary School by professionals in the field hired by the MENFP. Teaching documents were disseminated en masse in the 158 schools involved in the pilot project in October and November 2009.

A French-Creole teaching guide was prepared.

The XO Project: “One laptop per child” is continuing. In quantitative terms for

2009-2010, roughly 10,000 laptops were distributed to 9,500 students, 400 teachers and 200 management employees of different levels. These students attend about 40 schools broken down as follows: Kenscoff (10 schools), Thomazeau (4 schools); Jacmel (13 schools); and Lascahobas (12 schools).

In terms of training for teachers and management personnel, the PARQUE Project provided more than 50,000 person/hours of training, both on-site and at the central level. Servers were acquired and teaching materials and dedicated teaching software were developed for the schools. In addition, alongside the project, and as part of the experimental year, about 40 graduates of the Training Center for Basic Education (CFEF) worked in the schools that participate in the project and they were trained in digital subjects applied to education.

Through its “Internal Effectiveness” Project, the MENFP began building ten (10) new school inspection offices (BDS) that are operational, and ten (10) new school inspection offices are currently under construction. Moreover, 1,930 educators were trained and teacher contracts were implemented and finalized in 210 schools; and 200 school inspection offices and area offices were outfitted.

Education system reform. An Operating Plan to upgrade the sector was prepared and provides for: (i) one national school accessible to all Haitian boys and girls, regardless of gender and place of residence, according to the profile that we are seeking and according to our culture and our values; (ii) an education and training system that is commensurate with the needs of the country’s economy; (iii) quality education supported by a common base of knowledge, knowhow, self-management skills and etiquette together and taught by skilled male and female educators; (iv) an education system with strengthened and improved governance at all levels, gradually enlisting the contribution of the territorial authorities for basic education, including early childhood and preschool.



The health situation in the country is of great concern and requires swift and urgent action to improve the people’s health in the 565 communal sections as shown in the country’s principal health indicators. According to the Mortality, Morbidity and Use of Health Services Survey (EMMUS IV), the maternal mortality rate rose from 523 to 630 per 100,000 live births for the period from 2001 to 2006. This situation is troublesome and even unacceptable in a context in which treatment techniques to eliminate this scourge are known. The child mortality rate, which was 81 per 1,000 live births, fell substantially over these last years and is now about 57 per 1,000, yet it is still the highest rate in the Caribbean and Latin America. The causes of child mortality are primarily diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, and malnutrition.

The latest surveys on HIV-AIDS showed that three percent of Haitians are infected with the AIDS virus, which is still the leading cause of mortality among infectious diseases in Haiti. The incidence of new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases is 180 per 100,000; this puts Haiti in eighth place in the countries of the world with the highest incidence of tuberculosis. Nontransmissible diseases also play an important role in the deteriorated state of the people’s health. Among these diseases are diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, tumors, etc. As for diabetes, the prevalence rate varies from two to eight percent. Cardiovascular diseases are widespread among the people of Haiti. According to a survey performed by the Haiti State University Hospital, the prevalence rate for admissions is 40 percent. For tumors, the number of persons affected is on the rise. A retrospective study performed at a hospital in the country showed that of the 20,000 specimens tested, 21 percent showed a tumor pathology. The Minimum Package of Services (PMS) was implemented to offer quality care to the people according to the level of institutional complexity, but access is still limited for geographical, economic, cultural and social reasons.


Promote a modern health system that vulnerable groups find easy to access.


In an effort to provide universal services in all the health institutions, the PMS is evaluated and revised upward to obtain more qualified personnel and a more standardized technical support system. The government must extend health care to all categories of patients and prepare and implement a social protection policy in the country, especially in the poorest communes in the country. Furthermore, through the MSPP, the government must commit to designing a social security policy for people who are not covered and who account for about 40 percent of the population, and do so by improving the supply of care and ensuring equitable access.


Some of the indicators that the sector adopted should be mentioned: the maternal mortality rate; the infant-child mortality rate; the infant mortality rate/HIV prevalence rate among pregnant women between 15 and 24 years old; the percentage of women infected with HIV-AIDS; the vaccine coverage rate for the EPI target diseases; the percentage of deliveries assisted by skilled health care workers; the percentage of the population in the advanced stage of HIV-AIDS being treated with antivirals; the number of communal health units with the minimum package of services; the average cost of health services; the percentage of cases of tuberculosis detected and treated; the primary health services access index; the percentage of health facilities and administrative structures of the MSPP with trained and skilled staff; and a standard technical support system to provide health services.


As part of building the health sector’s institutional capacities, the MSPP has undertaken several activities that address the following:

Training throughout the country of: 52 social service students; 357 mothers and fathers clubs, 530 birth attendants in the health institutions; educational sessions on the signs of complication in 149 institutions; systematic awareness of women who deliver in hospitals and maternity centers of the importance of postnatal consultations; train 213 staff members (physicians, nurses, laboratory technicians, assistants and health workers to treat malaria (Nord-ouest; train 15 laboratory technicians in microscopic Dx for malaria (Sud); provide 99 institutions with the malaria education guide (Sud); and provide 43 institutions with microscopes, laboratory inputs and TB drugs (Sud).

The health information system was used to update the list of the country’s health institutions and to prepare the health statistics for 2007, 2008, and 2009; reenergize the work of the SIS subcommittees (financial resources, service statistics, drugs and inputs); supply seven health directorates with HIV/AIDS program data collection tools (Artibonite, Nord, Nord est, Nord Ouest, Nippes, Sud, Ouest); disseminate the map report of projects for Behavior Change Communication and Community Mobilization (BCC/CM); and hold a follow-up meeting with the METH team, LNSP and PNLS to standardize the supervision tools.

Health infrastructure. During the period the MSPP began to set up health infrastructure throughout the country.

Rehabilitation: As part of the Government Emergency Program, 33 dispensaries and health centers were rehabilitated in five departments in the country. The MSPP worked in Artibonite: rehabilitate/expand and modernize the internal medicine unit of hospitals; build pediatric units, internal medicine and CMCC (Charles Colimon Medical Center of Petite Rivière de l’Artibonite; repair and expand the BAHON Dispensary (Nord); upgrade the Limonade Public Health Center (Nord); upgrade the Orthopedics Unit of the HUJ (Nord), and rebuild the HUJ archives; renovate the Jérémie Hospital Laboratory (G-anse); rehabilitate the dialysis and internal medicine unit in Hôpital justinien du Cap (Nord); renovate the Trou du Nord Hospital (75 percent) (Nord); renovate the Boucan Carré Health Center (Centre); strengthen Hôpital Sainte Croix in Léogane; renovate the Beaudin Dispensary in Petit Goâve; establish a rehabilitation center and prosthesis manufacturing facility in Milôt; renovate Grande-Rivière du Nord Hospital and accredit the center in the reference hospital; renovate the Dondon Health Center (fence, building repair, equipment, etc.).

Construction: Additional work: build/renovate structures at the Isaie Jeanty Maternity Center (MIJ) (Ouest); build/renovate Hôpital de Grand Goâve (Ouest); build the HUEH Dermatology/Urology (Ouest); build an administrative block at the Petite Rivière de l’Artibonite Medical Center; build the Plaine de l’Arbre Health Center; build the Passerenne/Ennery Health Center; build the Grand Vincent Dispensary (MDM support) (G-Anse); rebuild the Saint-Raphaël Health Center as a reference hospital; build a community reference hospital (HCR) in Saint Louis du Nord (N-Ouest); build a HCR in Bassin Bleu (N-Ouest); build a health center in Gressier (Ouest); build a hospital for respiratory diseases in Sigueneau (Ouest); build three health centers in the south; build 12 health centers in Artibonite; build and/or renovate 21 health blocks in the different communes of Nord department; build an incinerator in Saint Marc and an incinerator in Gonaïves; build a health center in Caracol and in Grand Bassin (Terrier Rouge/N-E Commune Section). The MSPP continued to build comprehensive diagnosis centers in Grande Rivière du Nord, l’Anse à Veau (Nippes), and in Trou du Nord.

Rehabilitation of specialized hospitals: the MSPP rehabilitated the Cayes Sanatorium and an antenatal clinic in Cayes;

Strengthen communal health facilities (UCS): The MSPP/BID Project developed six functional UCSs throughout the country. Meanwhile, the concept changed to make room for the arrondissement health units. The UCSs are operating, especially in Artibonite.

Strengthening treatment of the priority diseases (tuberculosis, malaria, HIV/AIDS, filariasis, etc.). The programs involved: mass distribution of lymphatic filariasis drugs and intestinal parasites and insecticide-treated nets (over 8,000 in Nord, Nord-Ouest, etc.) malaria treatment protocols; IEC materials and treatment algorithms in the health institutions; treatment of breeding grounds; training for physicians nurses (35), laboratory technicians (50), assistants (75), and health workers.

HIV/AIDS and STI treatment. The principal accomplishments are: treatment for Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS (PTMCT) for 35 percent of women who tested HIV positive and their newborn; screened 30 percent of children born to HIV+ mothers according to the treatment norms of the health institutions; provided a steady supply to four institutions of inputs and drugs for PTMCT; offered palliative care for 85 percent of PLWHA and ARV treatment for patients in five institutions; psychosocial treatment for 55 percent of PLWHA at voluntary testing and counseling centers (counseling, psychological support and post-test clubs) at the five institutions.

Reduce the rate of maternal-infant mortality. Steady supply to 80 percent of the institutions of drugs, materials and inputs for treating complicated diarrhea, systematic weighing of children 1 to 4 years old in 25 institutions and mobile clinics; daily immunization sessions for children less than one year old with BCG, Polio, measles, and DTM in 80 percent of the health institutions; monthly supply of vaccines and inputs to 100 percent of institutions that provide immunizations.

Contraception prevalence. The MSPP set up 61 distribution posts for contraceptives around the health institutions in Nord; it also held nine mobile clinics per quarter to offer long-lasting methods.



Haiti is facing major challenges in the drinking water and sanitation sector. In particular, access is very poor, quality is questionable and the public institutions are still very weak despite external aid and the stated will of the government to strengthen the institutions of the sector. Nongovernmental organizations play an important role in the sector, especially in rural areas and in the disadvantaged neighborhoods. In rural areas with towns, the networked systems are often in very poor condition; either they provide no water at all or they provide water only to persons who live near the source, and those who are at the end of the line have no service. In nearly all the urban areas, the supply of drinking water is sporadic. There is little reliable data on water quality.


The objective is to improve and provide access to health, sanitation and drinking water supply services.


The expected situation of implementing the priority actions adopted in the area of drinking water and sanitation can be summarized as follows: improve access to primary sanitation services; improve water quality; and increase the rate of coverage of drinking water supply and sanitation in urban and rural areas.


The indicators the sector adopted are as follows: indices of access to running water; indices of access to primary sanitation services; connection rates to the water network in rural areas; percentage of the population with access to a source of drinking water; and the rate of the population with access to adequate sanitation facilities.


Projects for the rehabilitation, strengthening and building water and sanitation infrastructure in rural and urban areas have begun, in particular: creation of a National Drinking Water and Sanitation Directorate (DINEPA); drinking water and pilot infrastructure networks for sanitation in Limonade and Trou du Nord are under construction; the rehabilitation of the SAEP in Cap-Haitien, Fort St. Michel and Petite Anse is 88 percent complete and 100 percent complete in the city of Cayes. Emergency projects for the distribution network in the aftermath of Hurricane Hanna, in L’Estère, Desdunes, St. Michel de l’Attalaye, Port-de Paix and neighboring communes.

Drainage of surface runoff: treatment of breeding grounds in the communes (DSNO); drainage of canals and filling of ponds (Nord); availability of inputs for water treatment; availability of sanitation materials and equipment.


The National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy involves several types of governance, including political, economic, social, cultural and environmental. Given the current situation in the country, the governance component of the DSNCRP places priority on establishing the rule of law, and more specifically justice and security. The implementation of an equitable legal order, a functional judiciary, and a general climate of security are essential conditions for growth and reducing poverty. Democratic governance encompasses the following areas:

  • Justice

  • Security

  • Local governance



The situation of the justice and public security sector is characterized primarily by: faulty case-management procedures; overpopulation in the prisons due to the high rate of prolonged preventive detention and malfunctioning courts; the obsolescence and insufficiency of most of the buildings that house the courts, the prosecution offices, police stations, penitentiaries and the building that houses the central administration of the ministry; insufficient skilled human resources, particularly managers in the PNH and magistrates; inadequacy of most laws, and the Code of Criminal Investigation in particular, at a time when modern communication techniques make borders disappear.


Provide a favorable environment for swift and sustainable development through accessible, credible, efficient and competent justice, and a registry office so that each citizen can have his own personnel identity to have a legal identity.


The sector expects a certain number of accomplishments, including: strengthen MJSP managerial capacities, including the preparation and implementation of a rational public security policy and a policy to fight organized crime; improve national civil rights and criminal legislation; improve the judicial environment for better accessibility to justice; reopen and strengthen the Magistrate School; make the people aware of how justice works; make considerable improvements in prolonged preventive detention; strengthen the case-management procedures in Haiti by strengthening knowledge; renovate and modernize the system for recording the transcription of registry instruments; strengthen the Haiti National Police; rehabilitate and build jails; and improve the conditions for accessing justice.


The principal performance indicators the sector adopted are as follows: number of cases processed by the entire judicial system; improvement in the provision of public services for justice and public security; improvements in the operation of higher and lower courts; establish the management system for the registry; coverage rate of local police stations; crime rate; police/population ratio rate; coverage rate for detention centers; average preventive detention period; number of trials held; time until judgments are issued; jurisdictions of peace installed and operational; and number of sessions held by traveling judges.


From 2006 to 2010, the Ministry of Justice and Public Security (MJSP) carried out different activities in accordance with the guidelines of the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (DSNCRP).

Restructuring and reorganization of the MJSP: The law that created the High Judicial Authority Council has been prepared and published. The law on the status of magistrates has been prepared and published. The law that created the Magistrate School has been prepared and published.

Implementation of a system to foster access to legal information: The MJSP Internet network has been installed. The website of the Ministry of Justice and Public Security has been created. A database office has been set up in the Ministry. Administrative employees in the ministry have been trained.

Strengthening judicial authority: Consolidation of the magistrates: Official opening of the Judicial Complex, with the District Court, Appeals Court and the Court of Cassation.

Access to the courts and their efficiency: Gradual extension of justice throughout the country by promoting access to justice: Four (4) district courts have been renovated (St Marc, Grande-Rivière du Nord, Port-de-Paix and Fort-Liberté); four (4) justice complexes (combined courts of the peace and civil registry offices) have been built (St Marc, Delmas, Marchand Dessalines, and Cayes); and five courts of the peace and five civil registry offices have been built (Trou du Nord, Hinche, Mirebalais, Limonade, and Marbial). An operational “case-management procedure” has been established and has been linked to the Justice/Police components: continuing education for 170 justices of the peace at the Magistrate School (EMA).

Improving prison conditions and penitentiary management systems: Build and renovate physical infrastructure: Build two prisons (Hinche (phase 1), St. Marc (complete); and renovate three prisons: Port-de-Paix, Delmas 33 and the National Penitentiary (100 percent complete).

Fighting unbridled insecurity with bold action: Increase police presence throughout the country and improve services: Launch the project to build the Police Academy in Ganthier; launch the project to upgrade garages (Admiral Killick Naval Base, MJSP and PNH); officially open the Trou du Nord station, the Nord-est departmental directorate; renovate the Marigot station and the Fort-Liberté police station; and stimulate the case-management procedures.

Improving the image of the National Police: Provide the National Police with modern infrastructure and equipment: New equipment and new infrastructure have been delivered to the Police; Hire new police officers: police officers were hired during the period; Improve the status, living conditions and work of police officers: make vehicles available to transport police officers/hospitals for specialized police officers; Clean up the police and fight internal corruption and fraud: Reduce cases of internal corruption and fraud by 70 percent; Use new strategies against illegal trafficking and money laundering: Strengthen the legal and regulatory framework/money laundering; Revitalize legal procedures such as judgments, sentencing, seizures and confiscation of property.


As part of the government’s general policy, focused on reinstating law and order and reaffirming governmental authority, the government made public security policy one of its top priorities. Thus, its principal objective is to strengthen the mobilization and intervention capacities of the National Police.

For this objective, we noted: A sharp decline in kidnapping; the complete pacification of areas called “ungoverned spaces” by some of the media; the resumption of nighttime activities; the revitalization of the metropolitan business center; the arrest of several notorious gang leaders and the dismantling of several armed gangs. There are other accomplishments as well: maintaining greater police presence in the field; establishing a local police force; preparing new strategies to fight drug trafficking; and installing a rapid response system for requests from the public.

Moreover, at the structural level, the institution now has two new units: the Motorized Intervention Brigade Corps, which serves as the local police and intervenes in areas difficult to access in the area surrounding Port-au-Prince, and the Strategic Operations Center, in charge of providing tactical orientation for the work of the field units in the cities through mapping information. Regarding infrastructure, several arrondissement and commune stations were renovated, including 14 in Sud department alone, and other construction projects are underway. At the infrastructure level, several arrondissement and commune stations were renovated, including 14 just in South department, and other construction projects are underway. In terms of operations, the units have greater intervention capacity now that they have several vehicles and some communication equipment, but also because of their increased number with the deployment of three new graduating classes.



Haiti experimented with a high degree of administrative concentration. This practice was one of the reasons the country suffocated and struggled. The 1987 Constitution opted for DECENTRALIZATION as the strategic path for development to overcome this situation and to ensure that the people took part in building a new State. However, despite the relevance of the constitutional stipulation, now, two decades later, the country is still at the starting point with regard to decentralization. Most of the entities of the territorial authorities are not yet set up, nor are a certain number of important institutions, yet carrying out most of the MICT’s missions is closely linked to the territorial authorities. In sum, the current situation in this sector is characterized by: a lack of reliable data on the territorial authorities (CT); the incapacity of the municipalities; the lack of competence in the area for preparing communal development plans; a lack of city halls, which seriously affects the image and bargaining capacity of municipal elected officials and even the services offered to the community. In some cities in the country there are no public markets. Merchants must work in the streets and they display their products haphazardly and even on sidewalks; a lack of financial resources for the territorial authorities; the vulnerability of certain zones in the country to disasters, and to hurricanes in particular due to very poor means to fight disasters; and substantial inequality among the regions of the country in every respect.


Bring the government closer to the citizens through deconcentration and decentralization.


The desired improvements are: improve manager productivity; make all types of reliable data available on the ten departments, the 140 communes and the 570 communal sections; empower local elected officials to prepare and implement local development plans, to understand the missions assigned to them through sound, effective and modern management to respond to the needs of their community; provide a pleasant working environment for local elected officials in new city halls and administrative buildings; provide a pleasant and more appropriate environment for businesses, primarily in the border areas; open up the communal sections to contribute to reducing poverty and inequality; estimate the tax potential of the communes and increase the level of communal revenue; achieve financial autonomy for the communes; decrease the country’s vulnerability to natural disasters; and better manage the communes and improve the people’s living conditions.


The quantity and quality of public services the local authorities provide; number of local officials who are trained and supervised; percentage of communes for which data are collected; the local population’s access to public markets; and the revenue of the territorial authorities as a percentage of total revenue.


These accomplishments focus on the following three major areas: strengthen the ministry’s structures; strengthen the Haitian territorial authorities; and improve migration management;

In terms of strengthening MICT intervention capacities: The principal activities the Ministry carried out can be summarized as follows:

Strengthened the MICT analysis capacity: new directorates were established such as the Directorate of Research, Planning and Monitoring, which supersedes the former Planning Unit; the Policy Affairs Directorate has become the Directorate of Policy Affairs and Human Rights. Likewise, all the directorates and units in the ministry have been strengthened, both in terms of personnel and finance and physical resources.

Reorganized the deconcentrated directorates of the MICT: The Territorial Authorities Directorate was reorganized, primarily in terms of revising its duties, the process of providing human resources and the duties of its personnel; for over two years, the Directorate of Immigration and Emigration (DIE) has obtained both technical and training support from the OIM, mainly for officers and supervisors assigned to border posts. Several programs are underway to upgrade the migration management system, and the most important are: Program to train immigration agents. Entries and departures are better controlled at the Haiti-Dominican Republic border after several training sessions for the employees of this directorate. Deconcentration of passport issue services. To deal with the growing number of applications for passports in the Directorate of Immigration and Emigration (at least 1,200 per day), the Ministry of the Interior and Territorial Authorities opened an application monitoring and passport production center in Cap-Haïtien and a passport application center in Cayes. Likewise, to ease the pressure on the Central Bureau in Lalue, the Ministry also opened a passport application and delivery center in Port-au-Prince.

The Morne L’Hôpital Supervision Office (OSAMH) carried out a number of projects that can be summarized as followed: built sills made of dry masonry in about ten ravines; built sills made of sacks filled with earth (56,000 sacks; planted hedges on the slopes of ravines (128,000 linear meters); built retaining basins with a capacity of 3,250 m3; planted 234,000 plantlets of forest tree species; planted 328 apricot seeds, and over 250,000 of them are now at the young plantlet stage; planted 52,000 bamboo shoots and more than 830,000 elephant grass cuttings as part of the ravine stabilization work; trained 720 farmers in conservation agriculture techniques. Through all of this work, over 450 hectares of land destroyed by erosion were reclaimed. At the same time, the problem of growing shantytowns in Morne L’Hôpital worsened after the disasters the country experienced, and in particular the January 12, 2010 earthquake.

In terms of strengthening the territorial authorities: The following principal activities and accomplishments are noteworthy:

Improved local governance: Financial and accounting management improved with the creation of a cadre of 50 territorial financial auditors, the acquisition of data processing hardware and equipment, the organization of communal budget preparation workshops at the national level, and the programming of Territorial Authority Management and Development Funds (FGDCT), whose revenue rose slightly, from 1,003,361,440 gourdes in 2007-2008 to 1,164,984,051 gourdes in 2009-2010.


These support the three pillars:

  • Food security

  • Gender equality

  • Environment

  • Social protection

  • Culture and communication

  • Urban development

  • Land-use planning

  • Risks and disasters

  • Capacity building

  • General framework to support the private sector



In the context of the 2000s, food insecurity among households takes the form of growing “extreme poverty” associated with structural vulnerability: the two trends are exacerbated considerably due to the effect of external shocks. Confronted with such a difficult and complex context, households developed survival strategies that have remained largely ineffective. After the four series of national surveys performed on poverty, massive poverty is estimated at an average of 70 percent and is found predominately in rural areas. The steady fall in GDP may explain the overall deterioration of the standard of living. In greater detail, it should be noted that incomes are unsteady and clearly insufficient due to very uneven distribution. These low and unsteady incomes are greatly affected by the growing cost of food. Food insecurity among households is also due in large part to the poor response capacity of households to risks and, more generally, to adversity due to the limits of their resources and their limited ability to use them. The inspection system for food production, processing, storage and distribution is considered nonoperational. This situation makes a great majority of households structurally vulnerable, and large families in particular, rural families in general, and people living in semi-urban areas. In general, the poor develop unsustainable survival strategies that have negative impacts on food security and the environment, thereby jeopardizing the present and the future.


Improve the integration and coordination of food policies and strategies to achieve the human right to food.


From the planned projects we expect an improvement in food security among households. This improvement depends on the improvement of activities in other sectors. In this regard, the following are essential: 1) jump-start agricultural production supported by infrastructure investment programs to contribute to developing rural and urban jobs; create favorable conditions for production, and thus improve access to food for a large number of households by acting on production as well as income; 2) a properly articulated local production support policy; the entities involved should act synergistically to create an encouraging economic environment for farmers and economic agents in general.


Increase in per capita production; higher level of farm employment; income created; improved standard of living; better responses to food emergencies after disasters; stronger sanitation control and food safety.


The priority programs that were adopted in the implementation of the DSNCRP pertained specifically to: strengthening the monitoring and coordination system for food security programs for individuals and households and strengthen coordinated planning, operationalization, food security project and program evaluation with decentralized food security observatories.

The accomplishments were: prepared the framework law and submitted it to Parliament for ratification; created six national observatories that are operational throughout the country; and prepared the National Food Security Program, now awaiting validation by the Ministry of Agriculture.



The last census in 2003 estimated that 51.8 percent of Haitians are women. Despite the relative lack of sex-specific data, the available figures show discriminatory characteristics of the status of women in Haiti. Economically speaking, female labor is underestimated and undervalued; there is unequal access to goods and resources and uneven responsibility for social burdens, with lower economic power despite a substantial contribution to the economy. In terms of education, the access rate and the number of students who remain in school is imbalanced between girls and boys; technical and vocational training opportunities are unequal; the curriculum reproduces the stereotypical patterns; training reproduces labor market segregation and unequal opportunities and chances. For health, women lack awareness and information on their rights related to health; and there is no policy or means to counter violence against women.


Respect women’s rights and implement Gender Mainstreaming in the public policies.


The image of the expected situation as follows: a gender equality policy will be implemented and enforced; institutional and organizational capacities in the gender sector will be stronger; the status of women will be improved; women’s rights will be strengthened; education and the right to health for women and girls will be implemented; court and legal proceedings for women’s rights and gender equality will be reformed; and policymakers and the people will be made aware of and educated about discrimination and sexism.


Women are in at least thirty percent of elected and appointed positions; women’s vulnerability is reduced; and the status of women has improved in general.


As part of the initiatives that seek to improve the status of women: two hundred (200) sewing machines were distributed to women’s organizations in Marmelade, Ennery, Desdunes, St Michel, St Louis du Sud, Maniche, Camp-Pérrin, Môle St Nicolas and les Abricots; improved male and female goats were distributed to 320 women in the departments of Nord, Artibonite and Sud; economic support was given to single-parent women and scholarships were awarded to girls in difficulty; the local government of Abricots is building ten houses for women in difficult situations; and a housing center was established to offer hospitality services to female victims of violence. This center houses between 20 and 25 women per week.



Because of its geographical location, its morphology and the state of its topsoil, Haiti is exposed to high environmental risk. This situation is deteriorating due to the many threats and the lack of a warning system and structures to protect the population, human infrastructure and natural resources. This situation is closely linked to the small farming crisis, the demographic explosion, disorderly urbanization, strong pressure on natural resources, and the deficient legal and institutional framework.


Improve the management of the environment to contribute to sustainable growth while ensuring economic and social security for the poor and the security of the ecosystems that support life.


The description of the expected situation is as follows: improved watersheds; normal operation of hydro systems; the National Environment and Vulnerability Observatory is operational; and living standards have been improved.


Number of awareness campaigns on environmental issues, risks and natural disasters; percentage of households that have upgraded portable stoves; carbon dioxide emissions per inhabitant; rational waste management; control of air quality; retention of arable land; and improved environmental quality that supports economic growth and reduces poverty.


During the DSNCRP implementation period, the accomplishments of the Ministry of the Environment were as follows: awareness campaigns were carried out on environmental issues, risks and natural disasters; households were provided with upgraded portable stoves to ease pressure on ligneous resources; the departmental directorates of the environment were consolidated; communal environmental management units were set up; and carbon sequestration energy forests were promoted.



The country has a considerable shortfall in basic social services: education, drinking water, sanitation, training and access to credit. The vulnerable groups and disabled persons in particular are often victims of discriminatory acts by society and are unable to develop fully. This discrimination, conscious or unconscious, prevents individuals from functioning effectively in daily life.

The poverty that rages in the country threatens the very existence of social groups and networks. Some attempt sea voyages to reach neighboring coasts, hoping that there they will find what they need to ensure their own survival and the survival of their loved ones who stayed behind. Emigrational flows lead to deportations and massive repatriations. The fight for survival becomes key in social action to the detriment of human and moral objectives. The danger thus creates an imbalance, both in society in general and individual psychology. Haitians live in constant fear of tomorrow. Therefore, everyone does whatever possible to meet their needs.


Reduce exclusion and strengthen social protection.


The expected situation was described as follows: a labor market strengthened by overhauling the labor code and establishing a job program that focuses on the solidarity economy; support for small careers and jump-starting the crafts sector; managing vulnerable groups and in particular people with special needs; creating jobs and improving the standard of living of vulnerable groups; senior citizen groups supported and managed; children and youths in difficult situations are supervised; the social fabric, marked by disaggregation, is consolidated.


Number of senior citizens and persons with specific needs supported; reentry rate of youth into societal life; number of reception centers created for persons with special needs; number of socio-medical centers built and outfitted with equipment; and improved standard of living for the people, particularly for the poorest people.


The accomplishments of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labor (MAST) as part of the implementation of the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (SNCRP) for the 2008-2010 period are: 650 children of both genders receive services for food, education, etc.; the renovation of the Carrefour Intake Center; the provision of a direct allowance to more than 5,000 children in difficult situations for the 2007-2008 academic year; and the renovation of the offices of the Government Enterprise to Promote Social Housing (EPPLS).



Created by an order of January 28, 1995, the young structures of the Ministry of Culture and Communication have been weakened by many successive and prolonged political and socioeconomic crises, exacerbated by the natural disasters that have devastated the country over the last decade. The Ministry set its priorities on celebrating political-cultural commemorative events that were very often poorly managed, organizing carnival and subsidizing an inconsistent constellation of small cultural projects carried out throughout the year and especially during patron saint festivals. The ministry is also in charge of 12 autonomous agencies. These agencies deal with specific matters and some of them were founded well before the ministry. Most of these agencies are experiencing serious crises that make them lifeless. They operate separately without functioning systems for coordination or common projects.

Certain positive factors in the sector, such as the existence of cultural wealth and national historic heritage, are underutilized and face various constraints that make utilization difficult: weak cultural institutions; the deterioration of tangible and intangible heritage; a strong trend toward losing national identity, civic values, the tradition of helping one another, solidarity and tolerance; the practice of exclusion and confrontation among the people of Haiti; and the media that lacks the ability to educate, sensitize, train and inform the population.


Make culture and communication the fundamental catalysts for the country’s economic and social development.


By analyzing the ministry’s missions and activities using the assessment that was performed, we isolated six separate areas of activities: conservation, communication, creativity; research; performativity and entrepreneurship. By researching and extending the ideas that support these areas, we established three major courses of action: Conservation-Research, Creativity-Entrepreneurship, and Communication-Performativity.


Number of historic sites rehabilitated; intangible heritage developed; strengthened capacities for educating, raising awareness and informing the media; frequency of visits to historic sites; number of books published in Creole; and number of schools that raise the flag.


The principal accomplishments of the Ministry of Culture and Communication (MCC) for the 2008-2010 period in implementing the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (SNCRP) can be summarized as follows: i) some of the former barracks in the former Cap-Haitien colonial prison dating from the 17th century were renovated; ii) two departmental directorates of the ministry were set up in Cap-Haitien and Jacmel; iii) A movable stage was acquired, equipped with a sound and light control room to upgrade MCC capacity in disseminating culture throughout the country; iv) a part of the Lycée Anacaona of Léogane was renovated to house the Léogane Music Teaching and Research Center; v) the Haitian Copyright Office and the National Book Directorate were created; vi) five (5) cultural, reading and cultural activity centers (ECLA) were created in Cap-Haitien, in Aquin, at Lycée Alexandre Pétion, Lycée des Jeunes Filles, and in Jacmel; vii) three (3) public buildings from the 1950s were renovated in Belladère; viii) the school workshop for the technical repair of heritage buildings and crafts was established.

As part of the conservation and heritage development program, the following accomplishments among others can be reported: i) restored and preserved a staircase in Sans-Souci Historical Park; ii) improved access routes and preservation measures for the Marchand Dessalines fortifications; iii) improved access routes and preservation measures at Fort Picolet in Cap-Haitien; iv) rehabilitation work was performed in houses of worship and cultural infrastructure was built in the Soukri, Souvnans and Badjo group housing developments [lakou]; and v) Grann Gitonn lakou was renovated in Arcahaie.



The current urban system faces a set of stumbling blocks in its development process, and the most important ones are: the housing shortfall; sanitation and drinking water issues; inadequate infrastructure/equipment and services for a constantly growing population; the proliferation of makeshift housing and slums; problems with the urban road and transportation network; lack of urban zoning; insecurity and juvenile delinquency; construction of shacks at inappropriate sites, such as ravine banks and beds, floodplains and the coastline; and the expansion of cities into farmland.


Contribute to sustainable urban development and poverty reduction by: 1) preparing and supporting the implementation of development and rehabilitation plans for hazardous neighborhoods; and 2) harness growth.


As part of the Priority Action Sectoral Plan for urban development, the expected situation can be summarized as follows: a disorderly urbanization process has been stopped; the coastline has been reclaimed; dangerous neighborhoods have been moved and rehabilitated; the public transportation system has been improved; infrastructure and equipment has been built or rehabilitated to accommodate the population growth rate; and urban zoning has been created and implemented.


Area turned into slums (at the national, departmental and communal level); slum growth rate; percentage of the urban population with access to decent housing; percentage of urban housing units to be renovated; percentage of decent housing units built; percentage of makeshift housing units built; number of homeless persons; rate of increase in the average price of a shack; rate of access to decent housing; rent-income ratio: ratio between the annual median rent for housing units and annual tenant income; population density of areas turned into slums; average number of rooms per makeshift dwelling; number of inhabitants per room in slum neighborhoods; number of slum neighborhoods renovated or moved; percentage of land surrounding the cities that can be allocated to residential development; and percentage of dwellings located on mountainsides, ravines and river beds.


The accomplishments can be summarized as follows: 1) widened the former Carrefour road and began construction of two ramps (rues Assad and Thor 65) with the railroad; 2) work was performed to clean up communes, improve the quality of life of the people and provide access to certain communes suitable for vehicles; this construction work was performed in 60 communes of a total of 142 in the country’s ten geographic departments (Ouest: 9; Sud: 12; Sud-est: 4; Grand-Anse: 5; Artibonite: 5; Nippes: 4; Centre: 7; Nord: 5; Nord-est: 4; Nord-Ouest: 5) and consisted of the following: street repaving (with cobblestones or concrete), drainage (construction of gutters and ditches) and construction of culverts and maintenance; 3) rehabilitation and/or construction of 64 km of streets (Large Urban Projects) in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haïtien, Gonaïves, Cayes, Aquin, Trou du Nord, Terrier Rouge, Quartier Morin, Limonade and Ouanaminthe; 4) rehabilitation of 5.50 km of streets in Jacmel; 5) routine maintenance of 165,843 m2 of bituminous concrete road and 3,152 m2 of pavement with cobblestones, 26.398 km of roads made of hydraulic concrete in Port-au-Prince; 6) construction of 65,424 m2 of sidewalks in Port-au-Prince; 7) performance of sanitation work in the Port-au-Prince Metropolitan Region consisting of: (i) cleaning of 749,750m3 of drainage canals; and ii) removal of 728,673m3 of debris.



There is a chronic imbalance situation at the national level that features: the extreme polarization of the capital, Port-au-Prince, and the desertification of the rest of the country; the poor exploitation of natural resources; the poor occupancy of space; disorderly urbanization; the crisis in the rural world; accelerated soil erosion; the growing impoverishment of rural households; and the lack or shortage of basic services and infrastructure in the medium-sized cities and rural areas.


Contribute to rebuilding the nation as a means of achieving balanced and sustainable development for the country in the long run.


The expected situation can be summarized as follows: reduced regional disparities; improved drainage basins; enforcement of the land-use planning law; facilitation of better use of public funds; directing investments to integrated programs to organize space; and rational and optimal use of the country’s resources, infrastructure and regional equipment on a complementary basis.


Population rate by department; ruralization rate; weight of communal revenue per department; number of educational facilities (at the national, departmental and communal level); rate of deficiency in access to education (at the national, departmental and communal level); and rate of access to basic social services (at the national, departmental and communal level).


Land-use planning achievements are significant. In this regard, the following should be mentioned: i) the authorities prepared the preliminary draft law on land-use planning and local development. The document is awaiting validation by the government and approval by the Parliament; ii) prepared a draft of the national development and land-use plan along with a preliminary version of the city planning code; iii) implemented and operated the Geospace Information System used for land management and made it operational; updated the thematic maps; iv) implemented a platform for development planning and management including a georeferenced database and maps that identify the five (5) regional development centers (Cap, Cayes, Gonaïves, Hinche and Port-au-Prince), the seven (7) sub-regional centers (Jérémie, Jacmel, Anse-à-Veau, Petit-Goâve, Mirebalais, St-Marc, Port-de-Paix, and Fort-Liberté-Ouanaminthe); v) implemented the territorial development program to finance urban rehabilitation projects for the cities of Belladère and Anse à Pitres; vii) implemented local development projects in Bombardopolis, St Michel de l’Attalaye, Marmelade and Gros Morne. In addition, there are the projects to support local governance in Nord-est and the development of agroforestry in Nippes.



The National Risk and Disaster Management System (CNGRD) is facing certain constraints that make it vulnerable. The following should be noted: a lack of operating frameworks for the various entities in the system; a lack of facilities for normal operations of the entities, principally for the SPGRD and COUN; the cramped premises of the DPC and their unsuitability for holding meetings, especially in emergency periods; a lack of budget projections in the institutions specifically for risk and disaster management; a qualitative as well as quantitative shortfall in human resources trained in the area of risks and disasters; preparation and response activities that generally concentrate on water and weather-related threats are delayed; and rehabilitation work lags behind with little coordination, given the lack of standard and emergency management procedures in the country. These same problems are found at the subnational or “deconcentrated” level (department, commune and communal section). The Civil Protection Directorate (DPC) has no database on disasters (large or small), nor does it have a documentation, research or training center as is the case elsewhere.


Improve SNGRD intervention capacities by strengthening the DPC, SPGRD and territorial civil protection agencies.


The image of the expected situation is as follows: institutional capacities and GRD structures are strengthened; risks in the most vulnerable communities have been lowered; institutions are better prepared to respond to disasters; communities are better prepared to respond to disasters; the lives and property of the people are protected in periods of emergencies; the real needs of disaster victims are dealt with promptly by the appropriate institutions; the infrastructures and institutions that are hit by the disasters are rehabilitated in a reasonable amount of time; and the communities that are struck are rehabilitated in a reasonable amount of time.


Number of central and local GRD structures created and/or rehabilitated; number of central and local GRD structures equipped with intervention tools; number of pieces of heavy equipment acquired; number of reference documents prepared and validated; number of managers trained and/or retrained; and number of rehabilitation and protection projects carried out at the local level.


The accomplishments as part of the priority activities that were made can be summarized as follows:

Institutionalization and strengthening of Civil Protection by making changes to the central structure and creating a departmental technical coordination unit, increasing its equipment, expanding the network of the national risk and disaster management system by creating departmental and local civil protection committees, equipping these committees with working facilities, building the National Emergency Operations Center (COUN), training about 2,700 Civil Protection managers, employees and volunteer workers in Haiti and abroad; implementing the Civil Protection communications network for the deconcentrated entities (CTD, CDGRD, CCPC, CLPC), with 914 networked mobile telephones, designing a website, etc.;

Improved risks management/prevention. In this component, nine risk mitigation projects were implemented (slope stabilization, river bank and village protection, drain cleaning, etc.) in nine communes in six of the country’s departments. It should also be noted that the improvement in preparing for disasters was made possible by several activities, including: preparing an annual plan for the hurricane seasons; prepositioning funds in the ten geographic departments on the eve of a hurricane season; carrying out annual awareness and simulation exercise campaigns; distributing information kits on the threats and disaster preparation plans to the territorial authorities; preparing a digest of legal resources for use by mayors and Civil Protection committees in decision-making for risk management in their districts; and implementing a National Early Warning Program (PNAP) to alert in time people who live in drainage basins where there is a high risk of flooding.



The difficulties and breakdowns the National Administrative Reform Commission (CNRA) reported more than ten years ago continue to weigh heavily on the operation of the Haitian public administration. The results are as follows: an administration that does a poor job of fulfilling its public service role; the administrative institution operations in general do not carry out the core functions established in the current statutory context, while the regulatory framework is undeveloped; a considerable decline in the managerial and operational capacities of the public institutions due to the loss of technical managers; inappropriate organization of labor; the services provided are generally insufficient, inadequate and of poor quality; the resources available to the subnational entities are insufficient for them to operate and they exist in name only in the different departments; as a result, the central authorities play several roles; the decentralized administration is also unable to provide local public services due to difficulties in the progress of the decentralization process; the civil service function is a long way from fulfilling the objectives of a modern and efficient operation; the personnel management approach is still of the traditional type, first because the principles and instruments provided for in Title 8 of the Constitution and in the Decree of May 17, 2005 that revised the general status of the civil service are relatively unused; there is no policy that governs material working conditions for civil servants, either in terms of physical space or logistical resources; and the use of the NTICs is still in its infancy given the lack of skills and the difficulty of retaining the few managers in this area.


Strengthen government capacities through modernizing the public administration and the civil service and improving fiscal management.


The expected situation was presented as follows: strengthen national capacities in the area of developing, implementing and evaluating public policies; improve the productivity and efficiency of public services by putting in place results-based management tools; optimize government expenditures to obtain the best public services at a lower cost; improve user reception services in the administrations; shorten time frames for processing files submitted to the public services by streamlining and lightening the administrative procedures and formalities; improve human resources management by implementing an improved civil service that is more attractive and more competitive, that respects equal opportunity and that awards promotionsbased on merit and excellence; universally use the new information and communication technologies; have a government procurement system in which the procedures are observed because the users are familiar with them and the control functions have been strengthened; and enter into government contracts effectively and efficiently after the full participation of numerous suppliers in government tenders, as this will help the government save money.


Satisfaction rate of users of public services; number of organizational and operational assessments performed; number of policy papers prepared; number of laws and regulations prepared and implemented; duration of the government procurement process; and the growth rate of the number of private companies that participate in government procurement.


The accomplishments made from the implementation of the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (SNCRP) in the area of capacity-building can be summarized as follows: i) the authorities published an order on the Organization and Operation of the High Council of the Administration and Civil Service: ii) published an order on the Organization and Operation of the Office of Human Resources Management (OMRH); iii) implemented the Secretariat General of the Office of the President; iv) set up the Secretariat General of the Office of the Prime Minister; v) established study and programming units (UEP) in the ministries; vi) set up the Central Database of Civil Servants; and vii) set up a file for the National School of Administration and Public Policies (ENAPP).



The living conditions of the people of Haiti fall far short of the conditions of well-being generally accepted in the world. The glaring social inequality, discrimination and social exclusion are blatant signs of the limited extent to which the Haitian government is able to ensure respect, protection and satisfaction of citizens’ rights. This is demonstrated by the fact that the authorities have been unable to give to each citizen the means to exercise their citizenship. <Chak koukouy klere po je’1 > has come to mean the basics and no more. In situations of general catastrophe, the instincts of solidarity disappear, and the responsibility of the associations, unions, political parties, policy and neighborhoods dwindles; civic education and national service have no defined contours. In short, the rules of survival in < konbit > are bankrupt. Moreover, young people—this “demographic bonus” (with more than 57 percent youths) that the country enjoys—have been unable to play their roles properly until now due to the various difficulties they have experienced, and especially poor access to basic social services and leisure, very limited access to jobs, etc.

Finally, physical education is not systematically integrated into the school study program; the clubs, associations and sports federations are poor and poorly structured; the supply of leisure activities is inadequate and often inaccessible for the majority of the population; practicing sports, a vector for promoting civic values, public health, social balance and, in short, human development, suffers from a serious lack of equipment, infrastructure and skilled human resources; there is no scientific management of high-level sports and the resources are limited and do not meet global realities; each year the country loses dozens of talented athletes because the government has no policy to detect talented athletes; and there is no universal development program for funding sports.


Upgrade the lifestyle of youths, primarily by integrating them socioeconomically and socioculturally, and by promoting physical and sporting activities.


The expected situation was described as follows: improve the physical framework of the central office building; acquire a new building; improve working conditions and performance; universal activities; laws and regulations in place to govern youth, sports and civic-mindedness; deconcentrated and decentralized social and athletic centers have been built; the conditions for practicing socioeducational, sociocultural, physical and sporting activities has improved; the physical framework of the Croix des Bouquets Centre has improved; the methods of organizing and running youth associations has improved; young people have changed their high-risk behaviors; local tourism for youths has been facilitated; involvement of youths in development has been facilitated; the practice of sporting and recreational activities has been made universal; the inactive population rate has been lowered; the culture of citizenship has been strengthened; the links of solidarity among youths have grown stronger; civic service has been put in place; civil protection has been strengthened through civic service; youth entrepreneurship has been facilitated and strengthened by socioeconomic integration; natural production has been strengthened by facilitating and strengthening entrepreneurship among youths; socioprofessional training has been encouraged; and the credit system has been put in place for studies.


Number of buildings renovated; managers trained and retrained as a percentage of civil servants in the sector; number of socioathletic centers built; athletic facilities renovated as a percentage of infrastructure to be renovated; establishment of principles that govern relations between the government and the sports movement; legislation on youth, sports and civic-mindedness; local youth tourism as a percentage of total local tourism; establishment of principles of the methods of organization and operation of the DTNs; modes of organization and operation for the DTNs; number of youths integrated socioeconomically and socioprofessionally speaking; youth civic action managed by the MJSAC as a percent of total civic actions; number of civic service training centers developed; and the number of youths mobilized and trained in at-risk behavior and civil protection.


Institutional, we can note: an organic preliminary draft law from the ministry has been prepared and submitted to the Office of the Prime Minister; 86 multiplying agents of change have been appointed and 42 technical managers have been trained in physical and athletic education and youth activities; and the departmental directorates have been organized and departmental directors with a professional profile commensurate with the position have been appointed.

Strategic, the following should be noted: several documents have been produced, including but not limited to: one (1) framework document; three (3) public policies; the 2008-2011 action plan; and three (3) national policy papers on youth, sports and civic-mindedness.

In terms of promoting and developing physical, athletic and recreational activities, the following should be noted: in partnership with the Haitian Soccer Federation (FHF), the ministry took over the preparation and first participation in a U17 national team in the World Cup in Korea in 2007; financed the preparation and participation of the senior team in the 2007 Digicel Cup; provided grants to certain federations for participating in international, regional and Olympic competitions; in partnership with Spanish cooperation, held two (2) training seminars, one on the management and running of sports facilities and the other on sports planning for sports federations and associations; trained five hundred twenty (520) instructors in four (4) sports disciplines; in the country’s 10 departments, set up 16 national athletic academies that serve 16,000 children of both genders from age 7 to 12; organized 14 cultural activities centers so that 1,100 youths of both genders could begin and/or develop their talents in the different types of artistic and crafts expression; reopened the National Sports Talent School (ENTS), which provides personnel, academic and sports training to 160 youths from 10 to 14 years old by practicing five (5) sports disciplines; distributed athletic materials and equipment in the ten (10) departments in the country to support physical and athletic activities in the school environment as well as school competitions; and provided financial support to the sports federations and associations in implementing their annual national and international competitions program.

Promotion and socioeconomic integration of youth, the following should be reported: prepared teaching tools and trained fifty-one (51) youth trainers in entrepreneurship; held a binational Haiti-Dominican Republic seminar on cooperation in youth activities; provided technical support to youth organizations for preparing the project in October, November and December 2008; organized a training session to strengthen the knowledge of coaches of the new management tools for the Youth Integration Fund (FIJ) in partnership with the CONFEJES from December 8 to 12, 2008 at the Croix des Bouquets Multipurpose Training Center for thirty-five (35) coaches in entrepreneurship; put in place an inter-institutional framework around the revival of farms as a space for the socioeconomic integration of youths, involving primarily the MJSAC, MARNDR, MICT and the territorial authorities; organized eight (8) entrepreneurship training seminars for one hundred sixty (160) youths of both genders; and financed twelve (12) projects for an amount of two million eight hundred thousand gourdes in five (5) departments: Nippes, Sud Est, Nord, Centre and Ouest.

In terms of promoting civic-mindedness, the following should be stressed: the activities in question extended the Brigadiers Scolaires in the cities of Cap-Haïtien, Gonaïves, St-Marc, and Cayes; carried out a pilot project for training and citizen mobilization for 60 youths from villages in 19 communes in environmental protection and risk and disaster management; trained 200 local civic leaders from the departments of Sud-est and Nippes in disaster prevention and management; trained 100 trainers (ten per department) in training and mobilizing youth from local communities in environmental protection and in emergency assistance for the people in the event of a catastrophe or disaster.

In terms of the development of socioathletic infrastructure, the following accomplishments are noteworthy: stakeholders performed technical studies to rehabilitate infrastructure in certain communes of the country; rehabilitated the Dadadou athletic center by installing astroturf in the soccer field; improved the track and outdoor basketball, tennis and volleyball courts; rehabilitated the Carriès public beach by upgrading the administrative buildings and repairing the restrooms for the users; completely rehabilitated the old housing, restaurant, and administrative structures and the premises of the classical ENTS School at Croix des Bouquets Center; rebuilt the fence that separates the MJSAC training centers and the FHF; rehabilitated a soccer field with natural grass; installed a surface on a track; built a new building to house the ENTS classical school; in the Grand-Pré Civic Service Center, built a dormitory, cafeteria, housing for managers, kitchen, pergola, and latrines; renovated the electrical system; and performed excavation work. Report on the Implementation of the First National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Making the Quantum Leap

Chapter IV: Political and Sectorial Reforms

Pillar I: Growth vectors

Agriculture and rural development sector

The execution of the policies and reforms initiated in the sector has produced significant outcomes despite the country’s having to contend with natural catastrophes that caused thousands of deaths and extensive material losses.

Policies to stimulate agro-outputs and livestock production. Substantial support for the main coffee plantation zones in the Nord, Nord-Est, Centre and La Grande-Anse departments, in particular in the form of the distribution of plantlets; efforts to combat coffee berry borers and the provision of equipment for a number of tasting laboratories; the distribution of seeds, fertilizers, tillage equipment and farm machinery to support farmers; support and subsidies to revitalize agricultural production, in particular coffee and marmalade fruits; subsistence crops in Bas Plateau Central; sweet potato, fruit and vegetable crops in Jacmel and Cayes-Jacmel; the adoption of plant-health measures to control fruit flies, which allowed for the resumption of mango exports to the US; treatment with pheromones and the distribution of new varieties of sweet potatoes; and subsidies for drugs to support a vaccination campaign launched in the wake of four hurricanes that caused numerous epidemics. The execution of the policy measures led to a significant increase (roughly 25 percent) in agricultural production and subsequently to a reduction in the cost of staple products.

Institutional and sectorial organization policies. Mention should be made of the bolstering of certain entities in the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Rural Development (MARNDR), in particular the Study and Programming Unit, in accordance with the decree of May 2005 respecting the organization of the central administration of the State; the drafting— currently in progress—of an agricultural framework law; the establishment of an integrated agricultural and food security information system; and the strengthening of the capacities of certain farmers’ organizations through training sessions on farming practices, the production of compost and the management of organizations.

Food security. Mention should be made of the preparation of the framework law governing the functioning of the National Coordination of Food Security (CNSA), the entity whose role is to monitor and coordinate initiatives to enhance food security; the maintenance of the six national observatories now in operation; the preparation of the National Food Security Plan awaiting approval by the MARNDR; and the implementation of the Food Security Information Network.

Infrastructure sector

In the transportation sector, significant outcomes have resulted from the introduction of institutional reforms and policy measures adopted by the central body in the sector. Mention should be made of the reorganization of the Study and Programming Unit of the Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Communications (MTPTC), a key body in the national planning system; the strengthening of the central execution unit and the 10 departmental branches devoted to more efficient management of the execution of road works; and the facilitation of the emergence of SMEs in the realm of public works, above all at the local level in the area departments (facilitated by the new decentralization approach adopted in the government’s investment budget through the granting to each commune of resources to carry out local work); the establishment of the Road Maintenance Fund (FER), devoted to ensuring the durability of infrastructure; the strengthening of the capacities of the National Building and Public Works Laboratory (LNBTP); and recourse to private enterprises to carry out road works and to grassroots community organizations for maintenance work.

The policy measures have enhanced the state of the road network. This has certainly had a positive impact on the competitiveness of the economy, which it is still impossible to measure. We nonetheless anticipate safer transportation conditions, a reduction in transportation costs and travel times, the opening of new outlets for producing areas in consumption areas, as well as an opening for the tourism sector. At the same time as the road works, policy measures have been undertaken to modernize and enhance the security of the international airport in Port-au-Prince. The measures have taken shape through work to enhance airport security and the construction of three telescopic gangways.

Electrical energy sub-sector

The implementation of policies and reforms has led to the following outcomes: the partial restoration of the economic balance of EDH through higher electricity rates; the safeguarding of fuel supplies; and a government subsidy to cover the shortfall stemming from numerous losses. Accordingly, the result was an increase in electrical generation potential, from 83 MW in 2007, to 182 MW in 2010. All that now remains is to await the positive impact of distribution network rehabilitation projects that will have a twofold impact by reducing transmission losses resulting from the poor condition of the system and fraudulent losses that undermine the network. The beneficial impact of the measures adopted over the past three years is already becoming apparent, e.g. an increase in lighting hours.

Regional integration and national economic development

The results obtained concern the formulation of an industrial policy; the establishment of the Bureau for Metrology and Standardization (BMN); the institutional strengthening of the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MCI); and the strengthening of the Free Trade Zone Directorate (DZF).

Pillar II: Human development

The health sector

One key facet that warrants emphasis in the sector concerns the operation of the Communal Health Units (UCSs), proposed as a major tool to foster participation and deemed to be a response to organization and coordination problems in the sector. To attain the objective of fairness, the strategy proposed by the reform seeks to guarantee that all Haitians, without exception, have access to a minimum range of services that should be offered by the UCS. However, among the 56 UCSs planned, only eleven (11) are in operation. The department of Artibonite alone has seven (7) operating UCSs. The discrepancy reveals how far we are from attaining the objective of health care for everyone. As for infrastructure, rehabilitation work covers Les Cayes, Trou du Nord, Beudet, Ouanaminthe and Jérémie maternity hospitals. In the realm of training, mention should be made of the dynamic of South-South cooperation, especially through the presence of numerous Haitian students in Cuba.

Drinking water and sanitation sector

Parliament ratified and the government enacted a new framework law to create the DINEPA, which has established a more streamlined, flexible organization in the drinking water and sanitation sector. It establishes the separation of responsibility for regulation from responsibility for project management and as service supplier; the decentralization of project management through the establishment of OREPAs, thereby confirming the transfer to the regions of the management and operation of their projects to ensure better service to the public. This has led to a significant improvement in the quantity and quality of the water supply in various cities in the country. Extensive work is now under way, which means that it is impossible to provide figures on the current state of water supply.

Pillar III: Democratic governance

The justice sector

The ministry has implemented the following key policies: it prepared and published the law to create the superior council of the judiciary, the law governing the status of magistrates and the law to establish the justice academy; it rehabilitated four (4) courts of first instance (St Marc, Grande-Rivière du Nord, Port-de-Paix and Fort-Liberté); it built four (4) justice complexes (integrated courts and registry offices) (St Marc, Delmas, Marchand Dessalines and Les Cayes); it installed the MJSP’s Internet network; it established a commission of inquiry on extended preventive detention; it equipped the 18 jurisdictions in the country with vehicles to facilitate better service to the public from the standpoint of justices of the peace and the courts of first instance; and it established the website of the Ministry of Justice and Social Protection. The foregoing outcomes, obtained through the implementation of strategic directives, led to a drop in the preventive detention rate; the rehabilitation of the judiciary system; the strengthening of the judiciary; improved prison conditions; the modernization of legislation, the registration system and the management and preservation of civil status; the implementation of a national identification system; the strengthening and modernization of the National Police of Haiti (PNH); and the improvement of inmates’ conditions.

The security sector

Significant progress in the fight against crime has been achieved through the establishment of effective partnerships with the public and the international community to curb kidnappings and auto theft; the maintenance of a broader police presence in the field; the establishment of community policing for targeted initiatives; the preparation of new strategies to combat narcotics trafficking; and the introduction of a system to respond promptly to public requests.

Progress has been made in revitalizing the police structure. At the structural level, the institution has created two new units, i.e. the Mobile Intervention Brigade (BIM), which acts as a community policing unit and intervenes in zones that are hard to access on the outskirts of Port-au-Prince, and the strategic operations center, responsible for tactically guiding the action of field units in the cities, by means of cartographical indications. From the standpoint of infrastructure, several district and communal headquarters have been rehabilitated.

Chapter V: Outcomes

V.1 – Changes in the indicators

V.1.1 – Output indicators

In light of the objectives set by the DSNCRP, 157 indicators have been defined to monitor and evaluate the initiatives undertaken within the framework of the strategy, as well as the MDGs. The indicators are divided into four categories and focus on the measurement of the outcomes/induced effects of development (87 indicators), according to the resources invested (16 indicators) and the outputs obtained or the activities engendered (40 indicators). Fourteen indicators measure the anticipated impact in terms of economic growth and the improvement in the living conditions of households.

This part of the report focuses, in particular, on the output indicators that measure the direct consequence of the use of budgetary, administrative or regulatory resources. They allow for an assessment of tangible achievements in relation to the objectives set at the outset and measure the immediate outcomes. The 40 DSNCRP output monitoring indicators are broken down into 14 fields, although five fields account for over half of the indicators, i.e. infrastructure (seven indicators), education and training (six indicators), health and nutrition (five indicators), tourism (four indicators), and justice and security (three indicators). The ONPES has sought, in collaboration with sectorial pivots, to collect information and data respecting the sectors. However, the output indicators collected directly from the sectors are rare indeed. Moreover, the information and data that would be used to calculate the indicators were not, in most instances, available, or were simply inaccessible. This section focuses, therefore, on the infrastructure, health, justice and education sectors.

V.1.2. – Analysis of the output indicators

The analysis of the output indicators centers on the level of the public investment rate (government spending on investments through projects) for the period 2008-2010 in relation to preceding periods. This analysis relies on the demonstration of the weight of government spending in the economy and highlights the constraints that hamper both the effective implementation of the budget (government spending) and the generation of positive impact on the national economy.

In 2010, the public investment rate stood at roughly 6 percent of GDP. Given the rate of 5.4 percent of GDP in 2007-2008, this output indicator reveals the relative weight of the State in the national economy. Nonetheless, when the Haitian government uses 30 percent to 40 percent of its budget to pay for imported goods and services, at least 3 percent of GDP corresponding to such purchases are losses from the economic circuit. It should also be noted that in 2006-2007, Haitian government services did not spend the appropriations allocated to them. Out of a budget of 63 billion gourdes, i.e. 24 billion for operating expenditures and 39 billion for the investment budget, the services had not succeeded, at midpoint, in absorbing one third of their appropriations, despite the economy’s enormous basic agricultural, educational, health or road infrastructure needs that are necessary to achieve the main objective that the DSNCRP set, i.e. growth and a reduction of poverty. Such basic infrastructure should be accessible, functional and fairly distributed.

V.1.3 – Outputs in the public works sector

Generally speaking, public works have been the key area of intervention of the DSNCRP and the firsthand achievements are relatively significant over the implementation period. The Ministry of Public Works, Transport and Communications, which is responsible for infrastructure work in the communes program, has managed the two components of the program, i.e. a road component and an electrification component. Local elected officials have identified the projects, which the MPCE has validated. All told, 80 communes in all of the departments have benefited from work funded by the program.

From the standpoint of road infrastructure, aside from national roads, significant achievements have been made in the communes identified with respect to roads built and rehabilitated in relation to what was anticipated. Indeed, according to information obtained from the MTPTC, on average more than 4.8 km of roads have been rehabilitated in the Centre and Artibonite departments and over 3.5 km, respectively, for each department.

It should also be noted that efforts have been made to equip the Metropolitan Solid Waste Collection Service (SMCRS) and the National Equipment Center (CNE) so that the institutions can carry out most of the cleaning and rehabilitation work in the communes in the country. Furthermore, efforts have enabled certain Haitian firms to respond to construction service offerings in the road transport sector.

Outcomes in the electricity component also progressed in 2009-2010. Indeed, between September 2009 and February 2010, electricity generation stood, on average, at over 52,000 MWH per month, which enabled EDH to increase the number of hours of electricity to roughly 11 hours, on average, per day during the period, compared with eight hours for provincial towns. This performance is attributable to the strengthening of thermal power plants and the establishment of an oil-fired power plant in the Carrefour zone south of Port-au-Prince.

Consequently, the impact of public spending in infrastructure has been considerable. Such spending has produced immediate results in the realms of road transportation and electricity generation favorable to economic and social development in the departments and communes concerned in terms of trade and access to public services in big cities.

V.1.4 – Outcomes in the health sector

The DSNCRP regards the Communal Health Units (UCSs) as the cornerstone for the transformation of the Haitian healthcare system. The objective was to establish 63 UCSs by 2012. In 2008-2009, the construction of hospitals, Communal Health Units (UCSs) and pediatric services, in particular in the Sud, Nord and Artibonite departments, had reached a passable level. Indeed, of the thirty (30) activities programmed overall for the three (3) departments, 13 were fully carried out and, consequently, nearly half of the objectives were attained. As for the rehabilitation of healthcare institutions, four (4) of the eighteen (18) activities programmed in terms of outcomes to be delivered were fully completed.

The objective respecting the UCSs has not been achieved since only six of the 63 UCSs that were to be established by 2012 were operational in late 2008. Given the difficult context stemming from the January 12, 2010 earthquake, the objective is unlikely to be attained by 2012. With regard to the ratios of healthcare staff to inhabitants, which reveal a change in the number of physicians, nurses and auxiliaries in relation to the population, it is hard to assess the situation today given the losses and damage recorded in the healthcare sector after the earthquake. The limited number of Haitian healthcare professionals is now in a deficit situation because of the throng of health technicians from abroad and the delivery of services free of charge in most of the communes affected by the earthquake.

Accordingly, the resources allocated in the healthcare sector should have led to enhanced healthcare coverage and the quality of and accessibility to healthcare for everyone, which was not the case after the implementation period. Efforts must be made to shift to a modern healthcare system that is accessible to vulnerable groups from the first years of implementation of the second-generation DSNCRP.

V.1.5 – Justice sector

Over the past three years, we cannot speak of progress as regards the establishment of new civil status offices. The most recent period for which information is available to assess advances in this respect is between 2001 and 2008. To put it plainly, during this period, three new civil status jurisdictions were created throughout the country. However, only two of the three jurisdictions benefited from the establishment of two civil status offices, in Cornillon and Croix des Bouquets and St Michel du Sud and Marigoâne, respectively. All told, there were 185 civil status offices in the country in 2008. What is their geographic distribution? A report from UNFPA provides the following indications: most of the civil status offices (150) are concentrated in the cities, equivalent to a rate of 81.1 percent; 32 of the offices are located in neighbourhoods, equivalent to a rate of 17.3 percent. In other words, 50 percent of neighbourhoods in the country are lacking civil status offices. A breakdown of the neighbourhoods reveals that 81.8 percent are in the Nippes department, 80 percent in the Sud-Est department, 75 percent in the Centre department, 66.7 percent in the Nord-Ouest department, and 60 percent in the Grand’Anse department. Until 2008, only three of the 570 communal sections of the country were equipped with a civil status office. This observation is all the more alarming since demographic data indicate that 60 percent of Haiti’s population lives in the communal sections.

It should be noted that the three communal sections that possessed a civil status office in 2008 were Cazale, Cayemites and Plaisance du Sud, located in the Ouest, Grand’Anse and Nippes departments, respectively. Some 99.5 percent of the country’s communal sections are thus lacking civil status offices. All told, seven departments have communal sections that do not possess any civil status offices, i.e. the Sud-Est, Nord-Ouest, Nord, Sud, Artibonite and Nord-Est departments. The Nippes department has the highest coverage rate among the communal sections equipped with civil status offices (2.7 percent).

V.1.6 – The education sector

In recent years, the Basic Education Program (PEB) has been and continues to be one of the major projects of the MENFP, along with the PARQE, under which the construction of a total of 28 EFACAPs are planned throughout the country. It is a question of opening quality schools in the most marginalized, remote areas of the country, in keeping with the objective set in the National Education and Training Program (PNEF). Each EFACAP offers students between 6 and 15 years of age not only a quality education but also provides the necessary educational scaffolding and ongoing training to teachers working in the network of schools that it serves.

The characteristics of the educational system have encouraged officials in the ministry responsible to focus on several themes and objectives, including the search for internal efficiency and fairness in terms of access. In this respect, in 2009, twenty (20) early childhood care and protection centers (for children between 2 and 5 years of age) were established. The centers were located in the southern part of the country, specifically in Aquin and Vieux Bourg d’Aquin. A dozen schools were also built or rebuilt in 2009, and 20 or so were rehabilitated or expanded.

It should be noted that precarious infrastructure and inadequate physical working conditions have always characterized the Haitian educational sector. Moreover, the January 12, 2010 earthquake hit the sector very hard physically. The data collected reveal that over 1300 establishments collapsed or are unusable. The following table indicates the situation in the three regions hardest hit by the earthquake.

Table 13:

Establishments destroyed or damage (Ouest, Sud-Est and Nippes departments)

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Source: Bilan du MENFP, February 2010.

Assessment of 20 training centers visited.

Data for 58 public and non-public higher education entities visited.

V.1.7 – Tourism sector

The tourism industry, which was formerly deemed to be a key component of the Haitian economy, has declined in the past 20 years. The country possesses numerous tourism assets, such as natural sites, historic monuments and heritage, cultural products, and craft products. In order to restore growth, it is necessary to make the sector a catalyst for sustainable development for the direct benefit of the population.

In this perspective, regional tourism offices, legal institutions that operate under the responsibility of the tourism ministry, have been established. They are located in different regions of the country with a view to promoting local tourism. The decision to establish and operate a tourism office in each commune has had no impact. In theory, there is a tourism office in at least each of the ten (10) departmental capitals. In practice, this is not an accurate picture. Prior to the January 12, 2010 earthquake, only three (3) cities in the country had a functioning tourism office, i.e. Port-au-Prince, Cap Haïtien and Jacmel. An array of other communal structures exists but informally and sporadically, in light of patron saints’ days or regional or local cultural events.

The tourism sector, which is another locomotive of economic growth, is still not fully playing its role. Aside from the flows of cruise companies generated solely by the Labadie complex, the number of tourists visiting the country each year is not growing. The hotel infrastructure announced has still not been built and certain projects, such as the construction of a Hilton hotel, have been abandoned. In addition, certain promising sites are sustaining serious environmental damage, e.g. the beach at Pointe Sable de Port-Salut (the islet has been lost to marine erosion and heavy pollution from garbage). Account must also be taken of the country’s limited accessibility from the standpoint of airport and port infrastructure. Indeed, Haiti is the most expensive destination in the Caribbean region for tourists from the most popular countries and regions (Europe, North American and East Asia). It should be noted that the Action Plan for the Recovery and Development of Haiti (PARDH) took into account such needs. It makes provision for the rehabilitation and expansion of the reception capacity of the Port-au-Prince airport and the construction of two other international airports located near the cities of Cap-Haïtien and Les Cayes. The construction is also planned of two other deepwater ports and the development of certain parks. Such infrastructure will be able, inter alia, to satisfy the development needs of the tourism sector.

In the foregoing analyses, emphasis has been placed on indicators of “physical,” functional products, such as the construction and rehabilitation of roads and buildings and the reinforcement of structures. However, certain indicators should reveal the condition of an environment favorable to private investment, although such is not the case, since the interest rate of the financial system is still high and, consequently, is not favorable to the development and specialization of national

private enterprises. We have seen that money has actually been spent in the sectors. Certain immediate outcomes are apparent while others are being delivered with difficulty. One reason is that certain expenditures are of a strategic nature and others are liabilities or negative. The performance of certain public expenditures is a result of the Haitian government’s success for a certain time in bolstering its administrative management standards, with the vote on the budget, the establishment and reinforcement of the National Commission on Public Procurement (CNMP), and so on. Program budgets are being contemplated in different sectors of government intervention to ensure that public spending has a positive impact on the economy and the social sector through the generation of production infrastructure, the development of specific productive sectors, by means of the availability of social services, or indirectly through job creation.

In this context, aside from traditional procedural control, broader control over efficiency is necessary in the allocation of government spending. The public administration must be better able to anticipate the impact and outcomes of public expenditures. Government services must always determine projects and assemble budgets and staff for each project, which marks a change in terms of the conception of the budget so that the outcomes programmed actually stem from the resources invested.

V.2 – Recent changes in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

The National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (DSNCRP) stems from two new international approaches, i.e. a new way of tackling the problem of poverty, by prioritizing economic growth, and a break with the structural adjustment programs of the Bretton Woods institutions. It was subsequently favourably received by the Haitian people through a broad participatory process because it sought to have an impact on the country’s poverty and economic slump. The paper also reflects a strong focus on catching up with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in the interests of more vigorous social development.

The situation of certain indicators when the DSNCRP was launched, in particular income poverty, maternal health, infant and child health, and primary school education indicators, to mention but a few, revealed respectively: (a) a 56 percent level of extreme poverty; (b) 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births; (c) 86 child deaths per 1,000 live births; and that (d) 49.6 percent of children were attending primary school.

The strategy that the government implemented sought to raise the level of the indicators. However, the events of April 2008 prevented the meeting of the donors that was to confirm funding for the plans, programs and projects included in this paper. The country’s situation worsened when it was hit by four (4) tropical storms (Fay, Gustav, Hanna and Ike). Most of the basic infrastructure was destroyed and had a significantly adverse impact on changes in the MDG indicators.

On January 12, 2010, a violent earthquake struck several cities in three of the country’s area departments, especially Port-au-Prince, Léogane, Jacmel and Petit Goâve, with the loss of several hundred thousand lives. The impact was worrisome for the key sectors that affect the attainment of the MDGs, i.e. education, health and drinking water, which account for 75 percent of the objectives.

The scope of the damage in each sector was observed. Most educational institutions in the metropolitan area were destroyed, mainly those in the higher education sector, where 90 percent of the students are concentrated. The impact on infrastructure in the drinking water and sanitation and healthcare sectors was equally devastating. In the three (3) area departments hardest hit in the country (Ouest, Sud-Est and Nippes), 60 percent of the hospitals were severely damaged or completely destroyed. Today, in the post-earthquake context, we must ask ourselves what is the stage of change in the MDG indicators in the country and what efforts must Haiti make to expedite attainment of the objectives set for 2015?

V.2.1 – Perspectives for the MDGs

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. The data available reveal that the employment/population ratio among young people 15-24 years of age rose from 37 percent to 48 percent between 1990 and 2008. In the wake of the earthquake, massive distributions of food aid were carried out under humanitarian programs. Other food-for-work and cash-for-work programs were established to help the population satisfy its basic needs. The programs have, to some extent, contributed to reducing poverty somewhat in a context where the majority of residents in the disaster area were virtually decapitalized. According to a UNICEF study, a drop in low birthweights among children living in the camps has apparently been recorded. However, we might well ask ourselves about the medium- and long-term prospects concerning food security, access to a decent job, and the reduction of poverty and hunger.

Goal 2: Ensure universal primary education. The most recent data on universal primary education are drawn from the Fafo study on young people (2009). They reveal that the primary school completion rate is only 17 percent and that place of residence and sex account for disparities. The rate is 32 percent in urban areas, as against 10 percent in rural areas, 19 percent for girls compared with 14 percent for boys, 36 percent in the metropolitan area,3 compared with 6 percent for the transversal zone. Given the destruction of most school infrastructure in the three departments affected by the earthquake and the decapitalization of a number of households, school attendance has unquestionably dropped in the country. By how much? We still cannot give precise confirmation. Significant and urgent measures have been adopted to maintain the supply of educational services in Haiti, fragile though these may be. However, the country’s reconstruction plan calls for the implementation over the next five years of the infrastructure and structures necessary to enable Haiti to achieve universal primary and secondary school education. There is good reason to hope that this MDG will be firmly established by 2015.

Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women. From the standpoint of primary and secondary school attendance and even at the university level, parity has almost been achieved and even exceeded in some instances. Indeed, according to the 2009 Fafo study on young people, the ratio of girls to boys in secondary schools is 1.12. However, women occupy a minority of responsible positions in public and private administration. The proportion of seats occupied by women in the national parliament is increasing steadily. It is to be hoped that parity will improve since women are increasingly gaining access to positions of responsibility in government.

Goal 4: Reduce mortality in children under 5 years of age. Until 2008, the mortality rate among children under 1 year of age declined: between 1990 and 2008, 105 and 574 deaths per 1,000 live births, respectively, were observed. Child mortality also fell, from 152 to 76 deaths per 1,000 live births between 1990 and 2008, partly as a result of broader vaccination coverage. The proportion of children 12 to 23 months of age vaccinated against measles increased from 31 percent to 58 percent during the same period. Despite the downward trend, the level still remains high. The high infant mortality rate stems, above all, from the fairly high level of the neonatal component. After the January 12, 2010 earthquake, under a vaccination campaign conducted in temporary shelters, over 8,000 children under 7 years of age were vaccinated against diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough, and over 5,000 against measles and rubella.

Graph 14:
Graph 14:

Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001

Objective 5: Improve maternal health. Maternal health has always been a key concern in the Haitian healthcare system since maternal mortality rates clearly rose between 1990 and 2005. However, some improvement has been noted with respect to certain indicators related to maternal health such, for example, as prenatal care coverage, which increased from 71 percent to 85 percent between 1990 and 2008. Furthermore, unmet family planning needs and as a percentage of women of child-bearing age5 declined from 45 percent to 38 percent between 1995 and 2005. It should be noted that studies reveal that family planning reduced maternal mortality by 30 percent. The gap to be closed is unquestionably significant but if public policies are aligned, the trend should be reversed and the number of women who die in childbirth will decrease. Under the Free Obstetrical Care (SOG) program, growing numbers of women will give birth in hospitals. According to DSF/MSPP (the family health branch of the MSPP), the maternal mortality rate appears to have fallen by roughly half. The survey that the Haitian Childhood Institute (IHE) has conducted will undoubtedly shed additional light on changes in maternal health.

Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. HIV/AIDS has dwindled in recent years. The use of condoms increased substantially between 2000 and 2008, from 13 percent to 37 percent, and from 28 percent to 42 percent, respectively, among women and men between 15 and 24 years of age. However, given the promiscuity that prevails in the camps and in the zones affected by the earthquake, a reversal of the trend is highly possible. Promiscuity also tends to promote cases of rape and unwanted pregnancy. It goes without saying that sexually-transmitted diseases may increase. On the other hand, the proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and treated through direct, short-term treatment under observation increased from 2 percent to 49 percent between 1995 and 2008.

Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability. Until 2008, the proportion of the population that had access to a source of drinking water improved to some extent, since it rose from 54 percent to 58 percent between 1995 and 2005, then stagnated until 2008. At the same time, the proportion of the population using improved water treatment infrastructure fell considerably, from roughly 30 percent in 1995 to 19 percent in 2008 (IMF), and to 24 percent in 2009 (Fafo). However, the influx of NGOs, international institutions and other governmental organizations (DINEPA) bodes well for enhanced access to drinking water and sanitation facilities, above all in the departments hit by the earthquake, specifically the population living in the camps. It is understood that this is a cyclical situation. With the establishment of decentralized bodies in the national drinking water and sanitation branch (DINEPA6), contributions by donors7 (IDB,8 Spain9), there are sound prospects in the drinking water and sanitation sector.

Graph 15:
Graph 15:

Proportion of the population using an enhanced source of drinking water

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001

Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development. Over the past 20 years, per capita aid has fluctuated sharply but has tended to increase, from US$24 in 1990 to US$73 in 2008, an increase of nearly 300 percent in relation to the figure reached in 1990. However, until 2008, the record level of US$92 in per capita aid from which the country benefited in 1995 still had not been attained during the period. The January 12, 2010 earthquake spurred widespread solidarity with Haiti. Numerous promises of aid, which have yet to materialize, were made in respect of the Action Plan for the Recovery and Development of Haiti (PARDH). However, we might well ask ourselves about the nature of the aid that Haiti has received until now bearing in mind that such assistance includes an extensive humanitarian component. In terms of technical support, it is largely transmitted through NGOs and international institutions. Sound coordination and better channeling of international assistance are necessary in order to relaunch the economy and solve the structural problems that the country is facing, in particular progress toward the attainment of the MDGs.

Graph 16:
Graph 16:

Per capita aid (current US dollars)

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001

On the other hand, progress in relation to the integration of the new information and communications technologies in Haiti is apparent. The number of subscribers to a mobile telephony service per 100 inhabitants increased from one to 33 between 2005 and 2008. The number of Internet users per 100 inhabitants increased from 0.2 to 10.4. At the same time, the number of fixed lines per 100 inhabitants declined from two to one between 2005 and 2008. However, with the modernization of TELECO, the operation of the fibre optic network recently installed in Haiti, there is good reason to hope that the situation in this sector will improve markedly, especially from the standpoint of the number of fixed lines per inhabitant and Internet access.

V.2.2 – General considerations respecting the MDGs

At the conclusion of the three-(3)-year implementation period of the first generation of the DSNCRP and despite the major goals pursued in the paper, it should be noted, above all, that the country’s momentum has been sorely tested by the political climate, bad weather and a major earthquake, which are synonymous with instability and, consequently, are hampering the attainment of the initial objectives adopted under the DSNCRP. In 2010, for example, the DSNCRP sought to close the gap displayed by certain MDG indicators. Accordingly, the 2005-2010 national health sector strategic plan, which the DSNCRP adopted, sought to improve community health through the following programs and strategic directions: reduce by at least 50 percent the maternal mortality rate; reduce by 50 percent the infant and child mortality rates; reduce by 30 percent the incidence of HIV/AIDS infection; reduce by 30 percent HIV/AIDS-related mortality; and reduce by 30 percent the incidence of tuberculosis.

In the education section, the DSNCRP sought, among other things, to reduce to 68.6 percent the illiteracy rate among Haitians 15 years of age or over; reduce disparities between the area departments and between places of residence in the distribution of preschool and basic educational services; and restore the number of EFACAPs to 116 in 2010. As for gender equality, it sought to advocate the amendment of electoral legislation to enable women to occupy at least 30 percent of positions.

Today, these outcomes differ considerably from the values revealed by trends in the MDG indicators. In this context, we can already anticipate that it will be difficult for the country to attain most of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. The Action Plan for the Recovery and Development of Haiti prepared by the government in the wake of the earthquake is a tool that will put the country on a new footing. Through its objectives of achieving territorial, economic, social and institutional reform, it will undoubtedly bestow fresh momentum upon the policy of attaining the MDGs.

Table 14:

Changes in a number of MDGs (1990 - 2008-2009

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Source: EMMUS II (1994-95); EMMUS III (2000); EMMUS IV (2005-06); RNPD (2006); IMF (2008); FAFO (2009)N.B.: The indicators preceded by an asterisk are part of the indicators that were defined for the new targets.

V.3 – Feedback from the population

V.3.1 – The population’s reaction through the Participatory Qualitative Follow-up (SQP)

The DSNCRP is centred on partnership insofar as it encourages the coordinated participation of bilateral initiatives, multilateral and non-governmental organizations in a comprehensive poverty-reduction and wealth-creation program, in a long-term perspective. This framework fosters greater openness in the preparation of public policy. When it drafted this paper, the Haitian government sought to systematically include traditionally marginalized groups, the private sector, civil society and the poor. Consequently, this poverty-reduction strategy tends to have obtained community assent and the support of the stakeholders mentioned earlier.

In conjunction with monitoring, the DSNCRP makes provision for the following approach: “associations in civil society will receive guidance and will benefit from adequate training to enable them to observe, monitor and express opinions on the execution of poverty-reduction initiatives in their zones of influence.” Accordingly, the individual citizen is not only called upon to participate in the drafting process but also in all phases of the life of this development framework for the country. This participatory approach assumes the active involvement of all stakeholders in society in the preparation, monitoring and implementation of the strategy to combat poverty. The empowerment approach is intended to give the poor an opportunity to influence the policies that affect their living conditions by better pinpointing and taking into account their problems and expectations. The participatory process is, therefore, quite rightly deemed to be a means to guarantee the efficacy of the strategy to combat poverty and its effective realization. It thus fosters policy ownership.

It is also a factor in reinforcing democracy demanded by the constitution of 1987, since it consists in involving civil society in the definition and monitoring of policy, with the objective of bolstering democratic debate and, therefore, the legitimacy and the efficacy of policies and projects. Consequently, it is important for the Haitian government to take into account the perception and opinions of the populations that are the direct and indirect beneficiaries of the initiatives carried out over the past three years. Their opinions are enlightening testimony that can help to made adjustments and usher in the second-generation DRSNCRP.

National but localized opinions

The opinions of citizens were collected according to a specific geography, which embraces the implementation of projects and initiatives. This dynamic allows us to highlight one reality: the fact that initiatives (projects) are concentrated in certain communes, which may thus be regarded as leading communes, where meaningful opinions and assessments are given. Moreover, this is where the beneficiary populations can express an opinion and, above all, assess the array of initiatives carried out. In this way, it is possible to measure or perceive with qualitative data (individual assessments) the meaning or depth of change in living conditions in the living and production environments of the population.

The opinions that we collected did not integrate only the levels of satisfaction or the assessments of the beneficiary populations solely in relation to the project. They encompass all of the measures carried out in the communities and regions. Under the leading commune dynamic, individuals’ assessments make it possible to understand and, above all, to pinpoint which array of projects can create the conditions necessary for the beneficiary populations to assess the attainment of national objectives in their communes. They will also allow for the second-generation DSNCRP to be more fine-tuned and effective. The 10 departments in the country have been covered through 16 Major Leading Communes (CPMs).14 The assessments are drawn from the corpus established by the DSNCRP in respect of the objectives set. The components of the corpus that guided them are income, employment, health, food, drinking water and sanitation, legal and individual identity, access to justice, security, education and literacy, and the degree of participation by women. Below is a snapshot of the opinions.

A low overall level of satisfaction

Satisfaction with respect to the availability of and access to basic social services and the quality of such services is deemed to be weak (68.9 percent of the assessments15). Individuals justify their opinions through an array of recurring factors: unemployment, the high cost of living, higher food prices, the short duration of projects, very limited participation by local populations in the projects, the population’s remoteness from the center delivering the service, very limited investment by public and private interveners and, above all, limited investment in the agricultural sector.

Table 15:

- Overall tenor of the assessments

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Graph 17:
Graph 17:

Have you observed an improvement in life in your community?

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2012, 075; 10.5089/9781475502701.002.A001

Source: ONPES, April 2009.
Negative sectorial assessments

Dissatisfaction is more acute from the standpoint of income and purchasing power: nearly 96 percent of the respondents maintain that inactivity, unemployment and, above all, soaring prices have hindered efforts to achieve improvement in living conditions. Families continue to experience problems in contending with their basic everyday obligations, such as obtaining food. The maintenance of physical capital has been compromised and children are the first to be seriously affected (malnutrition, physical impairments and intellectual disabilities). Access to healthcare services, water, a healthy environment and sanitation are very limited according to the opinions expressed. Over 79 percent of the respondents believe that access to legal identity papers, justice and security are difficult. The following tables reflect the mixed nature of the opinions.

Table 16:

Opinions on access to justice Access to legal services

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Source: ONPES 2009.