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Haaretz, 2012, “IDF Personnel Chief: All Israeli Including Ultra-Orthodox Should Serve in Military,” January 23, 2012, http://www.haaretz.com/news/national/idf-personnel-chief-all-israelis-including-ultra-orthodox-should-serve-in-military-1.408811
Karnit, Flug, and Kasir Nitsa, 2006, “Poverty and Employment and the Gulf between Them,” Israel Economic Review Vol. 1, No. 1, 55–80.
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Yashiv, Eran, and Kasir Nitsa, 2011, “Patterns of Labor Force Participation Among Israeli Arabs,” Israel Economic Review Vol. 9, No. 1, 53–101, http://www.bankisrael.gov.il/deptdata/mehkar/iser/16/iser_3.pdf
Currently, Israel’s population totals 7.6 million (2009), of which Jews accounting for 75 percent, Arabs for 20 percent, and other minority groups of 5 percent. Official statistics measuring Haredi populations does not exist. The Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS, 2011) estimated that the population of Haredim is about 10 percent of total population.
Yashiv and Kasir (2011) empirically show that cultural factors in part explain low labor participation among Arab women. Rivlin (2011) refers to discrimination as one of many factors affecting labor participation among Arab women.
Arab men’s employment is high, only slightly lower than secular and traditional Jews, in part because Arab men retire earlier. They tend to work more in construction, agriculture, and traditional manufacturing sector—where labor productivity and wages are low—than in high skilled or productive high-tech sector where Jewish men tend to work.
The overall infrastructure quality is ranked the 38th out of 142 countries by the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report, 2011–12.
Defined as the population of age 0–19 and above 65 divided by the population of age 20–64.
Defined as the population of age 0–19, above 65, and Haredi male/Arab female of age 20–64 not employed divided by the population of age 20–64 excluding Haredi male/Arab female of age 20–64 not employed.
The Tal law allows haredi men to study Torah and defer army service until age 23. Then, they can leave yeshiva for a year of “adjustment” (supposedly vocational training) without facing immediate draft. If they decide to remain “on the outside” of full-time yeshiva study, these men become draftable, serving either six months in the army with annual reserve duty or a year of civilian service.
The most recent BOI’s analysis also suggests that the employment of Haredi men from 39 percent in 2009 to 45 percent in 2011.