Côte d’Ivoire
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

This paper discusses key findings of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) for Côte d’Ivoire. The paper reveals that poverty is more acute in rural areas than in urban areas of Côte d’Ivoire. The increase of poverty is greater in the city of Abidjan, with about a 50 percent increase, compared with other towns where the rate of increase is slightly below 20 percent. As at the national level, poverty increased considerably at the level of development poles (regions) and differed from one pole to the other.


This paper discusses key findings of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) for Côte d’Ivoire. The paper reveals that poverty is more acute in rural areas than in urban areas of Côte d’Ivoire. The increase of poverty is greater in the city of Abidjan, with about a 50 percent increase, compared with other towns where the rate of increase is slightly below 20 percent. As at the national level, poverty increased considerably at the level of development poles (regions) and differed from one pole to the other.



1.1 Definitions and Assessment of Poverty

53. Poverty is a multi-dimensional and complex concept, generally represented under three dimensions: the monetary dimension, the lack or non satisfaction of vital needs and the sociological and psychological dimension. Poverty is experienced at both the individual and collective levels.

54. The assessment of poverty in Côte d’Ivoire is built around the monetary dimension. This evaluation is based on two factors: a welfare indicator and minimum basic needs. The welfare indicator retained is the consumption expenditure of households, used mainly because of the difficulties in collecting reliable data on household incomes. Regarding the minimum basic needs factor, it helps to classify the population into two groups. Population whose consumption expenditure is below the poverty line is considered “poor” while the population whose consumption is above the line is considered “non-poor”.

55. To determine the poverty line, two approaches are possible: (i) the method of the absolute poverty line corresponding to a minimum of nutritional needs to be met, to which is added a basket of basic non-food items; (ii) the method of relative poverty line, which is determined by the highest amount of consumption expenditures of a proportion of the population selected in an arbitrary manner.

56. The analysis of poverty in Côte d’Ivoire is based on a relative poverty line. Obtained on the basis of the data of the 1985 Permanent Household Survey (EPAM 85), this line was equal to CFAF 75,000 per capita and per annum. This amount was evaluated on the basis of consumer prices taken from markets in the city of Abidjan, over the period February 1985 to January 1986. It corresponded to the highest amount of consumption expenditures of the poorest 10% for this year. A deflator is applied to the consumption expenditures to take into account price differences between the other development poles of the country and the city of Abidjan.

57. At each new survey, this monetary poverty line is re-evaluated. Hence, the poverty lines obtained are: CFAF 101,340 in 1993, CFAF 144,800 in 1995, CFAF 162,800 in 1998, CFAF 183,450 in 2002 and CFAF 241,145 in 2008.

58. Eventually, poor in 2008, is the person with a consumption expenditure of less than CFAF 661 per day, or CFAF 241,145 per annum.

1.2 Trend, Profile and Location of Poverty

Nearly one out of every two Ivorians is poor

59. In Côte d’Ivoire, the number of poor people has multiplied by 10 within the space of a generation. Today, one out of two people is poor as against one out of ten people in 1985. Indeed, the poverty rate has increased from 10% in 1985 to 48.9% in 2008; which corresponds to a population of poor people estimated at 974,000 in 1985 and 10,174,000 in 2008.

Poverty on a rising trend since 1985

60. The analysis of the trend of the incidence of poverty between 1985 and 2008, as shown in Graph 1, highlights three important sub-periods.

Graph 1:
Graph 1:

Trend of the Poverty Rate between 1985 and 2008

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2009, 156; 10.5089/9781451807936.002.A001

Source: NIS

61. The first sub-period, 1985 – 1995, was characterized by a rapid increase in the level of poverty. In fact, the poverty rate increased from 10.0% in 1985 to 36.8% in 1995, representing an average increase of 2.7 points per annum. This period was marked by an unfavorable economic situation characterized by the deterioration of the terms of trade, the fall in prices of agricultural raw materials, stagnation of the real GDP growth at around 0.8% per annum, inadequate to compensate for the high demographic growth of 3.8%. Moreover, the devaluation of the CFA Franc in January 1994 accentuated the reduction of the purchasing power of households.

62. The second sub-period, 1995 - 1998, registered a slight decline of poverty whose incidence fell from 36.8% in 1995 to 33.6% in 1998. This result was attributable to the positive effects of the 1994 devaluation, combined notably with the improvement of the terms of trade and the resumption of investment. Furthermore, the rate of economic growth, ranging between 5 and 7%, was higher than the population growth rate of 3.3%.

63. Finally, the third sub-period, 1998 – 2008, is characterized by an aggravation of poverty, with the rate increasing from 33.6% in 1998 to 38.4% in 2002, and then to 49.9% in 2008. This period was marked by a series of socio-political and military crises, culminating in the military coup d’état of 24 December 1999 and the armed rebellion of 19 September 2002, which resulted in the de facto division of the country.

Poverty more rural than urban

64. All the studies conducted in Côte d’Ivoire showed that poverty is consistently more acute in rural areas than in urban areas. Twelve (12) out of 20 people are poor in the rural areas compared to 6 in the urban areas in 2008. This proportion ratio was 3 out of 20 people in rural areas compared to 1 out of 20 people in urban areas in 1985.

65. The poverty rate in rural areas deteriorated particularly in recent years, which coincided with the military-political crisis. It increased from 49% in 2002 to 62.45% in 2008, representing a rise of more than 13 points, while it only increased by 4 points in urban areas where the poverty ratio increased from 24.5% in 2002 to 29.45% in 2008.

66. In urban areas, the increase in the poverty rate was considerable. In the city of Abidjan, the poverty ratio increased from 14.9% in 2002 to 21.02% in 2008. In the other towns, poverty rose from 31.9% in 2002 to 38.06% in 2008, representing an increase of nearly 20%.

67. The poverty gap and severity of poverty are also rising, testifying to the deepening of poverty in Côte d’Ivoire1. The poverty gap (P1) thus increased from 12.9% in 2002 to 18.19% in 2008, which implies that more efforts are required in 2008 to get the population out of poverty than in 2002. In rural areas, the poverty increased from 17.1% in 2002 to 24.53% in 2008. In urban areas, the gap is 9.05% in 2008 as compared to 7.3% in 2002.

Graph 2:
Graph 2:

Distribution of Poverty Indicators according to Place of residence

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2009, 156; 10.5089/9781451807936.002.A001

Source: ENV2008
A poverty unequally distributed and on the increase

68. Compared to 2002, poverty increased considerably in the development poles, particularly in the formerly occupied development poles. In 2008, the poverty rate in eight out of ten development poles exceeds 50% as against four in 2002. Among these poles, that of the North is the one most affected by the phenomenon of poverty, with 4 out of 5 people being poor in 2008. This pole is followed by those of the West (63.2%); the Centre-West (62.9%); the North-West (57.9%); the Centre-North (57.0%) and the North-East (54.7%). Poverty has increased. Indeed, the poverty rate has nearly doubled in the North and the Centre-North. The West of the country, which seriously suffered from the effects of the crisis, registers a high poverty rate but practically equal to that of 2002. In the North-West, the poverty rate increased by 6 points compared to 2002.

69. Although with high poverty rates, the two poorest poles in 2002, West and North-East, registered in 2008 a slight decline of 1.3 and 1.9 percentage points respectively. This situation could be explained by the establishment of humanitarian and economic corridors. These corridors have not only facilitated the selling of agricultural output, notably coffee and cocoa for the West, cotton and cashew for the North-East, but also the offer of humanitarian aid since 2002. On the other hand, in the North, the vast majority of cotton and cashew producers did not receive the proceeds of their sales. To that are added, in the CNW zones, the generalized decline in economic activity, the dysfunction of basic social services due to the absence of State and difficult access to these services.

70. In the broad southern region, the poverty rate in households headed by internally-displaced persons is 36.5%; it is 36.0% in households accommodating internally-displaced persons. These rates, lower than the national rate of 48.9%, could be explained by the efficient integration of the displaced persons or by the peaceful atmosphere prevailing in the countryside since the signing of the various agreements, notably that of Ouagadougou in March 2007.

Table 1:

Poverty Rates in the different Regions for 2002 and 2008

article image
Source: ENV2008
Poverty affects, everywhere, both men and women wihout distinction, but it is globally lower in households headed by women

71. The poverty ratio in 2008 is 48.4% among men and 49.5% among women as against respectively 38.1% and 38.7% in 2002. In Abidjan, in 2008, the poverty rate is 20.7% among men and 21.2% among women. It is respectively 37.7% and 38.4% in the other towns and 61.3% and 63.6% in rural areas.

72. However, poverty according to the gender of the family head shows significant differences. As in 2002, the level of poverty is higher in households headed by a man (49.6%) than in those under the responsibility of a woman (45.4%) in 2008, at the national level. This trend is observed in the Centre-West, West, South and Centre-East poles. The contrary situation is observed in the Centre-North and North-East poles. However, for the rest of the development poles and the city of Abidjan, there are no significant differences between poverty levels on the basis of the gender of the family head.

73. In rural areas, in 2008, the poverty rate in households headed by a woman is higher (over 70%) than those under the responsibility of a man in the North, Centre-West, Centre-North and North-East poles. The opposite situation is observed among the rural population in the West, Centre and Centre-East, where the poverty rate in households headed by a man is over 64%. In the rest of the poles, no significant difference is observed.

74. In urban areas, the differences are less significant in most of the poles, except in the North-West where the poverty rate is 55.5% in households headed by a woman as against 43.3% in those headed by a man.

1.3 Poverty in Living Conditions

The probability of being poor increases with the size of the household.

75. The average size of poor households is 6.3 people against 3.9 among non-poor households. From 10.7% among people living alone, the poverty rate increases to 34.8% among individuals living in a household of 4 people, to 51.7% among those living in household of 6 people and to 66.4% among those living in a household of 10 people..

Poverty is inversely related to the level of education

76. The poverty rate reduces as and when the level of education increases. From 57.5% among population without education, this rate drops to 6.6% among the population with a higher level of education. The positive outcome of education on poverty is confirmed by the fact that 38.35% of those who went to school are poor while this proportion is 58.18% among those who never went to school. In other words, investment in education is a key lever of poverty reduction.

77. Poor population groups living in urban areas are more educated than poor population groups living in rural areas. In urban areas 30.5% of the educated poor have primary school education, 15.6% secondary education and 0.9% higher education. In rural areas, the rates are respectively 27.2%, 6.3% and 0.1% for the same levels. The low percentage of people with secondary and higher education in rural areas is due to the high concentration of secondary and higher educational institutions in urban areas. Moreover, most economic activities, which demand qualified manpower, are located in the cities.

78. Among the poor, the net rate of literacy is 33.70%, with a rate of 44.14% among poor men and 23.94% among women. Taking into account the place of residence, it is 49.56% among the urban poor, 27.77% among the rural poor.

Poverty increases with disability

79. The notion of disability concerns persons presenting at least one of the following disabilities: blindness, deafness, dumbness, paralysis, mental disease, physical disability, disability of the upper limbs and disability of the lower limbs.

80. About 63.1% and 32.5% of people suffering from at least one disability are poor respectively in rural and urban areas. This proportion is respectively 62.4% and 29.4% among people without disability. The poverty gap between disabled persons and people without disability is more pronounced in urban areas (3.1 points) than in rural areas (0.7 point). The gap is 2.5 points at the national level with poverty rates of 51.4% among disabled persons and 48.9% among people without disability.

The type of activity is a determining factor of poverty

81. The proportion of the poor working in the agricultural sector is high. Indeed, 46% of the poor are active in this sector. The proportions of the poor in the other sectors are respectively 15% and 2% in the non-agricultural informal sector and the modern sector.

82. Poverty seriously affects workers in the informal agricultural sector and, to a less extent, those of the non-agricultural informal sector. Indeed, the poverty rate is 64.7% in the informal agricultural sector and 36.1% in the non-agricultural informal sector. The rate in the modern sector is 19.1% for the public and semi-public sectors, 19.4% in the private sector and 35.2% in the agro-industrial sector.

The habitat and housing facilities are also determinants of poverty

83. In Côte d’Ivoire, the type of housing is a distinguishing factor of poverty in urban areas. In fact, the proportion of poor households living in huts, sheds, and isolated houses is high. This proportion is respectively 69.0%, 64.2% and 50.3% to which are added poor households of shared houses estimated at 31.3%. This factor is not a differentiating factor in rural areas where each household has generally a roof and the percentage of poor households living in such houses is close to the poverty rate in this environment.

84. Households that have no sanitation systems are among the poorest. Indeed, while the poverty rate is only 10.8% among households with WC toilets, it is 44.8% among those that use pit latrines and 67.9% in household without WC.

85. About 32.9% of households that have individual electricity meters are poor. This is by far the lowest rate when households are divided according to the mode of lighting. In the other cases, the proportion of the poor varies from 38.8% in households using a group meter to 63.6% in households using kerosene and 70.6% for households using other modes of lighting.

86. In urban areas, the population that has access to potable water is less poor than those that use other sources of water supply. Indeed, the poverty rate is respectively 18.9% and 23.3% among population groups that have a private or public standpipe. On the other hand, the rate is 49.9% among those that use water from wells and 53.0% among those that consume surface water.

87. In rural areas, the poverty rate, according to the source of water supply is respectively 64.3%, 67.4%, 62.4% and 68.6% for the HVA, public pumps, wells and surface water. There is, therefore, no direct link between access to potable water and poverty in rural areas.

88. In sum, poor households are large and most of them live in slums without the minimum facilities. As regards poor population groups, they have a low level of education and work in the informal agricultural sector.

Trend of the HDI

89. The trend of the Human Development Index (HDI), on decline since the middle of the 1980s (see Graph 3), confirms the importance of human poverty in Côte d’Ivoire. This decline in HDI is due to the drop in life expectancy and the low dynamism of the economy.

Graph 3:
Graph 3:

Trend of the HDI in Côte d’Ivoire

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2009, 156; 10.5089/9781451807936.002.A001

Source: UNDP

1.4 Poverty and Access to Social Services

The poor find it difficult accessing health and education

90. In the area of health, 12% of the poor have no access to a health center and 26% of the poor have no access to a general hospital. Furthermore, 54% of the poor walk to the health center as against 14% to a general hospital.

91. In case of illness, poor population consult first of all traditional healers or practise selfmedication instead of consulting a modern health personnel. Indeed, 52.0% of those who declare that they consult first of all a traditional healer, in case of illness, are poor compared to only 25% of those who prefer to consult in this case a doctor. This situation reflects the lack of, or the long distance separating them from, health centers and the high cost of modern health services.

92. Concerning education, 46% of the poor have no access to universities and grandes ecoles, 34% to pre-school education and 26% to secondary education. Primary education is the most accessible for the poor since 64% of the poor population can walk to school and only 2% uses public transport.

Failures and drop-outs increase the precariousness of unemployment

93. The majority of the unemployed are young, as ⅔ of them are under 30 years. The significant fact is that unemployment begins early among the poor category, namely those aged under 20 years represent the quarter of the unemployed poor as against 15 % among the unemployed non-poor.

94. Among the non-poor, those aged between 30 and 44 years are most affected by unemployment (27%) while those aged 20 - 24 years are affected by the phenomenon (28%) among the poor.

95. The analysis according to gender shows that among the poor men are more affected than women. The situation is a bit more qualified among the non-poor. Women aged 15 - 25 years are most affected; and from 25 years, unemployed men are relatively more numerous than women.

Poverty and access to credit

96. Whatever the environment or the region, the poor have less access to credit (9.0%) than the non-poor (12.7%). The poor who did not apply for credit attribute it to lack of a project (25%), the high cost of credit (15%), the lack of credit structures (13%) and the lack of information (11%). This is also the case among the non-poor but to a lesser extent. Hence, to meet their liquidity needs, the population generally resorts to parents, friends and acquaintances. Indeed, loans between individuals represent 80% of loans granted to the poor and 67% of loans granted to the non-poor. Taking into account the loans granted within the system of tontines, this proportion increases to 86% among the poor and 71% among the non-poor.

Poverty and access to the other services

97. The poor have easier access to the market and shops as they can get there on foot. 76% of them most often walk to the market and 78% often go the shop on foot. On the other hand, the poor often do not have access to services of the administration such as police stations (25%), the city hall (22%), the prefecture (25%), the sub-prefecture (17%) and justice (38%).

The poor have increasing access to ICTs

98. Concerning access to telephone, it is somewhat better, as 8% of the poor have access at home and 51% can walk to a telephone booth. Access to postal services is possible on foot for 10% of the poor, in a vehicle or public transport for 36% of the poor. Less than 1% of the poor have Internet at home while 6% can walk to cybercafé. For 10% of the poor, access to the Internet requires travelling in a car or using a public transport.

99. In total, the vicious circle that is created between monetary poverty and difficult access to basic social services is such that the poor accumulates a number of handicaps that inexorably maintains them in the throes of poverty.

1.5 Economic Growth, income in equality and poverty

100. In Côte d’Ivoire, the 10% richest people alone hold in 2008 32.8% of total income as against 30.4% among the 60% poorest. As shown in Table 2, only the share of the 10% richest people has declined compared to their situation in 2002. Generally, the income of households declined between 2002 and 2008 and this decline is all the more important as the income of the household rises.

Table 2:

Distribution of Annual Income by Decile

article image
Source: INS-ENV2008

101. This situation may be explained by the departure of a good number of the more well-to-do people from the country at the height of the crisis, the delocalization of some big enterprises and headquarters of institutions like the ADB. In addition, several enterprises closed down as a result of the sluggish business environment observed after the events of March and November 2004.

102. Moreover, the distribution of annual average per capita incomes highlights some disparities. The city of Abidjan clearly distinguishes itself frrom the rest of the country. Indeed, the annual per capita income is 1.6 - 2.9 times higher than that of other development poles. The comparison of the average per capita income helps to group the development poles into three categories. Hence, the first category is constituted by two poles on the coast (the South-West and the South including the city of Abidjan) with a higher annual average per capita income, ranging between CFAF 334,147 and CFAF 561,575. For the second category composed of the Centre-East, the North-East and the Centre, the annual average per capita income ranges between CFAF 287,080 and CAF 301,966. The least rich category comprises the Centre-North, the West, the North-West, the Centre-West and the North, with an annual average per capita income ranging between CFAF 191, 540 and CFAF 284,393.

Table 3:

Annual Income by Area of residence according to Development Pole

article image
Source: NIS-ENV2008

103. Moreover, the average annnual per capita income in rural areas of the two least poor development poles (South and South-West) is higher than the average annual per capita income in urban areas of the North developlent pole (the poorest in the country).

104. In each development pole, the average annual per cpaita income in urban areas is significantly higher than that of rural areas. The ratio between the two environments ranges from 1.26 in the North-West to 1.91 in the North; which indicates a high disparity in the North.

105. The Gini coefficient measures the inequality in the distribution of incomes. Income distribution is more egalitarian when the Gini coefficient is close to 0. Graph 4 of UNDP’s 2007-2008 World Human Development Report, presents Côte d’Ivoire’s situation in its regional context.

Graph 4:
Graph 4:

Comparative Gini Concentration Index in Selected African Countries

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2009, 156; 10.5089/9781451807936.002.A001

Source: UNDP, 2007-2008 World Development Report
Graph 5:
Graph 5:

Gini Concentration Index by Region in 2002 and 2008

Citation: IMF Staff Country Reports 2009, 156; 10.5089/9781451807936.002.A001

Source: INS, ENV 2002 and ENV 2008

106. At the national level, the Gini concentration index shows that the inequalities declined, between 2002 and 2008, from 0.5000 to 0.4209. This decline is observed at the level of the development poles, but in different proportions, as illustrated in Graph 1.3. The trend in inequality depends on the area of residence. In rural areas, inequality increases slightly, while it declines in urban areas.

107. The Gini concentration index declined in urban areas, from 0.5090 in 2002 to 0.4393 in 2008 but increased in rural areas from 0.4110 in 2002 to 0.4289 in 2008. Hence, ineaquality is virtually constant in rural areas while it is somewhat reduced in urban areas.

1.6 Perception of Poverty by the Population during the Consultations

108. This part presents the perceptions of poverty by Ivorian population. Expressed during the regional consultations organized from March to April 2008 over the entire national territory, these perceptions have been enriched with contributions from the workshop organized in Yamoussoukro on 21 - 22 May 2008 for restitution of the results of the consultations and definition of the strategic orientations for poverty reduction.

1.6.1 Definitions of poverty according to the Population

109. Completing the definition of poverty formulated above, the Ivorian population expressed its perception of the dimensions of the phenomenon of poverty. Hence, at the economic level, poverty is defined as the state of a person or a group of persons who lack material or financial resources to meet their vital needs, namely: feeding, access to potable water, access to health care, educating their children, access to decent accommodation, protecting themselves, clothing themselves. The poor person is the one “who has few goods, money and resources, (…) who is deprived of the minimum living standard” or “who cannot afford three meals a day”; he is also “someone who cannot cater for himself” and “who is constrained to choose between eating and seeking health care and leaving God to decide whether or not he should be healed”. Poverty also concerns “the situation of a moral entity (State, territorial community) that cannot meet the basic needs of its population”.

110. In all the development poles, in both urban and rural areas, the low purchasing power of individuals and households is perceived as a sign of poverty: “poverty is the lack of the minimum to meet vital needs in all areas of life”. To that are added the taking on debts and the inability to repay them, the mortgaging of plantations, rural-urban migration and the impossibility to make personal investment. “Resourcefulness”2 also seems like an indicator of poverty, notably among the youth: “poverty is the concrete situation of a man (or a group of people) who, despite his constant efforts and his everyday work cannot receive the just remuneration of this work to enable him to lead a decent life and also enjoy modern well-being and, therefore, becomes dependent at all levels”.

111. All in all, “poverty is the reality of total dependence that affects a person, a family, a community, a region and a country”. It is “a poor being, a shortage that causes a natural deficiency”, “an inadequacy of things associated with life”.

112. At the sociological level, poverty is expressed by the loss of autonomy and exclusion from solidarity networks. It is also the inability to live according to the standards in force in the society. Hence, poverty is synonymous with degradation of moral values, which finds expression in scourges like juvenile delinquency, prostitution, criminality, debauchery and in practices like nepotism, clientelism and laxity: “poverty is the loss of moral and civic values”. It is, moreover, perceived by the categorization of individuals in the society: “poverty is the ranking of individuals in the society thus defining social categories some of whom are considered poor or inferior and others rich or superior”; it is also “a phenomenon that gives no consideration to man”. Other social phenomena have been identified as signs of poverty. They are child labor, multiplication of unwanted pregnancies, loss of parental authority and dislocation of many families.

113. At the psychological level, poverty is similar to a feeling of; (i) precariousness “The poor person is the one who attracts pity, sympathy”; (ii) vulnerability “the state of mental deprivation and inability to participate in decision-making”, “state of a person who lacks ideas or imagination”; (iii) helplessness: “the term poverty is defined as the helplessness of man to find solutions to problems he faces”, and (iv) insecurity. Moreover, the culture of inferiority complex among some people or categories of people leading them to exclude themselves from, “loss of dignity” as well as the “fear of the future” is perceived as another form of poverty.

1.6.2. Causes of Poverty

114. The causes of poverty given by the population are at two levels: individual and collective. At the individual level, the causes exist at the level of the household or individual. At the collective level, they concern society at the local or national level.

115. The causes of individual poverty identified by the population concern divorces, death or handicapping disease of the family head. In these different cases, the decline of purchasing power of the households or the spouse intensifies. Furthermore, funerals and other grandiose ceremonies constitute factors causing the decline of purchasing power: “poverty is related to the lack of a culture of saving, (…) and lack of a real policy on initiation to savings”. Poverty is also due to “laziness”, the “culture of assistance, passiveness as well as illiteracy”.

116. The causes of collective poverty relate to successive dismissals, the slump in sales of agricultural products and focusing too long on cash crops (coffee, cocoa, cotton, cashew) as “sole” sources of income: “the priority is given to cash crop production to the detriment of food crop production”, “agricultural policies based on cash crops are unsuitable”. The lack of traffic fluidity and the poor state of the roads that are impeding the selling of agricultural products, also favor poverty of the population: “Impediments to traffic fluidity in the form of the plethora of road blocks and common practice of extortion of money through intimidation or abuse of force (racketeering), increase the cost of foodstuffs and other essential commodities”.

117. To that are added the lack of modernization or mechanization of Agriculture (rudimentary agricultural techniques, non mastery of the techniques for preserving agricultural produce), the inadequate and ageing agricultural manpower, the dysfunction of cooperatives, inadequate subsidies to farmers, or even lack of arable lands as a result of increased population growth and pressure on land, all of which favor the decline of agricultural production.

118. Concerning the inadequacy and poor state of the basic infrastructure, the explanation is in the non affectation, as priority, of the budgetary resources of the communities for equipping their respective territorial entities. This situation is, moreover, related to “the lack of effective application of the law on the transfer of competencies from the State to the local communities. Regional disparities, weakness of the village water supply system and “lack of a reliable policy of the decentralized communities in the area of basic infrastructure” are additional factors to be considered.

119. The population, moreover, thinks that the moral decline of the Ivorian society can be explained by “the lack of social and moral reference point”, the “lack of supervision of the child”, the “flouting of parental authority”, in a word, the “resignation of the parents”, “assailed” by social problems. Similarly, the high propensity of the educational system to exclude children with alternative care further explains this situation: “the educational system and basic training are disorganized (uncompleted programs, lack of qualified teachers, problem of efficient monitoring and evaluation…”. The weak insertion of the labor force in the economic fabric and difficult access to employment for the youth are also causes of this moral decline.

120. Concerning governance, the population feels that it is flouted in Côte d’Ivoire: “chaos and poor management”, “non participation of the civil society in development projects”. This situation is associated with “fear of change, lack of political will and dysfunction of the State”. As regards insecurity, the causes reside in the proliferation and circulation of light weapons, inadequate security services and resources for combating insecurity. Insecurity can also be explained by the intensification of unemployment, poor training of the security forces, underequipment of the Defense and Security Forces as well as “corruption within their ranks”.

1.6.3. Identification and level of satisfaction of the priority needs of the population

121. The development poles share common needs, but are differentiated, according to the areas, by specific needs. In the area of feeding, the population profoundly aspires to better access to food items, notably essential commodities and food self-sufficiency. Concerning agriculture, the needs relate generally to the improvement of agricultural productivity, the increase in remuneration for agricultural activities and efficient organization of the main agricultural sectors. However, in the West, North-West and Centre poles, the population particularly aspires to diversification of cultures, and South-West, South, Centre-West and North-East, to a protection of land tenure.

122. The health needs concern easier access to health structures, medical services and drugs. But, in addition, the populations of the West, South-West, Centre-East and South want greater efficiency in the fight against HIV/AIDS in their respective regions. In terms of education/training, all the regions aspire to free and compulsory access to education for all children, vocational training to prepare the youth for employment, functional adult education, notably in favor of women and rural masses. To that, the North-East pole adds free and compulsory access to school for little girls.

123. In the area of basic infrastructure, the needs are expressed in terms of permanent access to potable water in both rural and urban areas, free movement of people and goods, particularly agricultural products, greater access to electricity, notably in rural areas and better access to information through television, radio and telephone services, especially in rural areas. Specifically, the population of the Centre and North aspire to control of water for agro-pastoral activities.

124. Moreover, in the perspective of increasing their purchasing power, the population aspires to easier access to credit, particularly for women, the youth and farmers, an increase in the incomes of households and reduction of the cost of living. They also aspire to more jobs. The aspirations in the area of habitat and environment concern access to decent housing at affordable cost in both urban and rural areas, a healthy and clean environment.

125. Finally, concerning governance and security, the needs concern greater traffic fluidity, planned, participatory and transparent management of business and public resources and a just, interrelated and democratic society. They also concern better protection of individuals and their property, which is a prerequisite for any sustainable development.


2.1 Peace – Security and Governance

Deteriorated social cohesion

126. During the first two decades of its independence, Côte d’Ivoire was a prosperous and stable country. This prosperity attracted many nationals from countries of the sub-region in search of jobs and better well-being, making it a land of hospitality.

127. Social cohesion3, during this period, was built around several pillars, the most important being economic, political and sociological pillars. At the economic level, this cohesion was maintained by the State, through, on the one hand, a voluntarist policy on land use management for the benefit of the underprivileged regions and, on the other hand, a redistribution of incomes as an incentive to promote the emergence of a human capital capable of meeting the challenges of development. In the political domain, the charisma of the First president of the Republic contributed for a long time to preserve social peace.

128. At the sociological level, community ties, linear traditional society and family solidarity have been the base of social cohesion. However, the bases of this social equilibrium have been weakened by the contradictions that appeared under the combined effects of the economic recession of the 1980s and the wind of democracy in Africa in the 1990s. The socio-political climate and several other endogenous factors contributed to the erosion of social cohesion, which accentuated a number of conflicts.

129. In fact, the population growth, which has exceeded the economic growth rate, resulted in a slipping of community ties. Individualism has replaced solidarity while family ties have broken down. Moreover, cohabitation and mutual acceptance between nationals, on the one hand, and between nationals and non-nationals on the other hand, have collapsed because of the strong pressure on jobs and natural resources, notably land.

130. The problem of management of land ownership punctuated by repeated crises, is a determining cause of inter and intra-community conflicts, particularly in the coffee and cocoa producing areas. It has contributed to the deterioration of the confidence between the communities and favored social divisions through conflicts between generations and sociopolitical crises. Conflicts for control of natural resources have spread to stretches of lagoon, river and lake waters where tensions are often rife between fishermen from elsewhere and local fishermen.

131. Moreover, in the North, disputes between farmers and cattle breeders are constant sources of tension which are the origin of destruction of crops by transhumance animals, due to the non existence of fenced cattle grazing areas and as well as the non respect of the agro-pastoral seasons by the breeders.

132. Moreover, the feeling of exclusion and marginalization, which was gradually established within the society, was intensified by the introduction of the concept of ivoirité. In fact, this concept, intended to develop a national identity, has been used for various purposes by the political class. To that are added the difficulties in applying the nationality code, the suspension of the production and issue of the national identity card in 2000, the impossibility of establishing the civil status certificates due to the absence of the Administration, notably in the CNW zones and the destruction of the civil status registries in certain localities.

133. Added to all these problems were those created by the media, notably the press. In fact, within the Ivorian society where the level of education is relatively low, the press has contributed to widen the social divide. Hence, their proliferation and lack of professionalism, inadequacy and weakness of the audiovisual communication infrastructure and equipment have often prevented them from playing their role as the 4th power. Apart from the media, civil society organizations, notably the NGOs, workers’ unions, students’ unions, student and senior civil servants as well as religious organizations, are at the center of the radicalization of positions within the population.

134. In addition, the repeated school, university and political crises, the weakness of the judiciary system, the deterioration of moral values, the development of corruption and feeling of impunity have weakened the symbols that enable the State to maintain social cohesion.

135. Despite the holding of the national reconciliation forum in 2001 and numerous efforts deployed to maintain social cohesion, Côte d’Ivoire could not avoid the armed conflict of September 2002.

136. Eventually, in the light of the foregoing, it is clear that the social capital among the population living in Côte d’Ivoire has deteriorated considerably, leading to the aggravation of poverty through (i) the decline in agricultural and fish production (ii) the closing down of many companies and increased unemployment (iii) the drop in the purchasing power in both urban and rural areas and (iv) the intensification of the vulnerability of the households.

Land Disputes

Although they existed before the crisis, land disputes have been aggravated with the effective return of many unemployed young people to their village of origin due to the economic crisis. These young people, in search of opportunities on their native land, came up against many foreigners or national migrants or family members whom they often found on the lands they were hoping to claim. The inter-generational and inter-community tensions caused by these conflicts have had repercussions that go beyond the management of land resources and extend to the management of local conflicts in general.

The State of Côte d’Ivoire has tried to resolve land problems by adopting Law 98-750 of 23 December 1998 on the Rural land Estate and its application texts. It constitutes the legal framework to helping to transform customary rights (unwritten rights) into modern property rights and protect access to the land owners of the Rural Traditional Land Estate (DFRC), as well as occupants not eligible for the Title Deed. It reserves the land ownership right to only Ivorian citizens, and stipulates that all land title deeds should be reclaimed and officialized and within a period of 10 years. To manage the transition of the land administration to the regulated system and deal with potential disputes, a decree has established Rural land Management Committees. However, the application of the law and its application decrees are facing the following obstacles: (i) the law on the DFR contains constraining deadlines; (ii) the provision and implementation procedures of the law are still inadequately developed, thus creating additional uncertainties among the local population; (iii) the law and its application procedures are unknown not only by the population concerned, but also by the staff intervening in the application of the law; (iv) the weakness of the land conflict prevention and settlement system (legitimacy of the rural land management village committees, reliability of the arbitration at the local level, efficiency of the judiciary system). With such prescriptions that were threatening local interests, the law quickly became an instrument of manipulation by various political actors.

The authority of the State is seriously weakened

137. The armed conflict has flouted the authority of the State in the CNW zones and caused the destruction of public and private buildings, and under-utilization and lack of maintenance of production tools. It has also caused the displacement of more than 700,000 people, including 24,437 civil servants and government agents to the safe zones.

138. To correct the distortions caused by the crisis, several actions have been undertaken by the Government with the support of the International Community. Hence, the National Committee for Directing the Redeployment of the Administration (CNPRA) was created to ensure the resumption of the activities of public services in the CNW zones. The activities of this committee facilitated the return to the CNW zone of more that 97% of the 24,437 displaced civil servants and government agents including 162 prefectoral authorities.

139. Moreover, the restoration of the authority of the State over the entire national territory is facing some difficulties. In fact, in some localities of the CNW zone, the redeployed Prefects, Secretaries General and Sub-Prefects are still occupying makeshift premises they are using as both residence and office. This situation, to which are added the lack of working equipment coupled with the deadlines for providing operational credits, are affecting the full exercise of their power and having a negative outcome on the functioning of the other local governments.

140. The majority of government agents have taken up their posts in the CNW zone. However, apart from the education and health sectors, the majority of public services have not reached an acceptable level of operation due to: (i) the non-completion of the rehabilitation and construction of public buildings (208 buildings completed out of 3510); (ii) precarious living and working conditions of public servants and government agents redeployed and (iii) the persistent insecurity in these zones.

Table 4:

Situation as of 27 May 2007 of Public Buildings to be rehabilitated by Region in the CNW Zones

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Source: CNPRA

Data provided by the ministries concerned

141. In the framework of restoring unified State finances, the financial and fiscal administration is being redeployed to the CNW zones. In the same dynamic movement, the National Investment Bank (BNI), the Housing Bank of Côte d’Ivoire (BHCI), the Treasury Bank, the Public Treasury, the Development and Vocational Training Fund (FDFP), the National Lottery of Côte d’Ivoire (LONACI) and the Retirement Fund for Civil Servants (CGRAE) have resumed their activities in these zones. Moreover, the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) is examining the conditions for reopening its branches.

142. The technical committee in charge of restoring unified State finances has set a working time-table providing for the establishment in the short-term of secured customs by the Integrated Command Centre (CCI) at the Northern border of the country. In this regard, the Ouangolodougou customs office was established on 12 May 2008.

143. Despite the measures taken by the authorities, many public structures remain inadequately operational, notably in the CNW zones. This situation limits the access of the population to public services in terms of health, education, social and legal protection; all these aggravate the vulnerability of the poor.

Increasing insecurity

144. The security situation was already an issue of concern before the 2002 crisis. Indeed the volume of offences increased by nearly 12% from 2003 to date. During the first semester of 2008, out of a total of 62,424 offences to the penal law registered by the National Police, 75% were registered in the district of Abidjan. With a staff estimated in 2008 at nearly 17,500 agents, corresponding to a ratio of 1 policeman for 1,500 inhabitants as against the international standard of 1 policeman for 200 inhabitants, the National Police is confronted with difficulties of equipment and infrastructure.

145. With the crisis, these difficulties have been aggravated following the destruction of some infrastructural facilities in the CNW zone and the overexploitation of the equipment in the South zone. Despite the efforts deployed, the security situation has deteriorated with (i) the increase in serious crime and criminality, (ii) the proliferation and circulation of light weapons, (iii) the nonmastery of movements of people and goods at the borders, (iv) the use of drugs and narcotics, (v) idleness of the youth, and (vi) the search for the search for easy money.

146. To these causes, are added the impediments to the efficiency of the Defense and Security Forces (FDS), expressed, notably by (i) the lack of strategic and operational vision of the entire FDS; (ii) the concentration of the military in the South of the country; (iii) the inadequate number of gendarmerie brigades, police stations, barracks for fire fighters and military barracks (iv) the insufficiency of quality staff, infrastructure and equipment; (v) the increase of HIV/AIDS and disabilities within the FDS; (vi) the existence of activities contrary to the ethics within the FDS such as racketeering or abuse of authority, thus weakening the confidence and collaboration between the FDS and the population.

147. One major consequence of the conflict is the appearance of the Armed Forces of the Forces Nouvelles (FAFN) in the CNW zones and armed militia in the other zones. Hence, a good number of vulnerable population groups, notably young people, were enrolled into the armed conflict. In the perspective of a definitive crisis recovery and in accordance with the OPA, actions have been undertaken to unify the two armies (FANCI and FAFN).

148. The situation described above indicates that the population of Côte d’Ivoire is facing increasing insecurity, which constitutes major obstacle to free movement of goods and people.

Inadequate governance

149. Good governance relies on the aptitude of the rulers to establish and respect a contract of confidence based on making all the actors within the entire national society aware of their responsibilities. It finds expression in determinants like the accountability of the rulers, participation of all the stakeholders within the society in the decision-making process, promotion of the rule of law, enhancement of democracy, transparency in the management of public resources and promotion of ethics. In Côte d’Ivoire, governance has registered some achievements despite the persistence of numerous dysfunctions.

150. Hence, for political and institutional governance, these achievements concern the creation of several institutions, a National Governance and Capacity building Secretariat (SNGRC), the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC), the National Human Rights Commission of Côte d’Ivoire (CNDHCI), the Public Information and Communication Centre (CICG) and web sites of the main Institutions, as well as live radio and television transmission of parliamentary debates. In addition, the recruitment of assistants for parliamentary groups contributes to the improvement of the work of parliamentarians.

151. However, weaknesses continue as revealed by the results of the survey of the state of governance and capacity building conducted by the NIS in 2006 in Abidjan. According to the study, about 70% of the population surveyed is not satisfied with the respect of the texts governing the nation, 65% are not satisfied with the sense of responsibility in the management of public affairs, more than 40% feel that under the present conditions the State media limits the right to information while about 50% feel that the right to political differences is not effective.

152. Moreover, the participation of civil society, particularly women and young people, in the decision-making process is still low. Indeed, the civil society, which must play a role of intermediation between the rulers and the population suffers from lack of organization, credibility and is insufficiently known. It is used as a tool by the public authorities and the political class. Hence, the lack of an intervention framework does not facilitate its involvement in development actions initiated by the State, the communities and grassroots communities. Similarly, access to State media and quality information, indicating the population’s participation in the democratic, process is still low.

153. Concerning administrative governance, the State in its desire to provide public services to all population groups, opted for a deconcentration of its services and the establishment of decentralized entities. This option has enabled Côte d’Ivoire to equip itself with infrastructure, notably in the areas of education, health, security and justice. However, the study on governance conducted by the NIS in 2006, shows that more than 70% of the people surveyed are not satisfied with the services of the administration and the quality of public service. In addition, 62% consider unsatisfactory the life and property protection services, while 35% of those surveyed said they do not feel secure in their daily life and more than 50% of them are not satisfied with medical, school and university services, although they acknowledge the quality of the training of health (doctors, nurses, etc.) and education (teachers, educators, etc.) staff.

154. In addition, the deterioration of the confidence between the population and political actors has aggravated the mistrust of public institutions, which is expressed by (i) a poor regulation of the relationship between the executive and the other institutions, (ii) the low level of citizen participation, and (iii) the non observance of the duty of giving account to the population.

155. The low level of performance of public administration and inadequate quality of its services are perceptible through poor organization and offer of services, the inadequate technical and professional capacities of some agents, the high mobility of human resources, an embryonic or lack of communication between the Administration and users, and within the Administration.

156. The present structure of decrees on attribution of ministerial departments highlights a series of weaknesses concerning the overlapping of some inter and intra ministerial attributions on the one hand, and between ministerial departments and public structures on the other hand.

157. Moreover, Public Administration employees are generally discouraged due to the fact that competence is not adequately taken into account in the promotion to high positions in Public Administration and the low levels of remuneration. These frustrations are exacerbated by the selective granting of allowances and freezing of salaries since 1980 whereas the cost of living keeps rising, as confirmed by the study conducted in 2007 by Mercer Human Resources Consulting which ranked Abidjan 35th among the most expensive cities in the world.

158. At the level of judiciary governance, Côte d’Ivoire has a Supreme Jurisdiction, 3 Appeal Courts and 34 tribunals. The system also has 33 prison establishments as well as 3 Observation Centers and a Re-education Centre for minors. Since September 2002, the Appeal Court, the 10 tribunals, the 11 prisons as well as the 2 observation centers for minors, situated in the CNW zone are no longer functioning. In terms of human resources, the judiciary system has 482 magistrates assisted by 648 Court clerks. Similarly, several professionals contribute on daily basis to the work of the justice system, notably 420 lawyers, 120 notaries, 285 business agents, 98 judicial advisers, 1,053 agents of the prison service and 68 controlled education instructors.

159. Coverage in terms of ratio indicates that there is 1 magistrate for about 40,000 inhabitants as against 1 magistrate for 10,000 inhabitants according to international standards. Also, the judiciary system suffers from dysfunctions associated with other difficulties of access of the population to justice due to high cost of the services, the remoteness of the judicial services as well as ignorance of the law, judicial law and procedures. Besides, the judicial system is marked by the excessive slowness in the consideration and issue of deeds because of the sluggish judicial system and considerable delays in the execution of decisions.

160. Moreover, the lack of establishment of the High Court of Justice and supreme jurisdictions provided for by the Constitution, notably, the Court of Assizes, the Council of State and the Audit Office, is weakening the judiciary system. Similarly, the lack of performance and monitoring indicators does not ensure control of the judiciary activity. The corruption and racketeering practiced in the judiciary circles are detrimental to the confidence of the public in the judiciary system as well as the promotion of a favorable economic and financial environment for private investment. Hence, the lack of control of government activity by the judiciary power is an inadequacy which accentuates the suspicions of the effective separation of powers. These dysfunctions have caused a crisis of confidence among those awaiting justice and economic investors towards, on the one hand, the judiciary institutions and, on the other, the staff, due to their inadequate number, their poor training and the inefficiency of the judiciary assistance procedure.

161. Concerning the prison system, it suffers not only from the effects of the weaknesses and dysfunctions of the judiciary system, but also endogenous problems like over-population 4, poor feeding, health and security conditions of prison establishments. These dysfunctions are related among other things to: (i) the inadequate number of prison guards and their inadequate training; (ii) the dilapidated state of the prisons; (iii) inadequate budget allocated for the feeding and healthcare of the inmates; and (iv) lack of a program of reinsertion of the inmates and alternative penalties to imprisonment.

162. Concerning juvenile justice, only eight (8) prisons have a section for minors; nine (9) have no separate sections but special areas are fitted out for them. Children in situation of conflict with the law are generally confronted with several problems and unmet vital needs due to promiscuity in the prison environment, sexual abuse and inadequate training opportunities. Moreover, for their protection, the law comprises provisions that are not adapted to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CDE) such as the penal mediation or extra-judiciary settlement, which is excluded in the area of penal minority. Similarly, at the policy level, the law makes no provision for remanding children in custody and the civil responsibility age (21 years) is different from the penal responsibility age (18 years).

163. In the area of economic governance, the advent of the Integrated Public Financial Management System (SIGFIP) marked the beginning of the electronic management of budget operations. Its introduction opened new opportunities for control, transparency and efficiency for the benefit of the actors. Concerning government contracts, a specific module of the SIGFIP helps to ensure effective control of the obligation to sign a government contract on the basis of an expenditure threshold. Similarly, budget control structures exist, notably the General Finance Directorate, the Public Expenditure Review Unit and the Financial Control Department.

164. However, the public administration suffers from inadequate functioning in its institutions and control mechanisms. Moreover, the culture of monitoring-evaluation is not deeply rooted in the management modes of public affairs. This situation favors illegal enrichment, increased corruption in all its forms. According to the survey on governance, about 85% of those interviewed are not satisfied with the economic governance, notably concerning rigor and transparency in public financial management, the fight against unemployment and rationalization of the standard of living of the State.

165. Finally, the functioning and management of the liberalized economic sectors are confronted with governance weaknesses, notably in the coffee-cocoa sector where there are strong suspicions of poor management of quasi-fiscal levies and corruption.

166. In total, despite the progress made in the area of good governance, Côte d’Ivoire is still classified among countries with the lowest performance. And this constitutes an obstacle to economic development and a threat for social cohesion through the deterioration of the confidence between the leaders, the institutions and the population.

2.2 Recent Developments in the Economy

Need for improvement in the framework and a weak statistical system

167. Since the end of the 1990s, the economy of Côte d’Ivoire has developed in an environment of socio-political and military crises. In September 2002, the armed conflict led to the interruption of several development projects and a decline of activity in the different sectors of the economy. However, thanks to the implementation of the crisis recovery program following the OPA and the signing of the EPCA in August 2007, the efficient implementation of which should result in a PRGF, and the economy benefitting from a renewed confidence of the economic operators.

168. The Ivorian economy has started recovering which would find expression in an expected growth rate of 2.9% in 2008. This growth rate is, however, inadequate to meet the needs of the population.

169. Hence, at the level of the real sector, economic growth registered a negative rate of -1.7% over the period 2002-2003, before stabilizing at an average 1.5% over the period 2004-2007, far below the population growth rate of 3.3%. In the quasi-absence of new investment in the manufacturing sector, the oil extraction and telecommunications branches appeared as the main levers of growth. Despite the inflationist tensions that appeared on international oil and agricultural raw materials markets, inflation was contained at an average rate of 2.8% over the period 2005-2007.

Table 5:

Share of the different Sectors of the Economy in Percentage (%) of GDP

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Source: DCPE

170. Highly dependent on the agricultural sector, the economy suffers from the repercussions of the weak organization of the agricultural sectors notably the coffee, cocoa and cotton sectors. Traditional farming practices and low accessibility to high-yield plant material, which is still poorly known by farmers, lead to low harvest yields. Farming activities are also suffering from lack of increased funding.

171. Industrial processing of agricultural output is still insufficient to induce high economic growth, substantially improve value added and absorb local productions. During the last decade, the levels of local processing of agricultural products was 2% for rubber, 5% for cashew nut, 10% for coffee, 20% for cotton, 27% for cocoa, nearly 100% for oil palm and 100% for sugar cane.

172. The tertiary sector represented 37.1% of GDP in 2007. Its contribution to economic growth is limited by the difficulties facing some commercially-traded services, namely (i) the informal nature of the land transport and trade sector, (ii) the disorganization of the distribution chain, deterioration and insufficiency of rail transport infrastructure; (iii) the low access of the population to banking services; and (iv) the under-developed tourist sector, which is deteriorating fast.

Outcome of the food crisis and oil price increase in Côte d’Ivoire

The food crisis and increase in the price of oil occurred at a time when Côte d’Ivoire was under a program with development partners, notably the IMF. The high price levels observed led to mass demonstrations on 30, 31 March and 1st April 2008. Many damages were incurred during these demonstrations, the most serious being the death of two people. Côte d’Ivoire thus experienced a social crisis as a result of the price increases, as in many African, Asian and European countries.

To deal with this price increase, the Government took urgent measures through the Order of 1st April 2008, which concerned the reduction of the VAT from 18% to 9% and suspension of customs duties on certain essential commodities over the period April - June 2008. These measures resulted in the loss of revenue amounting to a total of CFAF 24.6 billion at the level of the DGI and the DGD as against an estimation of CFAF 11.5 billion between April and June 2008.

The pursuit of these tax measures until the end of the year 2008 should result in an income loss to the State of Côte d’Ivoire of CFAF 77.8 billion (as against an estimate of 34.5 billion FCFA) including CFAF 69.5 billion at the level of the DGD and CFAF 8.294 billion at the level of the DGI.

To ensure close monitoring of these measures and their outcomes on prices of high-consumption products, the Government, in agreement with farmers and importers, brought down the prices to affordable levels.

However, these measures have not been fully applied by all actors of the distribution chain, notably the retailers. The long-term solution to the food crisis was based on a plan for re-launching food production, notably rice with 1.5 million tons consumed per annum, of which 800,000 tons are imported. The rice production development plan has been adopted and provision is made for the establishment of a fund for that purpose. The total cost of implementation amounts to CFAF 16.7 billion that can be mobilized from development partners like the World Bank (CFAF 1 billion), FAO (CFAF 210 million), IFAD (CFAF 1.842 billion), WAEMU (CFAF 1.5 billion) and BCEAO (CFAF 5 billion).

This plan exploits existing potential and aims at producing, in the very short-term, by the end of 2008, about 200,000 tons of milled rice, thanks to the exploitation of 39,000 hectares identified over the entire national territory.

The overall implementation of the program for re-launching food production will enable Côte d’Ivoire to restore its “production-consumption” balance in 2011 and constitute safety stocks from 2017.

Source: DCPE

173. On the demand side, the investment rate is estimated at an average of 9.7% over the period 2002-2007. This low level of investment is imputable, on the one hand, to an unstabilized business environment, the low level of savings, particularly long-term savings, and, on the other hand, to the low mobilization on the part of donors of co-financed projects. Over the same period, the final consumption is 80.1% on the average, including 66.9% for households. It is affected by the low level of income associated notably with the blocking of salary increases in the Public Function and inadequate implementation of the employment policy.

174. At the level of prices, the lack of transparency in their fixing and lack of a competition policy often hamper actions aimed at controlling inflation.

175. Finally, as long as economic growth is based on the primary sector, and a real industrialization policy is not initiated, the problems of sustainable growth and employment will continue.

176. At the level of public finance, the total revenues have steadily increased, going from CFAF 1,566 billion in 2005 to CFAF 1,615.5 billion in 2006, thanks notably to the reforms undertaken by the financial schemes (standardized invoices for the Central Revenue and Customs Departments and scanners for the Customs Department). The total expenditures increased from CFAF 1,714 billion in 2005 to CFAF 1,741.8 billion in 2006, mainly attributable to crisis recovery expenditures. The rate of fiscal pressure of 15.0% is still below the community standard fixed at a minimum of 17%. The collection of tax revenue is mainly done in the government zone because of collection difficulties in the CNW zones.

177. The 2007 budget was executed to the tune of CFAF 1,949.4 billion in expenditures as against a level of revenues and grants of CFAF 1,871.4 billion, representing an over-expenditure of CFAF 78 billion. This situation is justified by expenditures associated with the implementation of crisis recovery programs, supported by the budget. Moreover, the contraction of domestic resources did not enable the State to meet all its commitments to creditors. The inadequacy of external support since the outbreak of the crisis constrained the State to reduce its investment expenditures over the period 2002-2007, thus leading to a regression of the rate to 2.8% on the average between 2002 and 2007 as against 5.5% over the period 1995-1999.

178. Concerning the development, execution and evaluation of the budget, some weaknesses were identified: (i) elected officers do not always have the necessary capacity for the consideration of the finance bill; (ii) considerable delays are observed in the control, evaluation and audit procedures; (iii) the functional nomenclature is not in conformity with the classification of functions of public administrations (CFAP) of the 2001 Public Finance Statistics Manual; (iv) the provisions for instituting budget credits introduce rigidity in the execution of expenditures; (v) control of allocation of resources to the primary service provision units is not adequately ensured; and (vi) the programs for controlling the financial regimes are not based on clear risk assessment criteria.

179. In addition, the analysis of the budget framework and preparation of the budget highlights some weaknesses, including: (i) weakness of the budgetary and macro-economic projection models; (ii) considerable delay in the transmission of reports of the control structures (IGF, CRDP, DCF) harmful to the budget inscriptions; (iii) a finance bill leading to the inscription of sometimes uncertain resources due to the search for a balance between resources and uses; (iv) a distribution of credits by spendthrift structures not always in conformity with their mission; (v) a lack of alignment of the macro-economic and budgetary frameworks on the objectives of the reference framework document.

180. Concerning the management of public contracts, it is experiencing some dysfunctions related to (i) the incomplete nature of the regulations of the application of the code, notably the settlement of disputes, the regulatory body, the sanctions, the audits, the community preference margin and the categorized list of enterprises; (ii) the lack of books of general administrative clauses; (iii) the weakness of the mechanism for deconcentration and decentralization of procurement within the contracting authorities (Administration and Communities) and at the level of the control authorities; (iv) the non-conformity of the regulatory mechanism in the area of execution of contracts with the UEMOA Directive and the low capacity of the contracting authorities to develop procurement plans before the adoption of the budget and (v) the inefficiency of the corporate categorization mechanism.

181. At the level of public debt, the stock increased from CFAF 6,970 billion in 2003 to CFAF 7,448.5 billion in 2007, of which 87.1% represents an average external debt over the period. The balance of this debt, which was CFAF 6,816.8 billion in 2000, or 91.9% of GDP, reached CFAF 5,037.7 billion in 2007, or 53.3% of GDP as against CFAF 6,130.3 billion in 2003, or 77.7% of GDP.

182. The external component registered an increase over the period 2003-2007, going from CFAF 6,149.8 billion to CFAF 6,406.8 billion. The stock of external debt represented 67.8% of GDP in 2007 as against 77% in 2003. The domestic component also increased to CFAF 1,041.7 billion in 2007 as against CFAF 820.1 billion in 2003.

Table 6:

Trend of the main Public Debt Aggregates

(in CFAF billion)

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Source: Public Debt Department/(*): Data at the end of November 2008.

183. From 2003 to 2007, the outstanding external debt declined from CFAF 5,486.4 billion to CFAF 4,099.4 billion, as a result of the combined effect of the efforts deployed by the State to honor some of its commitments to donors, the suspension of current loan disbursements and lack of new financing instruments.

184. Over the same period, external debt arrears increased from CFAF 663.4 billion in 2003 to CFAF 2,307.4 billion in 2007 because of the financial difficulties caused by the crisis situation.

185. The debt burden continues to be a major constraint for Côte d’Ivoire and impedes its development efforts, particularly in the social sectors. In fact, the State sets aside each year CFAF 400 billion on the average to repay its external debt.

186. Public debt management is facing several problems, including the delay in the issue of the decree ratifying loan agreements; the weak training in negotiation techniques of officials in charge of the search for funding, the lack of coherence between external debt instruments and management of public treasury, lack of knowledge of donor procedures by some project managers and lack of public debt policy.

187. The analysis of debt sustainability carried out by the IMF and the World Bank in 2008, resulted in a net present value of debt to budget revenues of 327% as against a target ratio of 250%; which implies a common reduction factor of 23.6%.

External Debt Portfolio at the end of 2007

Mainly constituted by concessional loans, this portfolio is dependent fluctuations of the rate of the US dollar for 33% and various foreign currencies for 6%. It is distributed among bilateral (50%), multilateral (28%) and commercial (22%) creditors. France alone holds 57% of bilateral debt stock as against 43% for the twelve other member creditor countries of the Paris Club and non-member governments or institutions. The debt due to the Paris Club is constituted by pre-cut-off date debt (1.8%), previously rescheduled debt (56.4%) and post-cut-off date debt stock (41.8%). Only the pre-cut off date and previously rescheduled debts (58.2%) are eligible for restructuring. For the record, the cut-off date was fixed on 31 July 1983 for Côte d’Ivoire.

The multilateral debt is mainly owed to the World Bank (63%) and African Development Bank (25%) Groups, and the International Monetary Fund (5%).

The commercial debt eligible for restructuring represents 94.7% of the overall commercial debt stock and is composed of Brady shares maturing latest in 2028. This credit is owed to private creditors (ex-London Club). Since 1984, Côte d’Ivoire has benefitted from nine agreements on restructuring of its debt owed to members of the Paris Club and three agreements on restructuring of its commercial debt, including a Brady type plan, in March 1998. Despite all the treatments obtained, the public debt stock is still considerable.

On the basis of the data on the debt situation as of 31 December 2007, the country is still eligible for the HIPC Initiative with a DCF (Discounted Cash Flow) ratio of the debt on Budgetary Revenues equal to 327% as against a standard of 250%. Moreover, the country jointly respects the two sub-criteria, namely the exports/GDP ratio equal to 45% (above the ceiling of 30%) and the revenues/GDP ratio of 19% (above the 15% ceiling).

The domestic debt portfolio is deteriorating despite the successive restructuring programs implemented since 1991 (consolidation et securitization of debt).

Indeed, since 2006, interest rates on Treasury bills have been rising, going from 5% in 2006 to 7 % in 2007. However, interest rates on bonded loans (TPCI) have been on the decline; from 7% in 2002, the rate fell to 6.5% in 2006 and 6% in 2007.

The volume of domestic debt has been rising steadily, due to the massive mobilization of capital from the regional market to fund government budget.

In 2007, domestic debt stock amounted to CFA F 1,041.7 billion. This debt is owed to the BCEAO (16.8%), commercial banks (13.0%), public enterprises (5.2%) and various subscribers of government securities (65.0%).

Source: Public Debt DepartmentSource: DCPE

188. Concerning the external sector, the balance on the current account was in surplus over the period 2005-2006, under the effect of the recovery of crude oil production. However, in 2007, it registered a deficit of CFAF 70 billion (-0.7% of GDP) due to a considerable decline in exports (-9.4%) and resumption of imports (5.2%). The trade balance, structurally surplus, deteriorated (CFAF 1,219.4 billion in 2007 as against CFAF 1625.7 billion in 2006) in view of the decline in cocoa exports, crude oil and petroleum products, coupled with the rise in importation of capital goods intended for private investment. Moreover, the country accumulated gross reserves (foreign currency) over the entire period, thanks to considerable entry of foreign capital through Foreign Direct Investment (FDI).

189. However, the dissolution of the Ivorian Maritime Transport Company (SITRAM) and the Ivorian Maritime Operations Company (SIVOMAR), following the liberalization in the maritime transport, constrained Côte d’Ivoire to resort to foreign ships for the transport of goods, thus contributing to maintaining a structural deficit in services. The same applies to air traffic for which foreign airlines are solicited. To the above mentioned factors are added the shortage of revenue associated with the payment of interests on public foreign debt and dividends to foreign investors, and the considerable deficit of current transfers related to the transfer of funds from foreign workers.

190. The monetary and financial sector was confronted with serious difficulties in terms of liquidity and loan recovery during the economic recession of the 1980s. This situation led to the disappearance of nearly 40% of the credit establishments. The effects of the 1994 devaluation combined with the profound changes in the financial sector permitted the modification of the scale of lending rates, the establishment of a renewed monetary market and liberalization of the conditions of banks.

191. Hence, the financial system comprised at the end of December 2007, a Central Bank (BCEAO), a Regional Stock Exchange (BRVM), 21 credit establishments, including 18 commercial banks and 3 financial establishments, 31 insurance companies, 85 micro-finance structures, 43 foreign exchange bureaus, 4 electronic funds transfer agencies, one National Savings Bank and two Social Security Banks (CGRAE and CNPS).

192. Over the period 2005-2007, the total money supply increased from CFAF 2,081.0 billion to CFAF 2,689.2 billion, representing an annual average increase of 11.6%. This increase resulted from the combined increase in net external assets of CFAF 188.9 billion and domestic credits of CFAF 419.4 billion. The increase in domestic credits resulted from the combined increase in credits to the economy (9.5% average annual increase) and credits to the State (8.7% average annual increase).

193. Bank funding of enterprises is confronted with a series of challenges, namely environmental constraints, costs and control of counterpart risk. At the judicial level, the high number of justice decisions considered disputable by economic operators creates a climate of non-confidence in the justice system and impedes investment. This situation compels banks to demand undisputable guarantees (bank cross guarantees, secure guarantees) which few operators can offer. The cost of credit is still high due notably to the decline in the quality of the credit risk, the high level of provisions and committed costs, despite the low level of lending rates.

194. Micro-finance, which appeared at the beginning of the 1990s, has registered a high growth since 1995. In fact, the total savings collected by this sector increased from CFAF 61 billion in 2005 to CFAF 71.9 billion in 2006 and CFAF 85 billion in 2007; which contributed to the granting of credits to the tune of CFAF 24.2 billion in 2005, CFAF 28.9 billion in 2006 and nearly 30 billion in 2007.

195. Despite this progress, the rate of penetration into the market by micro-finance institutions (MFIs) remains low (16.5% in 2006) with a marked absence in rural areas. Moreover, the level of savings mobilized in the MFIs, which is still low, results from a weakness in the security of savings, inability to repay funds in case of bankruptcy and inadequate training of the staff at the level of both the trusteeship and the MFIs. In addition, the poor performance of UNACOOPEC, which holds more than 80% of the market, poses a systemic risk for the sector. This performance is due to: (i) poor performance of the credit activity, (ii) negative balances brought forward and (iii) net losses.

Table 7:

Financial Performance of UNACOOPEC

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196. Moreover, the table below shows the impossibility of the institution to comply with the eight prudential ratios of fiscal years 2004 – 2207.

Table 8:

Situation of Prudential Ratios

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197. Above all, beyond the results published, the macro-economic performance is consistently sluggish, which delays the achievement of sustained growth of the Ivorian economy. The different economic and financial programs signed with development partners were often focused on stabilization policies, notably budget policies. Yet, the latter are only short-term solutions and not sustainable solutions to poverty problems. These programs especially did not focus on supply, which could induce sustainable growth and job creation.

198. The macro-economic framework available does not adequately integrate the interrelations between the different sectors of the economy. This tool does not permit the making of economic policy simulations and outcome analyses of exogenous shocks on the main aggregates of the economy and poverty indicators. This situation constitutes an impediment to meeting poverty reduction objectives in macro-economic forecasting. In addition, because of the difficulty with the collection of statistics, several economic variables are inadequately developed and, consequently, do not allow for efficient monitoring of the economic and social activity, particularly subsistence farming, private investment and some activities of the tertiary sector. The monitoring of certain macro-economic aggregates and variables such as private investment, the final consumption of households, employment, production costs of industrial goods and services, the production costs, etc., is not yet effective, thereby rendering the estimations difficult.

2.3 Private Sector

An impaired dynamism

199. In the face of the economic development challenge, Côte d’Ivoire committed itself to making the private sector the engine of growth. The emergence of the private sector was accelerated with the policy of government withdrawal from the productive sectors, initiated in the 1990s. These past years, this sector contributed for nearly two-thirds to the formation of GDP and creation of modern jobs.

200. Industry constitutes the main component of the private sector and it comprises twenty-four (24) branches in 2008. Agro-food and chemical industries stand out with respectively 33% and 28.5% of the national industrial fabric. These two main sectors are followed by those of the electric power and water utilities, various industries and metal construction industries, with respectively 8.9%, 8% and 5.3% of the national industrial fabric. Finally, wood industries, textile and footwear industries, mechanical, automobile, electrical industries and extractive industries, represent respectively 5%, 4.6%, 3.9%, and 2.8%. In 2007, Côte d’Ivoire had a total of 2,402 industrial enterprises of more than ten salaried employees, of which 1,296 for the agro-food and fisheries branch.

201. The private sector also relies on a qualified and young manpower, as well as availability of raw materials and competitive economic infrastructures. To these assets is added the existence of a financial system in development.

202. The mechanism for support to entrepreneurship is governed by an institutional, regulatory and judicial framework for the development of the private sector. Apart from the Ministry in charge of the promotion of the private sector, this architecture comprised consular chambers, the Courts of Arbitration of Côte d’Ivoire and OHADA as well as support and facilitation structures and umbrella professional organizations.

203. This provision is enhanced by a set of incentives for investment provided for by the Investment Code, the Mining Code, the Telecommunications Code, the Environment Code and the Labor Code. In this regard, tax relief has been granted to create the conditions for sustainable recovery of the private sector. In fact, the rate of taxation on the BIC is reduced from 35% to 27% for individuals and 25% for enterprises and moral entities. As for the Minimum Fixed Tax (IMF), it declined from CFAF 2 million to CFAF 1 million (2006 Fiscal Annex). Besides, in the framework of the sub-regional economic integration, customs, fiscal and sector reforms have been initiated in favor of enterprises.

204. However, some structural and organizational, institutional and financial factors are still hampering the development of the Ivorian private sector.

205. At the structural and organizational level, these obstacles are caused by the low promotion of entrepreneurship, the high cost of production factors, the decline in the competitiveness of national enterprises, the inadequacy between available training and the needs of the economy. To that are added unfair competition and the deepening of fraud and smuggling.

206. At the institutional and regulatory level, the constraints relate to: (i) the lack of a law for SMEs; (ii) the lack of a specific platform for consultation between the State and SMEs; (iii) the absence of a real national industrial policy and revival of post-crisis production activities; (iv) the low capacities of institutional structures of support for development support and promotion of the private sector. In addition, the sluggish administrative procedures and shortage of land for industrial use add to the list of difficulties. To that are added the existence of an unattractive and discouraging investment code, as well as difficulties of the justice system to protect property rights.

207. At the financial level, the private sector is confronted with difficulties of access to credits, the non-payment or delay in settlement of credits owed by the State and insufficiency of long-term savings. Similarly, the insufficiency of national private capital does not favor the development of this sector.

208. Moreover, the successive crises that have hit the country since 1999 have resulted in the increase in country-risk, because of the upsurge of insecurity. This situation has led to the closing down or departure of some enterprises, the shrinking of production of goods and services, and the decline in private investment by about 35% on average over the period 2003-2006.

209. At the level of domestic trade, Côte d’Ivoire established at the time of independence a sufficiently solid legal framework to ensure a smooth conduct of activities. Hence, Law 62-214 of 26 June 1962, defining the measurement units and regulating the measurement instruments helps to clearly support the practise of metrology in trade.

210. Trade occupies a key place in the Ivorian economy, as it represented 13.6% of GDP on the average over the period 2002-2007. However, the operators in this sector are facing many problems, including notably: (i) the liberalization and opening up of the market to regional and international competition; (ii) the persistent fraud and poor quality of the products; (iii) the non appropriation of metrological culture; (iv) the low control capacity; (v) the low level of information and sensitization of the economic operators (vi) the weakness of consumers’ organizations; (vii) the complexity of customs clearance procedures; (viii) the inadequacies in the internal restructuring of all branches of the food production sector, and (ix) the low level of funding of domestic trade.

211. Concerning external trade, it relies basically on export of agricultural produce. During these past years, exports registered a net decline in world trade, going from 0.17% in 1980 to 0.06% in 2003, and then to 0.04% in 2004. This situation was due to: (i) a decline in container traffic, (ii) the considerable loss of shares in foreign trade, (iii) the difficult access to financial assistance from the banks, (iv) the abolition of supplier credits, (v) the loss of competitiveness of transport, human capital and land and (vi) the crisis of confidence and deterioration of the country’s image.

212. To these difficulties are added: (i) the often detrimental existence of intermediaries between producers and exporters, (ii) the lack of efficient mechanisms for collecting products, (iii) the persistence and increase in fraud cases.

213. After enjoying a relative boom, the Ivorian tourist industry has been experiencing since 1999 an unprecedented crisis, aggravated by the effects of the armed conflict of September 2002. This situation has considerably deteriorated at the level of supply and demand, as well as at the level of promotional activities.

214. In terms of demand, the deterioration was confirmed by an important drop in the number of arrivals of tourists at the Félix Houphouët Boigny Airport, which fell from 167,000 in 2003 to 144,725 in 2005, and a decline in the rate of occupation of hotel rooms from 70 to 80% before 2002, to 45% and 30% in 2004 and 2005 respectively.

215. Concerning tourist supply, the hotel capacity dropped from 12,000 rooms in 2002 to 8,000 in 2005. Similarly, the great hotel groups registered a decline of more than 50% of their turnover which resulted in accumulated losses of more than CFAF 4.5 billion. In the case of independent hotels, the situation is characterized by the closing down of several of them, notably in the South-West, the West and the Centre of the country. In the case of travel agencies, they have lost more than 80% of their turn-over, as a result of which most of them have closed down.

216. The main problems affecting this sector are: (i) the reduction of hotel reception capacity; (ii) cessation of activities of several travel agencies and hotels; (ii) the deterioration of tourist and road infrastructures of several zones; (iii) a drop in visits to tourist sites and (iv) the slowdown in the promotion of the tourist activity.

217. Concerning the artisanal sector, it holds great potential in terms of job creation and development of local products, and sources of income. In fact, this sector constitutes a vast area of activities with more than 244 different trades and has a strong absorptive capacity. In addition, it offers opportunities for short-term apprenticeship and self-employment. Despite its importance in terms of job creation, artisanal industry is confronted with difficulties related to the weakness of the institutional and regulatory framework, the lack of funding for activities of the sector and inadequate qualification of the manpower. These difficulties are also associated with the inadequacy of actions for the promotion and marketing of goods and services of the sector, lack of artisanal industry establishment zones, lack of a social protection system and weak supervisory structures.

218. The sector of culture, for its part, is bursting with enormous potential for development as well as creation of jobs and wealth. However, revenues derived from cultural works remain low due to piracy, counterfeit, forgery and insufficient spaces for cultural expression. This weakness also results from inadequate exploitation of the national cultural heritage and inefficiency of structures for building the capacities of cultural operators/actors on the challenges of cultural goods and services. There have been weaknesses in the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions. There is also inadequate support for cultural industries and professional organizations.

219. There has been a remarkable expansion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) during the past decade. In 2006, investments amounted to CFAF 139.2 billion for the mobile telephone service and CFAF 10.6 billion for the land line service. The number of direct jobs created was 1,692 for the mobile phone sector and 1,206 for the land line service. This sector generates annually about CFAF 70 billion of VAT and relies on the existence of quality modern infrastructures and a favorable market. The emergence of ICTs has favored the appearance of new more rapid and user-friendly services.

220. The mobile phone service, which dominates this sector with 63.5% of the turnover in 2004, is exploited by four operators, which share more than 9,000,000 subscribers. For its part, the land line service had about 250,000 subscribers in 2005 with a low penetration in rural areas. In the face of this unexploited market, efforts are deployed by private operators with a view to providing telecommunication services to users living in rural areas.

221. Access to Internet is on the increase with nine operators providing services to more than 1,200,000 Internet users in 2004. In addition to these services, a rapidly expanding computer market is being developed with related services. In addition to these achievements, the creation in November 2006 of the Information Technologies and Biotechnology Village (Vitib), offers new possibilities to the sector.

222. The audio-visual space comprises public and private television channels and public, private and FM radio channels. Concerning television, the national First Channel covered 80% of the territory before the September 2002 crisis while the Second Channel transmitted within a radius of 100 km around Abidjan. Apart from these public channels, one private operator offers a encrypted channel, which gives access to information on several foreign channels.

223. Concerning audio space, the listening rate is more than 70%. This coverage is ensured by about twenty stations, including two national stations, namely the “Radiodiffusion ivoirienne” and “Fréquence 2”, several FM stations and four international radio stations broadcasting in frequency modulation.

224. Moreover, the written press publishes about sixty daily newspapers, and weekly, monthly, bimonthly and quarterly magazines.

225. Despite the progress made, the ICT sector is facing several difficulties, including notably: (i) insufficient rural telephone infrastructure, (ii) the high cost of new technologies and (iii) the low quality and high cost of telecommunication services.

226. In each major sector of activity, major companies and SMEs/SMIs coexist, constituting about 98% of the private sector. Estimated at five thousand (5,000) in 2002, the number of SMEs/SMIs has declined these past years due to the crisis. Beside this modern private sector exists an informal sector which, dominated by the tertiary sector, plays a preponderant role at the economic level.

227. Eventually, the private sector is facing many difficulties, which are limiting its capacity for job and wealth creation. They include: (i) the absence of a real policy on industrialization and promotion of the private sector; (ii) an unattractive and unfavorable environment for business promotion and development; (iii) low competitiveness of industrial enterprises; (iv) inadequate funding of activities; and (v) weak technical and financial capacities of institutional structures, umbrella professional organizations, notably SMEs, private sector support and promotion structures.

2.4 Rural Development and Agriculture

An unmodernized rural sector

228. The rural population represents 59% of the total population.

229. Until the reforms introduced in the 1980s, the development of rural areas was based on the preponderant role of the State, which intervened at all levels of the agricultural sectors, either directly or through development companies (SODE). These support actions concerned the production (supply of inputs, supervision of the farmers), collection of produce and their processing, where necessary, and the fixing of prices of agricultural produce according to a logic of stabilization.

230. The SODEs were also entrusted with the mission of building infrastructural facilities in rural areas to complement those established by the Regional Rural Development Fund (FRAR). Hence, 15,000 community infrastructure projects have been implemented since 1974 and several programs of opening and rehabilitation of rural roads have been implemented to open up the regions and production areas by the FRAR.

231. Moreover, Côte d’Ivoire initiated, on the basis of the 1992 agricultural development master plan, a restructuring of its agricultural development and research services, aimed at: (i) ensuring the integration of the agricultural profession into the management of development, notably through extension, research and training activities; and (ii) getting the State to focus on its orientation, promotion, regulatory and control functions.

232. This restructuring resulted in: (i) the creation of ANADER in June 1994 in the form of a semi-public company, with a special status and later into a company with public participation in April 1998 and the creation of the CNRA, also in April 1998, in the form of a company with public participation; (ii) the creation of the Inter-Professional Fund for Agricultural Research and Extension (FIRCA) under Law 001-635 of 9 October 2001 creating an agricultural development fund and Decree 2002-520 of 11 December 2002 creating and organizing FIRCA.

233. At the level of supervision in rural areas, ANADER provides agricultural services, notably support for the production, extension services and capacity building. The CNRA, for its part, carries out research activities in the agricultural sector. As for FIRCA, it finances agricultural research and extension activities. The OCPV intervenes in the marketing of food products.

234. Moreover, the end of the 1980s witnessed the implementation of new types of projects focused on the participatory approach with a view to structuring the rural areas. They include notably the National Rural Sector Management Support Program (PNAGER) and the National Land Management Program (PNGTER).

235. In the desire to create the conditions for developing rural areas, the Government constructed 48,000 km of rural roads to open up villages and camps, and 361 hydro-agricultural dams for irrigation of crops, fishing and stock-breeding.

236. Agriculture accounts for 27% of GDP, employs ⅔ of the labor force and provides, through the agro-industrial sector 40% of export earnings.

237. Despite its strong contribution to the national economy, the rural population is getting increasingly poor with a poverty rate of 62.5% in 2008 as against 49% in 2002. This rise of poverty in rural areas since 1998 is the result of the important changes in Ivorian agriculture, notably with the liberalization of the agricultural sectors which marked the end of the solidarity between the sectors. Indeed, until the 1990s, the other sectors such as plant and animal production enjoyed a boom thanks to transfers of resources from the coffee-cocoa sector.

238. Poverty in rural areas can also be explained by the privatization of the productive sectors as a corollary of the abandonment of certain activities such as the production of quality seeds for food crops, indispensable for improvement of productivity. To that is added the very high reduction of government support for the producer which was only limited to support for general services including research, extension services, irrigation schemes, rural roads, which is expressed, at the level of government budget, by a decline of public expenditures devoted to the agricultural sector.

Assessment of the 1992-2015 Agricultural Development Master Plan

The main objectives of the 1992-2015 Agricultural Development Master Plan are as follows: (i) improvement of the productivity and competitiveness of agricultural output, (ii) search for food self-sufficiency and food security. The evaluation of this plan in 2008 highlighted the following conclusions.

Concerning the improvement of productivity and competitiveness: i) Liberalization, a source of rationalization of activities in certain sectors (particularly rubber), rather revealed organizational weaknesses in most of the other sectors, where production and marketing costs are still high (cotton, cocoa-coffee, cashew, etc…..); ii) The modernization of the farms has not attained the expected results, notably in the area of mechanization. The protection of rural land remains a serious problem for agriculture; iii) The agriculture-stockbreeding association has been disrupted by the crisis; iv) The seed policy has not yet resulted in a significant use of improved seeds in the different sectors; v) Conservation and processing, in the framework of the privatization, has registered some positive outcomes, but secondary processing remains weak.

Concerning the search for food self-sufficiency and food security: i) the level of rice importation (50% coverage of national needs) is still high despite the achievements of the different projects; ii) the marketing of food items (maize, roots and tubers, plantain) is inefficient; iii) the cattle-meat sector is not well structured, despite some dynamism in the sector; iv) the modern poultry has an efficient professional organization and generates many jobs. However, the sector registered enormous economic losses associated with the outbreak of avian flu epizootic disease in May 2006.


239. Similarly, the socio-economic crisis that broke out on 19 September 2002, resulting in the interruption a number of development programs and projects, notably in the CNW zone as well as destruction of production (fish hatcheries, ranches, seed farms) and agricultural research (cotton, food research and animal production research stations of the CNRA in Bouaké), have worsened the poverty status of the rural population.

240. Moreover, the rural area suffers from lack of follow-up of its developments. The legislative texts on water, sanitation, and land have not always been strictly applied. To that are added the lack of data and technical information and poor management of irrigation schemes. Concerning rural land, the difficulties result mainly from land use as a production factor, demographic pressure, high rate of urbanization and the return of increasing number of young people, the unemployed and laid-off employees to the land. This situation increases poverty in rural areas.

The key sectors of agriculture

241. Hence, for the periods 2002/2003 and 2006/2007, coffee production increased from 140,027 tons to 170,849 tons while that of cocoa bean fell from 1,351,546 tons to 1,229,908 tons. Over the same periods, productions of the other cash crops also registered a positive trend, increasing by 4.1% for pineapple, 5% for cotton, 6.3% for banana and 14.7% for rubber.

242. The implementation of the second oil palm plan from 1985 to 1988 helped to increase the area to 200,000 ha including 50,000 ha of industrial plantations and 150,000 ha village plantations exploited by 30,000 farmers. The difficulties of this industry reside in the low level of investment.

243. In the rubber sector, the low level of local processing, about less than 1% in dry rubber finished products, causes to the industry and the State loss of considerable financial resources. This sector is confronted with fluctuations in the price of latex, inadequate funding of renewal and extension programs, poor potential for production of plant material, the ageing of the plantations, repeated attacks of fungus and the unclear land status of all agro-industrial groups.

244. Côte d’Ivoire is the second African supplier of banana on the European market after Cameroon. In the Ivorian economy, the banana sector occupies 8% of agricultural GDP, 2 - 3% of the national GDP and employs directly 8,000 - 10,000 people. With 250,000 tons exported in 2007, Côte d’Ivoire hardly represents 5% of the European market, far behind “dollar” bananas exported by Equator (4,600,000 T), Costa Rica (2,000,000 T), Colombia (1,400,000 T), which benefit from considerable economies of scale on virtually all the components of their costs (cartons/packaging, fertilizers, port and shipping costs, etc.). The producers must today face the requirements of the new regulation of the banana market, notably the abolition of individual export quotas and certificate of origin, payment of licenses, fixing of a global quota for all ACP countries.

245. As shown in the table below, the agricultural sector experienced a rise in poverty, which differs according to the crop cultivated. Indeed, all the producers, irrespective of the crop, have seen their standard of living deteriorating except for rubber producers, who have a relatively stable situation.

246. Cotton producers experienced, between 2002 and 2008, the highest rise in poverty rate, estimated at 93%. They were followed by producers of oil palm, coffee, cocoa, cashew and banana with respectively 48%, 26%, 16%; 16% and 14%. Despite the high rise in the level of poverty, the rate among oil palm producers (49.6%) is below the national poverty rate as is that for rubber producers (31.8%). The others have a rate of more than 60%.

Table 9:

Trend of Agricultural output by Sector in relation to Poverty

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247. In addition, the structural problems encountered by the sector before the crisis resulted in the disorganization of the production of seeds, the distribution and marketing channels and the closing down of factories. In the face of all these difficulties, the producers have resigned themselves to the use of ordinary and poor quality seeds, which over the past three years have resulted in the decline of the quality and yield of cotton.

248. Cotton is one of the main sources of income of people living in the Northern half of the country. The analysis of poverty by type of agricultural crop cultivated shows considerable deterioration of the standard of living of cotton producers, going from a poverty rate of 43.9% in 2002 to 84.7% in 2007, representing a rise of 93%. Indeed, total cotton production declined from 400,000 T in 2001/2002 to 120,000 T in 2007/2008. Over the same period, the overheads of cotton producers increased from CFAF 80,440/ha to CFAF 115,000/ha while the purchase price of seed cotton bought from farmers fell from CFAF 210/KG in 2001/2002 to CFAF 150/KG in 2007/2008. This situation resulted in a sharp decline in the farmers’ incomes to which was added the non payment of arrears amounting to CFAF 5.1 billion owed to the producers in 2008.

249. The sugar sector contributes to poverty reduction and regional equilibrium and in the diversification of the Ivorian economy. However, the sugar sector has not always been competitive and the impetus given by its privatization in 1997 was interrupted by the crisis and the production facility is getting old.

250. Cashew is today, with cotton, one of the main cash crops of the Savannah zone of Côte d’Ivoire. Cashew production occupies more than 50,000 farmers for a total national area of 420,000 ha and about two million people live directly or indirectly on this speculation. It procured more than CFAF 47 billion in terms of export earnings to the country in 2007. The constraint of the cashew sector resides in the fact that its cultivation is relatively recent for population groups who do not master all the contours of its production because of the recent appearance of this activity for the population and the lack of processing of low-yielding raw nuts, thus justifying the trend of poverty rate, which is 16% for this sector.

251. The cocoa and coffee sector underwent institutional reforms in the years 2000 and 2001 aimed at addressing the shortcomings registered in this sector in the past years in terms of transparency, reaction to fluctuations on world markets, and cost and adaptability of the management structures and, thereby, to contribute significantly to the improvement of the living conditions of producers and fighting against poverty in rural areas. However, the liberalization of the sector has been inadequately managed. Indeed, seven years after the introduction of this mechanism, there has been a decline in producer prices as well as a deterioration of the living conditions.

252. The food production sector occupies 85% of the agricultural labor force, 90% of which are women. The main food crops are rice, yam, cassava, plantain, maize and vegetables. Food production, estimated at 9,000,000 tons in 2006, occupies an area of 2,448,000 ha. It is basically carried out by small-scale farmers using rudimentary material and registers very low yields. National rice production covers only 50% of consumption needs. Food production (without rice) registers an average progress of 3.8% per annum thanks to an increase in the cultivated areas and not its intensification. The production system has not experienced any major improvement.

253. Apart from the main food crops, there are vegetable crops, the most important being tomato, okra, pepper, local garden egg (n’drowa), onion, cabbage, potato, lettuce and carrot.

254. Food crops benefit from the active presence of the National Federation of Food Cooperatives of Côte d’Ivoire (FENACOVICI) for the supply of markets with food products and the Food Products Marketing Organization (OCPV) for the collection and dissemination of information on prices of foodstuffs on the market.

255. The contribution of the food sector to wealth creation remains weak. This weakness is due to the lack of a specific policy, difficulties of funding, supervision of cooperatives and collection of reliable statistical data on the sector.

256. In sum, the incomes of farmers keep dwindling because of the low agricultural productivity, the slump in production sales, and the low purchasing price of agricultural produce and inequitable distribution of profits generated by the different sectors. To these causes are added the considerable post-harvest losses, the low level of conservation and processing of agricultural output, the generalized ageing of the plantations of coffee, cocoa, oil palm and coconut trees, the inadequate use and low mastery of modern farming techniques.

257. Moreover, the cost of inputs remains high, while results of research are not always accessible and adequately exploited. Similarly, actors of the agricultural sector are inadequately supervised and have limited access to credit and international markets, notably for the export sectors (cotton, pineapple, mangoes). Finally, the agricultural sector suffers from the inaccessibility of many production areas and unsuitable policy.

258. Livestock-raising is practiced over the entire national territory with strong predominance of ruminants in the North and Centre, and short-cycle animal breeding in the South. The livestock sector comprises four main branches each constituted by traditional animal raising, which is widespread and modern livestock-raising which is more restrictive but organized and where direct investment efforts offer more value added.

259. Modern dairy production is not widespread and contributes about 15% of the national production. The rest of the national diary production comes from excessive sedentary or semiseasonal movement cattle-raising. There are few livestock-raising organizations. Cattle and meat trading is vibrant, but unstructured.

Table 10:

Trend of the Main Animal Production for the Period 2002 - 2007

(number of heads)

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260. Traditional pork raising accounts for 23% of meat production in the country. The breeds are highly heterogeneous and the genetic potential deficient. A pork sector has, however, been constituted around the major consumption centers with individual breeding units, a modern slaughter house and stalls for selling pork meat. This modern sector offers many jobs and has an organization.

261. Traditional poultry farming (hens, chicken and guinea fowls) does not benefit from any specific support program but constitutes an important source of proteins and income in rural areas. However, the rate of exploitation remains very slow, to the extent that Côte d’Ivoire imports annually about 3 million traditional birds. Apart from these traditional poultry farms, modern farms have been developed, mainly concentrated around the urban centers, which account for 50% of the national production. The modern poultry sector has a good professional organization. It has created many jobs. However, the sector has registered considerable economic losses as a result of the outbreak of the bird flu in May 2006.

262. The non-conventional livestock-raising sector where the intensification and structuring have not yet started, is constituted by apiculture or beekeeping, rabbit breeding, snail production, grass-cutter production, cultivation of silkworms, and frog production. This sector benefits from a development program in the Centre of the country, but the results obtained have been wrecked by the 2002 crisis.

263. The national production of meat in 2006 was 15,165 tec for cattle and 7,495 tec for small ruminants. Chicken production was 16,873 tec and 26,050 tons of eggs. Milk production was 23,825 tons of milk. Consumption coverage rates in 2006 were 25% for cattle meat, 64% for small ruminants, 15% for pork, 96% for poultry, 100% for eggs, and 12% for milk.

264. In total, as in the agricultural sector, the incomes of the breeders are low. This situation is linked, among other things, to the low productivity in stock-breeding, high cost of inputs, the poor sale of stock-breeding products and inadequate development of slaughter by-products. Other contributing factors include the low level of processing of stock-breeding productions, the lack of a credit system for stock-breeding, the isolation of many stock-breeding regions as well as inappropriate organization of cattle breeders. Similarly, the limited coverage of veterinary services and inadequate promotion of the policy on stock-breeding are root causes of the dwindling of the incomes of cattle breeders.

265. The fisheries policy is characterized by the establishment of sustainable management of its resources and revival of the tuna industry. Despite the new policy orientations, the national and international environment has played a role in the performance of Ivorian fisheries.

266. The fishing industry occupies an important place in the economy of the country. It procures nearly 70,000 direct jobs and sustains more than 400,000 people. Fish is the main source of animal protein for the Ivorian consumer. It represents nearly 50% of the consumption in animal proteins. Per capita consumption is between 11 and 14 kg/inhab/year. However, participation of fisheries in total GDP deteriorated, declining from 0.3% in 2004 to 0.2% in 2005. It represented 0.9% of agricultural GDP in 2005. Ivorian production of fish products declined remarkably by 47% over the period 2000-2005 while the contribution of fish farming was insignificant. Traditional fishing whose main actors are nationals from the West African sub-region accounts for nearly 60% of the national production.

267. Production equipment for industrial fisheries and traditional fishing has registered a level of degradation that compromises its competitiveness. At the level of factories, the conformity to the increasingly demanding health standards and improvement of productivity constitute the challenges of their survival.

268. Côte d’Ivoire is still highly dependent on imports to meet its domestic demand in fish products. The incomes of fishermen are also low because of the decline in fish production, as a result of major post-capture losses, difficulties of preserving fish products and poaching of fish from the exclusive economic zone. This situation is also linked to the non-respect of the regulation in force, the anarchic and abusive exploitation of fish resources, the low level of technical and organizational competence of actors of the fisheries sector and unsuitable fish farming.

2.5 Food Security and Nutrition

Non-effective food self-sufficiency

269. Food security refers to the availability and access to sufficient quantity of nutritive and healthy food.

270. The food security policy adopted since independence helped to ensure food self-sufficiency thanks to the policies of supervision, investment and encouragement implemented by state-owned companies like SODERIZ, SODEPRA, SODEFEL and CIDV. This policy helped to ensure food availability at the national level for agricultural products like maize, cassava, yam, plantain, millet and sorghum and protein foods. This national production is completed by imports, notably flour and rice, for which the national production only covers 50% of consumption needs.

271. In addition, although the markets are supplied with food items, the population groups made vulnerable by poverty in urban and rural areas cannot have food in adequate quality and quantity.

272. This situation compelled the Government, in collaboration with the development partners, to put in place therapeutic and supplementary nutrition centers, mainly in the North, the West and the South-West for recuperation from moderate and severe malnutrition.

273. Despite these efforts, the comparison of the daily food needs based on the average of about 2,250 calories per person and food consumption patterns shows that the minimum needs of 20- 40% of the population are not met.

274. The armed conflict of September 2002 exacerbated the food problems in the CNW zones. In fact, as attested by the results of the survey conducted by the WFP and FAO in 2006, about 566,500 people in these regions are in a situation of food insecurity, representing 9% of rural households. About 1,109,600 people or 20% of rural households are in a situation of high risk of food insecurity. The Moyen Cavally has the highest percentage of households in food insecurity, or 43% of households. In addition, 27% of households run a high risk of facing food insecurity. This has resulted in a worrying nutritional situation in the North, with a global acute malnutrition prevalence of 17.5% and a severe form of 4% and anemia prevalence of 80.7% among children aged 6 - 59 months. (Source: national Nutrition Program PNN).

Nutritional Situation

The nutritional situation of Côte d’Ivoire is characterized by a dual burden: malnutrition by deficiency and malnutrition by excess. Indeed, the rates of chronic malnutrition, underweight and acute malnutrition are respectively 34%, 20% and 7%, according to the 2006 MICS survey. The North, West, Center and peri-urban zones are the zones most affected by these types of malnutrition. In the North, the rate of acute malnutrition increased from 12% in 2006 to 17.5% in 2008, according to the SMART survey conducted in this zone. This rate of malnutrition, higher than the critical ceiling of 10%, contributes to the increase in infant mortality, or at best, failure to thrive or even a disability in children. As regards the prevalence of low birth weight, it is 16.5% reflecting the nutritional state of the mother. Although exclusive breast-feeding is recommended, during the first 6 months, only 4% of newborns benefit from it.

To these malnutrition problems are added deficiencies in iron, Vitamin A and iodine. Nutritional anaemia are mainly caused by iron deficiency affected, in 1997, 20% of the total population, 35% of whom were children of preschool age, 23% children of school-going age and 45% pregnant women. In 2007, anaemia prevalence was 50% in children of preschool age, 59% in children of school-going age and 58% in women. In the North, in 2008, 80.7% of children and 58.9% of women of child-bearing age are anaemic as well as 74.8% of children and 67.7% of women of child-bearing age in Abidjan. Vitamin A deficiency affects 31.3% of children under 5 years. Concerning iodine deficiency, the prevalence of goitre in children aged 6 - 12 years, which was 40% in 1994, fell to 4.8% in 2004. Hence, 84.4% of households have iodized salt

Concerning malnutrition through excess, the survey on risk factors of non communicable diseases in individuals aged 15 - 64 years in the lagoon regions indicated in 2005, an obesity prevalence of 5.7% in men and 11.6% in women; and overweight rate of 24.6% in men and 37.6% in women.

Sedentary growth concerns 88.1% of the population groups with low level of physical activity. The effects of the nutritional transition and this sedentariness result in an increase in chronic diseases like cardio-vascular diseases, diabetes and cancers.

The inadequacy of the offer of care to both mother and child and food insecurity resulting from difficult access of households to foodstuffs, poor distribution of food availability within households, lack of knowledge on good eating habits are all factors that explain the aggravation of the nutritional situation of the couple mother-child.

Source: PNN

275. The flow of food products does not cover the nutritional needs of the population, because of the high seasonal variation, post-harvest losses and difficulties in supplying the markets with food products.

276. In the light of the foregoing, the obstacles to overcome by Côte d’Ivoire to ensure sustainable food security include increasing food availability, strengthening the distribution factors and improving health and nutrition.

2.6 Employment

A sector marked by increasing unemployment

277. The employment policy has been influenced by the different phases of the economic development of the country. In fact, the first decades after independence were characterized by sustained economic growth, which was beneficial for modern employment. The second phase, marked by economic recession and implementation of the Structural Adjustment Programs from 1980 to 1993, registered massive layoffs. To curb the effects of the SAPs, the State established a national employment plan in 1991, revised in 1995 that relied on the AGEPE-AGEFOP-FDFPFNS platform. Despite the implementation of the two national employment plans, there has not been a significant improvement in the employment situation. It has even deteriorated with the different crises experienced by the country.

278. The employment sector has no tool for collecting statistical and projection data. Its evaluation is done through “employment” modules obtained mainly from general population censuses and surveys on the living standard of families.

279. Public and private structures, providers of paid jobs, can only absorb a relatively low proportion of the population having attained working age. Moreover, job prospects of the youth are quite inadequate, whether they are university graduates or without qualification. In fact, according to the statistics of the CNPS, out of 26,000 declared enterprises with 550,000 jobs before the 2002 crisis, the country had only 13,124 enterprises in 2006 for less than 300,000 jobs, representing a decline of offer of 44% of jobs in the modern private sector during the period 2002-2006. At the same time, only one out of ten retirees is today replaced in the public service.

280. The most recent statistics based on the ENV2008 indicate that the gross participation rate is 50.2% in 2008 as against 42.4% in 2002 and 46.0% in 1998. As for the net participation among the 15-59 years age group, it was 80.1% in 2008 as against 65.8% in 2002 and 72.5% in 1998.

281. Generally, unemployment is on the increase. From 6.4% in 2002, the unemployment rate among the labor force is estimated at 15.7% in 2008. Youth unemployment, notably among the 15-24 years, is considerable. Unemployment among the labor force of this age group is 24.2% in 2008 while that of the 25-34 years is 17.5%. Unemployment affects more women than men. It is more widespread in urban areas, particularly big cities like Abidjan than in rural areas. In fact, unemployment rate among women is 19.8% compared to 12.1% among men. It is 27.4% in urban areas as against 8.7% in rural areas. The unemployment rate in Abidjan is 33.2%.

282. Independent workers represent the greatest share of jobs (48.8%) followed by unpaid workers (31.6%) and paid workers (18.7%). People in a situation of under-employment represent 23.8% of the total population, of which men represent 18.6% and women 30.9%. The data available indicate that indefinite employment deteriorated more in 2006. In fact, its contribution to total employment is 14.8% with 16.8% for adults and 12.7% for young people. At the level of fixed-term employment, a decline is observed with higher contribution among young people than among adults. With a contribution of 68.7%, employment without contract remains dominant. As for seasonal and casual jobs, their share was low but increased in 2006 compared to 2002. In total, the employment situation deteriorated considerably between 1998 and 2008.

283. The informal sector is still vibrant and concerns agriculture, services and industry. It occupied 4,107,595 people in 2002, as against 1,698,300 people in 1995, representing an increase of 142% in 7 years.

284. Concerning graduates from the different educational institutions, they are confronted with difficulties of professional integration. In fact, according to the Employment Observatory of the AGEPE, the unemployment rate of graduates in 2002 was 13% at the national level. It was relatively high for holders of the BAC (27%), Master’s degree (25%) and CEPE (22%). For those holding the first degree and the BEPC, the rates were respectively 19% and 16%. Similarly, in technical education and vocational training, the rates were relatively high for holders of the BEP (53%) and BTS (42%) certificates. For BT and the CAP holders, the rates were 12.5% and 12.7% respectively.

285. The employment situation of people living with a disability is worrying. The illiteracy rate among these people is 60.1%, with 62.6% among men and 55.8% among women. However, their rate of activity is very low. In fact, according to a survey conducted in 2005, the activity rate of this category of people is 11.5%, which implies that nearly 90% of disabled persons who have attained working age are not exercising any professional activity. More than 70% of them are finding it difficult getting a job mainly due to lack of training (35.7%) and discriminations of which they are victims.

286. In clear terms, a major section of the labor force has no source of income. This may be explained by several reasons, namely: (i) an unfavorable institutional framework for employment; (ii) an inefficient framework for observation and monitoring of the labor market; (iii) a macroeconomic framework that does not address employment as a priority issue; (iv) an unskilled labor force, (v) difficulties of integration of job seekers mainly due to the gap between the training received and needs of the economy; (vi) an inefficient policy on promotion of self-employment, (vii) discrimination in access to employment for vulnerable groups; (viii) the precarious nature of employment; (ix) a high proportion of workers occupying poorly paid jobs; (x) the persistence of the phenomenon of child labor; (xi) low labor productivity due to the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, transport and accommodation difficulties, and poor working conditions.

2.7 Population

An inadequately developed human capital

287. The growth rate of the Ivorian population is among the highest in the world. In fact, the annual population growth rate was 3.8% between 1975 and 1988, 3.3% between 1988 and 1998 and was estimated at 2.85% between 1998 and 2007. At this rate, the population would double in 24 years.

288. This rapid population growth is based on a high natural increase of 2.6% and a high immigration rate of 14%, which has been reduced since the crisis of the 1980s. This rapid population growth imposes high demand on the State in terms of social services. In 2007, this social demand was characterized by 16% of the total population to be vaccinated (0 - 5 years), of which 3.5% were less than one year old, 8.6% of the total population to be educated in pre-school establishment (3-5 years), 15% in the primary school (6-11 years), 14% respectively in the secondary school (12-17 years) and the higher education (18-24 years). Similarly, 34% of the population is adolescent and 49% female, of whom 47% are of child-bearing age.

289. The population of foreign origin represents 26% of the total population. The proportion of children born in Côte d’Ivoire to foreign parents increased from 30% in 1975 to 47% in 1998. The issue to be resolved is consequently the integration of second and third generation immigrants.

290. The population is unevenly distributed in the national territory with nearly 78% in the forest zone as against 22% in the Savannah zone. It is rapidly urbanized with 43% of city dwellers in 1998 and 48% in 2007. The urban framework comprises 127 towns 8 of which have more than 100,000 inhabitants. It is dominated by the Abidjan metropolis, which concentrates more than 44% of the urban population. The political-military crisis has strengthened the demographic weight of Abidjan. Virtually all the towns are characterized by shortage of infrastructures, equipment and basic social services.

291. The number of ordinary households, which was 2,646,456 in 1998, was estimated at 3,500,000 in 2007 with an average size of 5.8 persons in 1998. In 2008, 18.4% of households were headed by women, as against 81.6% for men.

292. The fertility rate is on the decline with 4.6 children per woman in 2005 as against 5.7 children per women in 1994. However the poorest and most illiterate conserve a pro-natalist behavior marked in 2005 by 3.2 children among women in rich families as against 6.1 among the poorest; 3 children among women with secondary or higher education as against 5.3 among illiterates. The modern contraceptive rate among married women is low, between 7% and 8% over the period 1998-2006.

293. Côte d’Ivoire is traditionally a country of intensive internal and external migratory movements. Internal migrations, generally oriented from the North to the forest South more conducive for plantation economy, were intensified with the phenomenon of internal displacement of people by the war, which affects more than one million individuals, mostly children and women.

294. Concerning emigration, the consular sources indicate that about 161,430 Ivorians are living abroad. The recent expansion would be due to the successive crises. Ivorian emigrants are concentrated in France, the US, Mali and Italy.

295. Generally, the human capital is not adequately developed. This situation can be explained by the lack of recent data on the population as the latest population Census dates back to 1998. The lack of routine statistics associated, among other things, with the dysfunction of the civil status system and lack of an integrated information system on the population are factors aggravating the non mastery of the national population and skills. In addition, Ivorians of the Diaspora only marginally participate in the development of the country for lack of appropriate mechanisms to ensure their involvement.

2.8 Education/Training/Literacy

An inefficient system poorly adapted to the labor market

296. The educational system is composed of two types of education: (i) general education, which comprises three levels, primary, secondary and higher education; and (ii) professional and technical education.

297. In its policy aimed at ensuring the development of the human capital, the State gives priority to education and training. Hence, with a view to providing the different sub-sectors of the Education/Training system a common policy and programming tool, the Government developed in 1997, the National Education/Training Development Plan (PNDEF) over the period 1998-2010. The implementation of this plan helped to register some significant achievements.

298. In fact, in the concern to facilitate access and maintenance of children in school, some significant progress have been registered, notably, (i) loaning/renting of school textbooks to disadvantaged children from 1998, (ii) liberalization of the wearing of the school uniform for primary school children, (iii) liberalization of the books market from 1999, (iv) perpetuation and generalization of the school feeding system, and (v) involvement of the communities in the management of school establishments.

299. The perpetuation of the school feeding system by increasing the number of canteens from 3,262 canteens, which fed 585,535 school children in 2005/2006, to 5,134 in 2007, including 23 opened in secondary schools. Regarding the involvement of the communities in the management of educational establishments, nearly 3,000 subsidized COGES were creates and subsidized in the primary school.

Table 11:

Trend of total number of school children by school type and gender in primary education from 1989/1990 to 2006/2007

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300. However, the results obtained are inadequate and below the objectives set. The educational system is still facing several difficulties, which concern (i) low levels of accessibility and supervision, (ii) unsatisfactory performances, and (iii) budget constraints.

Legal framework for development of the Ivorian educational system

Law 95-696 of 7 September 1995 on education reaffirms the right to education and equal treatment for all, in the pre-school, primary and first cycle of general secondary education, which constitute basic education. The purpose of the training is now that of man and the citizen. Nevertheless, for the different levels of education, the specific objectives developed in the 1995 Law integrate the concern of national development, having as principles neutrality, equality, and at no cost.

301. At the level of accessibility and supervision, in the pre-school stage, the net rate of enrolment is 13% in urban areas and 1% in rural areas. The reasons for this low level of enrolment are the high cost of education materials and their porr adaptation to the socio-economic realities and failure to address the need to strengthen the national coverage in terms of Centres de Protection de la Petite Enfance (CPPE), Centres d’Action Communautaire pour l’Enfance (CACE) and preschool educators. In primary education, despite the outcome of the crisis, which has disorganized the educational systems in the CNW zones, the trends are maintained over the period 2002-2008. In fact, the net rate of enrolment declined from 56.5% in 2002 to 56.1% in 2008, with 58.8% among boys as against 53.1% among girls, with a gender ratio of 0.85. In rural areas, it is 49.8% and 68.2% in urban areas. In 2008, only 21% of children having attained the official school-going age have access to CP1 classes. In secondary education, the rate is 26.6% with 30.3% for boys and 22.6% for girls. Hence, the girls/boys ratio in the secondary cycle is 63.9. In higher education, the ratio is 56.1.

Table 12:

Gross rate of enrolment by region and by gender in 2001/2002, 2005/2005 and 2006/2007

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302. The rate of enrolment is still low at all levels of the educational sector. This is associated with supervision difficulties resulting from the weak reception capacities and the poor state of educational infrastructure unevenly distributed over the entire national territory.

Education in the CNW Zones

The level of supervision has generally suffered from a deterioration, which was aggravated with the September 2002 crisis. However, the shortage of qualified teachers observed for several years in the primary education and the presence of an important stock of benevolent teachers, notably in rural areas constitutes a source of additional concern in view of the quality objectives of primary education.

In addition to the above-mentioned structural problems, there is also the trauma suffered by the displaced persons (pupils and teachers); the deterioration of infrastructures (9% of functional establishments in the CNW zones); the issue of recruitment and training of voluntary teachers; problems associated with repeated strikes resulting in violence, which affects access and quality of education at the national level. Furthermore, the outcome of HIV-AIDS is real in the educational sector with a rate of more than 10% among both pupils and teachers.

303. Hence, the number of primary schools increased from 8,975 in 2001/2002 to 9,106 in 2005/2006. These infrastructures offered an average of 43 school children per class in 2005/2006, as against 42 and 40 respectively in 2001/2002 and 1989/1990. In the general secondary school, the number of classrooms in 2005/2006 was 15,850, including 8,288 in private establishments. The number of school children in the secondary doubled within twelve years, going from 333,709 in 1989/1990 to 682,461 in 2001/2002. Despite the crisis, the number increased to reach in 2005/2006, 762,151 school children, including 314,443 in private establishments. This trend was not reflected in the number of teachers, which declined. It declined from 22,536 teachers, including 2,826 women in 2001/2002 to 21,241 teachers, including 2,740 women in 2005/2006. Following the withdrawal of the administration in the CNW zones due to the socio-political crisis, the teaching was done by benevolent teachers and volunteers.

304. Concerning higher education, in 2007 the public sector had 42 establishments, including 3 universities, 2 regional high education units (URES), 3 grandes écoles, 33 specialized training establishments, along with 143 establishments in the private sector, including 17 universities and 126 grandes écoles, with 75% of the number of establishments concentrated in the district of Abidjan. The total number of research teachers was around 2,400.

Table 13:

Distribution of students by type of establishment in 2007

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Source: Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research

305. Notwithstanding these achievements, many holders of the baccalauréat or equivalent certificate have no access to quality higher education and those trained cannot find jobs. This situation is basically due to the low qualification of the administrative and technical staff, the weak social transfers, violence in university circles and the lack of control of inflow of students, leading to over-population of the lecture halls and tutorial rooms. To that are added the high tuition fees for many students of grandes écoles, inadequate university facilities, high concentration of higher education capacities in Abidjan and inadequacy between training and employment.

306. Concerning technical education and vocational training, this sector, which has few public facilities, registered no new construction from 2001 to 2008. However, in the private sector, the number of establishments kept increasing, going from 153 in 2004 to 274 in 2007, including 54.75% in the Abidjan District. The total number of school children increased from 28,066 in 2002 to 48,624 in 2007, including 23,699 girls. They represented 40.86% of the total number in pubic establishments as against 52.27% in private establishments. In 2007, the training was ensured by 3,324 teachers, 582 of whom performed administrative duties.

307. Many young people and adults, notably girls and women, have no adequate access to quality vocational and technical training and those trained are not inserted into the socio-professional fabric. This situation is due to inappropriate distribution of technical education and vocational training structures, the inadequacy and poor state of existing training facilities.

308. In addition, the shortage of teachers and administrative staff, lack of equipment and teaching aids as well as the low level and quality of technical and vocational education worsen the poor performance of this type of education. Moreover, the efficiency of the system is hampered by the unsuitability of the courses taught to the demands of the labor market, as a result of the inadequate collaboration between vocational training structures and the private sector, on the one hand, the absence of school norms and institutional weakness associated with successive changes of responsible authority, on the other hand.

309. Education in general, is accompanied by scientific research, which in 1971, was assigned the main mission of consulting and evaluation of development programs. The heritage of scientific research is constituted by 36 structures. The number of researchers, which was 326 in 1998, fell to 268, including 35 women in 2004, representing a decline of 17.8%, due to the brain drain, funding difficulties and the low exploitation of research results. In the agricultural sector, research has achieved some major results, notably the development of a great number of materials and improved clones, production of solar energy, exploitation of medicinal plants, improvement of the quality of water.

310. Despite the achievements registered, scientific research is poorly developed and the research results inadequately exploited. This is due to marginalization of research, low level of funding of the sector, inadequate number of researchers, and research equipment and the lack of a real policy on development of research, which lead to brain drain.

311. Coexisting with the educational system are non-formal basic education and Muslim religious schools. Non-formal basic education registers 87 Female Training and Education Institutions (IFEF) with 410 permanent education teachers. However, the infrastructures are under- equipped. Regarding the Muslin religious schools, the educational programs are not in line with the official programs, which poses the problem of non-recognition of the certificates and professional insertion.

312. At the level of performance, the output of the educational system is still low with high levels of educational wastage.

313. At the level of primary education, repeats concern annually nearly 25% of school children, or about 700,000 repeat pupils per annum. In the same proportion, it reduces the reception capacity of the school, while increasing the costs of education for the State and for families. It also contributes to the creation of bottlenecks, notably in enrolment to CP1 and CM2/6ème transitions.

314. In addition, the MICS 3 survey reveals that only 52% of the children who start the first year manage to reach the fifth year. As for the completion rate in the primary cycle, it dropped from 47.7% in 2001/2002 to 42.2% in 2005/2006, representing a decline of more than five points within four years.

315. Despite these obstacles, some progress is made at this level of education. This is evidenced by the results of the CEPE, which though irregular have improved these past years. In fact, the success rate increased from 33.7% in 1997 to 76.6% in 2006.

316. Moreover, internal output, which for long years was considered as low, seems to have improved. Thus, the output coefficient increased from 51.1% in 2001/2002 to 68.5% in 2004/2005. Also, the loss coefficient, which was 1.958 in 2001/2002, fell to 1.459 in 2004/2005.

317. Just as in the primary cycle, the secondary cycle has been registering high rates of loss due to repeats and dropouts.

318. Concerning the general performance of secondary education, only a quarter of candidates sitting for the BEPC and the third of those sitting for the BAC succeed in the national examinations. However, the rates of promotion by level in this education cycle are acceptable, on the average 80% in the first Public Cycle as against 70% on the average in the second Public Cycle.

319. The general observation is that the basic education cycle rejects nearly 10% of the total number of school children per annum. This amounts to diverting the school from its vocation, that of educating, training and teaching.

320. The foreseeable consequences in the medium and long-term of school and social losses are expressed in terms of socio-political risks, socio-economic and financial costs, which will be difficult to control if no solution is found in the short-term.

321. Moreover, professional insertion of graduates is below the efforts provided because of the unsuitability of the training profiles. This unsuitability is due to the lack of a regulatory framework for consultation between actors of the productive private sector and technical and professional training.

322. At the pedagogical level, higher education registers the gradual establishment of the BMD system (Bachelor’s degree-Master’s-Doctorate). At the specific level of BTS, reforms are ongoing with a view to enhancing efficiency and intensifying the use of ICTs.

Table 14:

Status of execution of the education sector budget from 2002 to 2007

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Source: Ministry of Economy and Finance, 2007 Budget Presentation Report

323. At the level of budget constraints, the structural adjustment policies on the Education/Training sector led to the decline in public expenditure, going from 36.6% of public current expenditures in 1990/1991 to 32.5% in 1999/2000, representing 6.9% of GDP in 1990 as against 3.9% of GDP in 2000. From 2002 to 2006, the budget share allocated to the Education/Training sector remained constant around 22%.

324. Government effort in terms of investment in Technical Education and Vocational Training has declined while the total number of students has increased by an average of 6.20%.

325. The structure of current public expenditures between the four levels of the educational system remains relatively stable. In 2000, the shares in expenditures for the different levels of education were: 46.6% for the primary level, 28.7% for general secondary education, 8.7% for the technical and vocational secondary education and 16% for higher education.

326. In the concern to facilitate access to education for the greatest number of pupils, the State encouraged the opening of private schools by granting subventions to the sector. However, private schools are confronted with difficulties, including the accumulation of subvention arrears, the precariousness of the living and working conditions of staff and anarchy in the sector.

327. In the light of the foregoing, it is obvious that many children and young people, notably girls have no access to quality basic education. Hence, the importance of the uneducated segments of the society. Indeed, the educational system is facing problems of (i) accessibility marked by inadequate reception capacities, socio-cultural problems and frequent changes of school textbooks; (ii) quality expressed by insufficient inputs, low motivation of the teaches and unsuitable curricula and teaching programs.

328. The consequences of these problems in terms of accessibility are overcrowding, low level of education of girls and the high cost of school text books. Concerning quality, the poor quality of education, academic failures and losses constitute the main consequences.

329. In the area of literacy education, the law on education structured the organization of the activities by enabling all actors of the sector to become members of the National Literacy Education Committee (CNAL), a body for consultation and harmonization of the actions and methods created by Decree 98-194 of 30 June 1998 on creation of the CNAL. Similarly, at the institutional level, the Autonomous Literacy Service (SAA) was created and attached to the Office of the Ministry of Education to ensure implementation of the Government educational policy. Moreover, the National Literacy Support Fund (FNAA) was created by Decree 99-400 of 04 June 1999 on the creation of the FNAA to mobilize and execute the funding of the literacy education support program.

330. According to the 2005 EIS, 39% of men and 54% of women are illiterate. Moreover, disparities between the places of residence have been observed. In rural areas, the illiteracy rate is 40% among women and 54% among men. In urban areas, the rates are higher, namely 53% and 69% respectively.

331. In the light of the foregoing, the poor performance of the educational/information system is due to the poor quality of the supervision and inadequate reception capacities. Consequently, many children and young people, notably girls, have no access to quality basic education.

2.9 Health

An inefficient System

332. In 2007, the public health delivery system in terms of infrastructure consisted of 1,591 first contact health establishments, including 27 CSUCOM and 20 FSUCOM, 77 first-level referral facilities and 9 second-level referral establishments including 4 university teaching hospitals and 5 national specialized institutes. The private sector has 813 nursing stations, 175 medical centers and offices, 113 dental clinics, 75 clinics and 11 polyclinics. To this may be added 653 pharmacies and 21 laboratories.

333. Infectious and parasitic diseases account for 60% of morbidity diagnosed. Despite efforts by the Government, the incidence of endemic diseases remains high, especially among children. These diseases are mainly malaria, HIV/AIDS, African Human Tripanosiais (AHT), naip, tuberculosis, Buruli ulcer, leprosy, onchocerciasis and bilharziasis.

334. Malaria constitutes the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in Côte d’Ivoire. One out of three patients in health establishments suffer from malaria which has an incidence rate of 146‰. Furthermore, it constitutes a major factor of maternal and infant mortality. In 2003, malaria accounted for about 42% of consultations by pregnant women and children below 5 years, and 36.07% and 62.44% respectively of the causes of hospitalization. In the educational and professional circles, malaria is the main cause of absenteeism (40 - 60%). Moreover, a study conducted in 2001 shows that malaria has reduced the working capacity of agricultural producers, resulting in a 1.33% drop in GDP.

335. Faced with this scourge, a national response was organized around treatment schedules and prevention strategies under the National Malaria Control Program. In the area of prevention, emphasis is laid on sanitation of the living environment, and the promotion of insecticide-treated bed nets. However, only 7% of households use insecticide-treated bed nets. With regard to management based on ACT, the simplest cases are treated in health centers and social and community associations. Complicated cases 5 are treated in referral facilities such as university teaching hospitals, regional hospitals and general hospitals.

336. Maternal mortality remains high with a rate of 543 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2005, as a result of inadequate emergency care for the mothers. Furthermore, the inadequate integration of maternal and child health services, the low level of involvement of communities and local governments in maternal health activities explain the high level of maternal mortality. To this may be added post-partum hemorrhage, dystocia, infections and abortions. These different causes hamper progress towards achieving MDG 5 relating to maternal mortality.

337. Infant mortality trends have been mixed. In 1994, it was 89‰ and from 1998 to 1999 it rose sharply to 112‰. 2005 witnessed an improvement with a decline in infant mortality to 84‰. However, it remains high among under-5 year olds: 150‰ in 1994, 181‰ in 1998 and 125‰ in 2005. As for neonatal mortality, despite the decline, it still remains high: 41 deaths for 1,000 live births in 2005 as against 62 deaths for 1,000 live births in 1998-1999.

338. The epidemiological profile of children below 5 years in 2006 indicated incidences of: 110.89‰ for malaria, 83.96‰ for acute respiratory infections, and 152.01% for diarrheal diseases. Moreover, 33.9% of children suffer from chronic malnutrition and 0.19‰ from measles. Factors fostering the emergence of illnesses relate to poor hygienic environment, insufficient advice and information to mothers, insufficient exclusive breast-feeding and early weaning, persistent cultural barriers and the low literacy rate of women.

339. Level of immunization against the target diseases of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is low: BCG (85%), DPTHepB3 (76%), Chicken Pox (76%) Measles (84%), YF (83%), TT2+ (67%) (Activity Report 2006 DC-EPI).

340. In recent years, there has been a re-emergence of diseases of epidemic potential, notably meningitis in the northern part of the country, cholera mainly in the urban centers and measles throughout the country. Over the last decade, other problems related to lifestyles have emerged. They include notably cardio-vascular diseases, diabetes, cancers and injuries caused by poor eating habits, sedentary lifestyles, alcohol, tobacco and drug abuse and road accidents, outcomes of air pollution, presence of mobile phone transmitters on house roof tops, etc. Similarly, the non enforcement of an appropriate household waste management policy has resulted in many cases of typhoid fever in urban centers, mainly in the Abidjan District. The risk of importation of the poliomyelitis virus is real with the continued existence of sources of infection in some ECOWAS countries.

341. The current health system is characterized by a decline in the quality of care, failure to apply risk management and the notion of safety of patients and the non respect of standards of care provision. This situation is compounded by the state of dilapidation and degradation of existing infrastructure, lack of public and hospital hygiene as well as mismanagement of biomedical wastes. Also, disparities in the distribution of health workers, insufficient financial resources and available technical support facilities, insufficient health centers and the high cost of services hamper access to health care.

342. On the whole, the problems of the health sector may be summarized in three points: (i) poor access to health services, (ii) low level of staffing, and (iii) budgetary constraints.

343. In terms of accessibility, the non-implementation of the health plan has led to poor infrastructural coverage. The rate of attendance of public health services by the population is low, with a 21% user rate in 2000. Only 44% of the population lives less than 5 Km from a health facility, 27% between 5 and 15 Km, and 29% who must travel over 15 Km to have access to a health facility. In 2008, 12% of the poor do not have access to a health center and 54% do so on foot.

344. To these shortcomings may be added the lag in the transmission of health information from the peripheral level to the central level, thus extending the time for dealing with epidemics.

345. Efforts in the area of socialization of risks initiated in 2001 have so far hardly materialized and private insurance can only be afforded by the richer population groups.

346. Access to inexpensive drugs is rendered difficult by the frequent shortages at the Public Health Pharmacy (PSP), as well as constraints relating to geographical and financial accessibility. This has led to the emergence of an informal market for the sale of what is popularly called “street medicines”.

347. With regard to staffing, in 2007, the total health workforce comprised 3,614 doctors, including 2,824 in the public sector, 410 dentists, including 285 in the public sector and 1,144 pharmacists, including 426 in the public sector. The paramedical staff consisted of 8,580 nurses, including 7,407 in the public sector, 2,690 midwives including 2,506 in the public sector, 1,520 senior technicians (x-ray technicians, bio-technologists, assistant pharmacists, and biomedical assistants) including 1,408 in the public sector and 591 auxiliary nurses in the public sector. About 80% of private sector doctors and nurses working in the private sector come from the public sector.

348. The ratios are unsatisfactory, with 1 doctor to 5,695 inhabitants, 1 nurse to 2,331 inhabitants, 1 midwife to 3,717 women of child-bearing age and 1 senior technician to 13,157 inhabitants compared to a PNDS target of 1 doctor to 6,600 inhabitants and 1 midwife to 6,600 provided for by the 1998-2005 PNDS. However, this personnel is unequally distributed over the entire national territory. For example, out of a total of 3,614 doctors in 2007, only 750 practice outside the district of Abidjan for 15 millions inhabitants, representing a ratio of 1 doctor to 20,000 inhabitants.

349. In addition to the biomedical system, there is also traditional medicine whose development was accelerated with the creation of the National Traditional Medicine Promotion Program in 2001. This type of medicine is practiced by over 8,500 traditional practitioners (TPS), 689 of whom had training in anatomy and conventional hygiene and 60 in intellectual property rights in 2007. To promote this medicine, a Traditional Medicine and Pharmacopeia Policy Paper as well as a five-year plan were formulated for the period 2005-2009. Despite the efforts made, the regulation of this body is being hampered by the failure to pass three bills on the authorization, code of ethics and organization of traditional medicine. The poor collaboration between the public sector, the private sector and traditional pharmacopoeia is to be noted.

350. At the level of financing, the health system is essentially supported by the government budget and, to a lesser extent since 1992, through the recovery of costs from health system users. In view of the increased pauperization of the population, the recovery system has been fraught with enormous challenges. These two sources are enriched with little direct external support.

351. With the context of crisis facing the country, the budget allocated to health is low, thus reducing investment capacities (16%). Despite this low budget, staff recruitments were pursued, thus increasing the operational costs, which represented 70.9% at the end of 2007.

352. In conclusion, the main issue concerning the health sector is the disorganization of the supply of care as a result of the socio-political crisis experienced by the country. This disorganization is mainly reflected by a considerable proportion of the population having no adequate access to quality preventive and curative care. This situation may be explained by the low coverage in health facilities, notably in the CNW zone, the poor state and under-equipment of the health structures as well as the inadequate and unequal spatial distribution of health staff. The poor reception of patients, notably in rural areas, the low vaccination coverage and the limited access to drugs increase the vulnerability of the poor in terms of accessibility to care. Finally, the health sector is confronted with a real problem of funding, mainly as a result of the stagnation of the proportion of the budget of the MSHP in government budget, and partly, of the poor recovery of health costs.

Table 15:

Status of health budget execution from 2002 to 2007

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Source: Ministry of Economy and Finance, Budget Presentation Report, 2007.The above budget includes that of the Ministry in charge of AIDS Control.


The pandemic persists and is becoming feminized

353. Côte d’Ivoire is one of the West African countries most affected by the AIDS pandemic with a HIV sero-prevalence of 4.7% (EIS-CI 2005). In addition, there is a growing feminization of the pandemic: the rate is 6.4% for women compared to 2.9% for men. Sero-prevalence is estimated at 4.1% in rural areas as against 5.4% in urban areas. The economic poles of East-Central (5.8%), the South (5.5%) regions and the city of Abidjan (6.1%) are the most affected zones. According to the UNAIDS 2008 Report, 480,000 persons live with HIV and 420,000 orphans and children have become vulnerable as a result of the epidemic.

354. The causes of the spread of HIV are related to multiple sexual partnerships, early age of first sex, low level of knowledge on the part of the population and perception of the risk associated with HIV, persisting gender inequalities and certain cultural practices such as female genital mutilation, tattooing, piercing, levirate and sororate. The groups most exposed to HIV are young people who engage in sex for the first time between 15 and 17 years, adult women victims of sexual abuse and violence (30-34 years), sero-discordant couples and sex workers.

355. Studies show that HIV/tuberculosis co-infection varies from 42 to 49%. Since the advent of HIV infection, there has been a 10% progression of tuberculosis cases annually. Tuberculosis constitutes the main cause of death and opportunistic infection among persons living with HIV/AIDS, with 32% and 36% prevalence respectively.

356. There is an observable impact of HIV/AIDS on some key sectors, notably health, education, agriculture and defense. The impact on the health sector has been severe. As far back as 1997, already 40% of hospital beds in Abidjan were occupied by AIDS patients. Average period of hospital stay and bed occupancy rates involving AIDS patients are on the rise. On the education front, the number of HIV/AIDS-related deaths is high (7 teachers died on a weekly basis over the period 1996-1997), and the number of OVC unable to bear the cost of school enrolment has been growing. The number of children infected or affected by HIV/AIDS is estimated at nearly 524,000, including 450,000 orphans and 74,000 infected children. Nearly 90% of infected children are infected through their mothers during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding. In the agricultural sector, HIV/AIDS directly affects the workforce. HIV sero-prevalence in agro-industries is close to 17%. Furthermore, other studies have shown that the workforce in the agricultural sector fell by 5.6% in 2000 with a further projected decline of 11.4% in 2020. Lastly, in the defense sector, a study by the Military Providence Fund (FPM) published in 2000, shows that 150 to 200 soldiers die annually from HIV/AIDS.

357. In the face of the HIV/AIDS threat, the Government has been making significant efforts. An AIDS Control Ministry has been created and a National AIDS Control Council has been put in place to focus on the multi-sectoral aspect, the decentralization of the fight against AIDS and the strengthening of the national coordination efforts. A 2006-2010 National Strategic Plan (PSN) and a 2008-2009 National Action Plan defining the control interventions and actions have been formulated. Hence, all the nineteen (19) regions have an operational plan covering the period 2008-2009. Côte d’Ivoire is committed to the universal access to prevention, treatment, care and support. A document fixing the universal access targets has been drawn up and endorsed. In terms of behavior change, 22.2% of young people (931 out of 4,196) women and men aged 15 - 24 years have a precise knowledge of the virus, and 3% (men and women) know their HIV status (EIS-CI 2005). The number of VTCs in place was 147 in 2006, the number of persons undergoing ARV treatment increased from 2,473 persons in 2003 to 17,404 in November 2005 reaching 49,190 persons at the end of the first half of 2007 (PNPEC), the number of OVC benefiting from at least one (medical, education, health, legal, nutrition etc…) service was 37,250 out of the 120,000 identified in 2007. In the case of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT), 147 out of the projected 716 sites provide services, 17.2% of infected pregnant women received ARVs in the first half of 2007.

358. Despite efforts by the Government supported by the civil society and partners, inadequacies persist in the response. Services on offer are inadequate (VCT, PMTCT, ARV, palliative and nutritional care) with a countrywide coverage falling short of projected levels, a concentration of services in urban areas and in the south of the country, absence of services in the rural areas and the northern part of the country. The number of patients on ARVs is still low, particularly among children. In addition, other aspects of care and support are not adequately developed. They include notably palliative care, nutritional care and socio-economic support. Furthermore, the lack of strategic information constitutes a deficit that hampers better informed planning and proper management of interventions and technical and financial resources. Thus, there has been a noted lack of detailed analysis of the iimipact of HIV/AIDS on key socio-economic sectors over the long term. The AIDS control program is poorly coordinated and its integration into the sectors is not yet effective.

2.11 Gender

Gender inequalities still persist

359. Gender inequalities persist at several levels: access to basic social services (education, health), employment, resources and production factors, notably land and credit, decision-making and involvement in public and political life. In the area of education, the proportion of girls who enrolled in 2006 for first year of the primary cycle (44%) was significantly below that of boys (56%). Furthermore, the gross rate of enrolment of girls in primary education (60.2%) was low compared to that of boys (65.5%). These trends have been confirmed by the parity index, which was 88 girls to 100 boys in primary education and 77 girls to 100 boys in secondary education in 2006. In 2008, the net rate of enrolment of girls in the primary school is 53.07%, compared to 58.84% for boys. At the secondary level, these rates are 22.56% and 30.34% respectively.

360. In the area of employment, women are less present in the modern labor market. Indeed, in 2005 only 12.71% of modern jobs were occupied by women. At the level of participation in political life and decision-making, the proportion of women is still low; since the last elections, only 19 seats in Parliament are occupied by women out of 223, representing 8.5%, only 9 women out of 197 are Mayors, representing 4.6% and only one woman is President of a General Council out of 58 Presidents of General and District Councils. The Government of March 2007 has only 4 women ministers out of the 33, representing 12.12% of the total number of ministers.

361. In addition, abuse of women is widespread and constitutes an issue of concern due to its physical, psychological, social end economic consequences. More than one out of ten (10) women has been a victim of at least one of the known forms of abuse. Some forms of gender-based abuse such as sexual and physical abuse have increased with the crisis. The practice of female genital mutilation concerns about 36% of women aged 15 - 49 years (MICS 2006), with serious consequences on health in terms of bleeding, infections, notably tetanus and HIV/AIDS, dystocia and vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF). The most affected regions are the North (88%), the North-West (88%) and the West (73%).

362. Gender-related inequalities are explained by socio-cultural factors, stereotyped and degrading social relations and the low recourse to the human rights approach to address the practical and strategic needs of women and men. Persisting gender-related inequalities are also due to inadequate popularization and enforcement of regulations and laws on gender and equality. Indeed, despite the existence of legal protection frameworks, 35% of married women are in polygamous marriages, a significant proportion of girls are still forced into marriages, and nearly half of women still undergo female genital mutilation.

363. In the light of the foregoing, the promotion of gender equality is still confronted with persistent social, economic and political inequalities between men and women.

2.11 Social Protection

A limited provision

364. Côte d’Ivoire has ratified several international commitments based on fundamental human rights principles relating to social protection. These commitments were reflected in the amendment of the 2000 Constitution. The relevant collective provisions aim at protecting the citizenry from social risks and reducing their vulnerability, while redistributing national wealth based on equity and respect for human rights. In Côte d’Ivoire, the most vulnerable population groups most exposed to social risks are disabled persons, the elderly, children, young people and the poor.

365. Concerning disabled persons, the 1998 General Population and Housing Census established the proportion at 0.55%, with 0.29% for disabled persons, 0.21% for the deaf and dumb, 0.20% for the blind and 0.16% for other types of disabilities (leprosy, mental disability, etc.). Disaggregation by age shows that 0.4 % of children aged 0-5 years are disabled compared to 2.7 % of senior citizens. With regard to spatial distribution, the rural areas have the greatest number of disabled persons.

366. The national response to social concerns in the formal institutional environment in 2006 was based on over seven hundred (700) structures, employing 1,438 social workers and 410 continuing education teachers.

367. In theory, the national law eschews the social discrimination of this population group. However, disabled persons are confronted with barriers that hamper their access to income-generating activities. Indeed, no special provision is made in certain professional competitive examinations, where physical testing is compulsory. Also, the absence of social amenities to facilitate the movement of disabled persons does not promote their integration. Much remains to be done, in spite of efforts made, notably the recruitment of 300 disabled persons into the public service in 2008.

368. With regard to monitoring-evaluation, actions have been taken since 2003 aimed at establishing a social map as a tool for planning all the components of the system. A study on the programming of infrastructural and capital needs is ongoing in nine (9) pilot regions in Centre, North and West zones of Côte d’Ivoire.

369. With regard to the elderly (60 years and over), their number has increased from 379,234 in 1988 to 770,896 in 2007. This trend poses health, nutritional, economic and social difficulties that the Government and family units must address. Nevertheless, this age group accounts for only 3.51% of the total population in 1988, and 3.81% in 2008.

370. There is no mutual aid and supervisory structure for providing care to the elderly. They are essentially cared for by families without adequate level of awareness, do not have any special system of assistance and consider it to be an “unnecessary burden.” Their poor social coverage makes it impossible to extend their life expectancy.

371. At the level of children, the phenomenon of street children is an issue of major concern. This scourge that has resulted from a breakdown in the family fabric is essentially located in urban areas. The category of children concerned comprises disabled persons, orphans, sex workers, school dropouts or out-of-school children, young mobile workers and beggars.

372. Reasons for the vagabondage of these children partly relate to the precarious living conditions in the households they come from. These households are quite often poor and characterized by low incomes, over-crowding of the living environment, and inter-parental conflicts.

373. These children who are disconnected from the basic family unit are exposed to poor weather conditions, deprivation, destitution, diseases, sexual abuse, prostitution and violence.

374. Despite this situation, issues related to the social development of children are at the center of the Government’s actions. Appropriate strategic mechanisms have been deployed for their general protection and that of teenagers, against all forms of abuse. Thus, in the area of the fight against child slavery and trafficking, the Ivorian Government signed in July 2005 a multilateral cooperation agreement in West Africa aimed at combining efforts to curb the scourge. At country level, a national anti-slavery and child labor action plan was passed and Conventions 138 and 182 of the International Labor Organization on the minimum age for employment and prohibition of all forms of child labor were ratified in 2003.

375. To date, actions aimed at addressing the problem have stemmed from a number of voluntary/charitable initiatives aimed at providing care for these children and facilitating their return to their families of origin.

376. The crisis of September 2002 generated a new type of person in a situation of vulnerability. They include internally-displaced persons (IDPs) and war victims including mutilated persons, victims of physical and sexual abuse, orphans and socially-disadvantaged. During the crisis, the weak national system of emergency prevention did not permit a speedy care and support for such persons.

377. According to the Household Living Standard Survey (HLSS), 7% of the total population in 2008 was displaced during the war, and 2.9% are still being displaced despite the current calm. Although they have found host families, their situation is still fraught with uneasiness. Currently, 45.5% of the population is suffering from psychological disorders, 15% of which are sleep disorders, and 20.5% anxiety and stress disorders. Their care and support was made possible through voluntary work, and 99.7% of the victims did not benefit from any psychological consultation (HLSS 2008).

378. The collective and compulsory measures taken by the Government are being implemented by the Civil Servants’ Pension Fund (CGRAE) and the National Civil Servants Mutual Benefit Fund (MUGEFCI) for public sector workers, the National Social Providence Fund (CNPS) for the private sector, the Military Providence Fund (FPM) and the National Police Providence Fund and the (FPPN) for the military and security forces, and private insurance companies open to the general citizenry.

379. These organizations provide the beneficiaries with a range of services from the preparation of workers’ retirement to the partial coverage of health care. Services provided cover public and private formal sector workers who represent only 10% of the labor force.

380. A marginal segment of the population has social risk coverage with private insurance companies. The private insurance sector is governed by major companies that are subsidiaries of large international foreign groups. The sector generates sizeable resources and capital. Several small intermediation structures are set up around large private groups. The services provided by private insurance companies include real estate investment.

381. The Government has made it mandatory for all employers to provide professional risk coverage to workers and their families. In practice, this regulatory arrangement backed by the labor code is not enforced, as a result of which many workers are bereft of any rights or cover.

382. The agricultural sector does not have any social protection despite the existence of numerous autonomous organizations managing the sector.

383. To remedy this shortcoming, the organic laws on Universal Health Insurance (AMU) were passed by Parliament on 9 October 2001. However, so far, the project has not really entered the operationalization phase.

384. With regard to risk and disaster prevention, the Government has embarked on major initiatives marked by the adoption of legal frameworks and the establishment of the National Civil Protection Authority (ONPC) and the Military Fire Brigades. On the whole five Fire Brigades have been constructed, with three in Abidjan, one in Yamoussoukro and one in Bouaké. That of Bouake, located in the CNW zone, is not functioning; the others are ageing and lack staff. Furthermore, the safety standards for the installations, notably fire hydrants and pedestrian walkways are not respected and the public is not familiar with basic first aid measures.

2.13 Sports and Leisure Activities

Poorly developed sectors

385. Today, physical and sport activities constitute a factor of well being and social cohesion. However, sport is not adequately developed. In fact the practice of physical activities and sports are practiced in an unorganized unstructured environment; the facilities are inadequate, unsuitable and dilapidated. Little space is provided for sports at school, in particular.

386. In view of the financial challenges, the sports sector is generally disorganized, which limits its professionalization. However, there are private training centers for identifying young talents.

387. In terms of infrastructure, there are two major football stadiums, namely the ‘Felix Houphouët Boigny’’ Stadium and the Bouake stadium. Also, many medium-sized sport complexes located in the major urban centers, mainly Abidjan, have been provided by the Government and private initiatives. Apart from the large complexes, management and maintenance are ensured by decentralized entities that are facing financial difficulties. The sporting activities are supervised by professionals trained by the National Institute of Youth and Sport (INJS), former sports professionals and volunteers.

388. The dominant sport is football, which attracts most people because the practice is less constraining. It is followed by jogging. The lack of facilities compels the adepts of jogging to use the sidewalks very often causing many road accidents.

389. Practiced by a limited proportion of the population as a result of lack of resources, leisure activities do not have promotional frameworks. Human resources specific to the supervision of the sector are inadequate, obsolete and unsuitable in a socio-political context unfavorable for leisure promotion.

2.14 Environment

A sector constantly deteriorating

390. A healthy environment is vital for the survival of man. Environmental matrices (water, air and land) and the forest, the constituents of bio-diversity, the quality of soils and climate changes are elements whose optimal management is indispensable for ensuring some form of quality of life for the population.

391. Of the original forest, the area of dense forest, which was 12 million ha in 1960, had dwindled to 2.802 million ha by 2007, representing a loss of over 75% of the forest in less than half a century. In 2007, there were 0.672 million ha of classified forests, 1.728 million ha of national parks and reserves and 0.400 million ha of the rural lands estimated at 7.117 million ha. This remaining forest does not include sacred forests in rural areas.

392. In 2007, Côte d’Ivoire had 382 logging areas covering a total of 14,096,471 ha; developed by more than a hundred wood industries represented by 139 authorized processing units. Timber production increased from 1,669,998 m3 in 2004 to 1,576,362 m3 in 2005 and that of fuel wood from 35,100 tons to 29,780 tons over the same period. The volume of timber processed in 2007 was 1,506,984 m3. This sector of activity regularly employs nearly 40,000 people and covers nearly 70% of household energy needs. In 2008, 77.5% of households used charcoal or fuel wood as source of energy for cooking.

393. The advanced degradation of the forests has resulted from a combination of several factors namely extensive agriculture based on shift cultivation and burning, a mining approach to forestry, cutting of wood for cooking, demographic pressure, clandestine infiltration into classified forests and national parks and reserves, hunting, livestock rearing and frequent bush fires. Degradation resulting from farming activities affects about 40 - 50% of the forest area. This pressure on land has negative impacts not only on the rural lands but also on classified forests.

394. Faced with these challenges, emergency measures stemming from the Forestry Master Plan were introduced to re-organize the forestry management structures by strengthening the status of SODEFOR, creating the Ivorian Office of Parks and Reserves (OIPR), the creation of a Foundation for funding parks and reserves, the ongoing creation of a national rural forestry development agency (ANDEFOR).

395. The last exhaustive inventory of land and aquatic biological diversity indicates the presence of 16,034 plant and animal species, including 712 bird species and 163 mammals.

396. The erosion of biological diversity is ongoing, threatening activities that depend on it. Thus, poaching is the main cause of the decrease in large wildlife stocks, particularly chimpanzees, elephants, buffalos and hippopotamuses. This phenomenon is compounded by strong synergetic traditions of certain communities living close to national parks such as that of Comoé and Marahoué. The degradation of the biodiversity is also related to (i) excessive harvesting of timber, fishery resources, various gathering products, and (ii) use of hazardous products for fishing.

397. In the area of water resources, Côte d’Ivoire has four major rivers, namely Sassandra, Bandama, Comoé and Cavally. It also has vast lagoon water bodies, several groundwater sources, 11 watersheds and shares 2 water basins with neighboring countries.

398. Furthermore, aware of the need to put in place a coherent legal and regulatory framework codifying the harnessing of water resources throughout the country, the Government created a high commission for water resources in January 1996. Following the 1999 military takeover, the high commission was dissolved, without the implementing decrees of the code being passed.

399. The Abidjan water table that ensures an annual production of about 150 million m3, representing 70% of the water supply to the country’s subscribers, will reach its limits by 2012. Traces of pollution and a lowering of the water table have already been observed. Major threats to the quality and productivity of water are to be expected with the closing of the mouth of River Bia at Assinie, River Comoé at Grand Bassam and River Bandama at Grand Lahou, the development of invading aquatic plants, the proliferation of algae and extraction of sand from the lagoon, the silting of hydroelectric dams and the use of toxic products for fishing.

400. With regard to air, the industries in Abidjan emit on a daily basis 70 tons of sulphur dioxide (SO2), 21 tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 12 tons of toxic dust. Traffic accounts for daily emissions of 6 tons of SO2, 22 tons of NOx and 15 tons of toxic dusts.

401. Environmental problems have considerable outcome on the morbidity of the population, through the growth of infectious, parasitic, respiratory and endemic diseases such as malaria, cholera and typhoid fever. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) have been growing at an average annual rate of 5.8% over the past five years. Moreover, the practice of biotechnology has negative outcomes on the environment as well as on human and animal health.

Invading and untreated household refuse

402. Since the outbreak of the crisis in September 2002, migratory flows from upcountry towns to the city of Abidjan have doubled the population of this city, which increased from 3 millions to nearly 6 million inhabitants.

403. This breathtaking increase in the population of Abidjan has an impact on the sectors of activity, notably the household refuse sector. Indeed, daily production of household refuse has increased from about 2500 tons in 2002 to about 3,500 tons today. The effects of this increase in the rate of refuse production are many.

404. Indeed, the current collection rate is estimated at 46.1% as against 90%, representing the recommended standard. This difference between the rate of collection of refuse and the frequency with which households produce them is considerable. This difference, which cannot be totally absorbed by the refuse collection companies, concerns the city and is increasing at an exponential rate.

405. To that is added the low technical and operational capacity of the relevant enterprises, which do not have adequate technical materials to increase their output and optimize their results. The materials they use are either dilapidated or unsuitable for the collection and transportation of household refuse to the public dump.

406. Moreover, all the infrastructural facilities intended for receiving and managing household refuse have become obsolete. The household refuse bins, roadside garbage cans and transfer centers are inadequate.

407. In addition, the lack of public spiritedness of the population and the anarchic occupation of public spaces for commercial purposes are the causes of insalubrity. Indeed, the population is increasingly adopting a negative attitude towards the environment by throwing all over the place all kinds of refuse. Similarly, the residues of activities of traders seriously dirty the living environment of the population.

408. To sum up, insalubrity notably in Abidjan is related to: (i) the migratory flows of the population fleeing the war to the district of Abidjan, (ii) the increase in the rate of production of household refuse as compared to the collection rate, (iii) the low technical and operational capacity of the operators, (iv) the obsolete infrastructure, (v) the lack of public-spiritedness on the part of the population and (vi) the illegal and anarchic occupation of public places for commercial purposes.

409. This degradation of salubrity has consequences at the health, environmental, economic and tourist levels.

410. At the health level, the presence of refuse near residences is a source of contracting diseases, notably diseases associated with insalubrity. This phenomenon is accentuated by the presence of harmful agents like mosquitoes, flies, rats, bacteria, vectors of diseases like malaria, typhoid fever, cholera, respiratory diseases. Air pollution by carbon monoxide from vehicles is also harmful to health.

411. At the environmental level, there has been a degradation of natural resources like water, soil and air. Rivers and seas are used as refuse dumps. Excessive quantities of wastewaters, fertilizer and other toxic chemical products destroy marine and aquatic forms of life. Any surface pollution is likely to migrate to the ground and soil groundwater. That is why human activity above the “reservoir” of some mineral water sources is closely monitored. The insalubrity is also caused by the degradation of the living environment and toxic gas emissions due to the decomposition of dangerous biomedical and industrial waste.

412. At the economic level, insalubrity affects the output of commercial activities, notably through the decline of quality of foodstuffs and the output of tourist activities.

413. The treatment (recycling, development) is confronted with a problem of site localization in Abidjan. The re-localization of the existing site comes up against the local residents who dread pollution from this type of activity.

414. Côte d’Ivoire is prone to many health threats from water, soil and air pollution. The deplorable health safety conditions of foodstuffs: chemical, physical or biological attacks, chemical contamination of soils, untimely use of pesticides, inadequate supply of potable water, ignorance of the standards at the national level are quasi-permanent health threats with the boom of institutional food services. The new health threats are extended in some cases to widely consumed imported foods. In sum, the population lives in a degraded, unhealthy and polluted environment.

2.15 Habitat and Living Environment

A housing crisis accentuated with the crisis

415. The living environment is seriously affected by the phenomenon of urbanization. The urban structure currently comprises 127 towns, 8 of which have a population of more than 100,000 inhabitants. The city of Abidjan alone accounts for more than 44 % of the urban labor force. This urbanization is growing rapidly, at rates of over 15% in 1960 to 48% in 2007. This phenomenon may be explained by rural-urban drift and immigration from neighboring countries.

416. The high urban growth has increased housing needs considerably. Indeed, over 70% of households did not have access to decent housing in 2002. To make up for the deficit, the Government created real estate promotion companies such as SICOGI, SOGEFIHA, and GFCI. They helped to provide over 120,000 housing units both in Abidjan and some localities upcountry. With the disengagement of the Government, private sector actions resulted in the implementation of 118 programs for 21,328 housing units between 1988 and 1999 with the setting up of new real estate financing mechanisms. Similarly, from 2001 to 2005, 17 programs helped provide 4,059 housing units. With the support of the World Bank, the Housing Mobilization Account was used to promote social housing in urban areas with the construction of 25,830 housing units between 1988 and 2003. In the rural areas, this promotion was undertaken by the Housing Support Fund (FSH), created in 1984 and which has financed a total of 3,081 social housing units.

417. The implementation of the urban planning program provided 173 localities with town planning master plans from 1977 to 1999. In view of the rapid spatial and population expansion of some localities, the lack of revised master plans has fostered uncontrolled urbanization resulting in the proliferation of undeveloped and makeshift dwellings.

418. Basic social investment and offer of housing cannot meet the dynamic trend of urbanization. Despite the efforts deployed by the State and the private sector to absorb the shortage of accommodation, the demand for housing is still higher than the offer, with an accumulated gap of more than 600.000 housing units in 2000. Even where there are houses, the conditions of access are highly constraining because of the high cost of their acquisition and prohibitive rents.

419. The lack of adequate facilities in the house is also an issue of major concern in the improvement of the living environment. In 2008, 35.8% of the population has no access to latrines. There has been an increase in the phenomenon of slums in the major towns. In Abidjan, there are more than 72 slums with a total population of at least 600,000 inhabitants according to BNETD. Big towns like Bouaké, San Pedro and Man are also affected by this phenomenon.

420. The scarcity of developed lands and insufficient funding are all factors that aggravate the shortage of housing. To that are added the lack of harmonization in the construction of buildings, the complexity and ignorance of the procedure for obtaining the building permit. In addition, the anarchic occupation of public spaces (streets, play grounds, parks and gardens), the degradation of Various Roads and Sanitation Systems (VRD) and irregular collection of household refuse greatly contribute to the deterioration of the living environment.

421. In plain language, the majority of the population does not enjoy decent habitat and living environment.

2.16 Sanitation

Inadequate environmental hygiene

422. Sanitation concerns diverse areas such as evacuation of wastewater and runoff, evacuation of solid wastes and excreta and the treatment of all these elements. Despite its significance for health, sanitation is not developed in Côte d’Ivoire. Very few towns have sanitation master plans, much less sanitation systems.

423. The environment of most Ivorian urban and rural localities is highly degraded under the combined effects of the economic crisis and the war raging in the country resulting in population displacement. The waste water and rainwater sanitation has always been relegated to the background in national investment programs.

424. To date, the levels of capital investment made have resulted from strategic actions. Under the sector development plans, only 7 cities have a sanitation master plan each. They are Abidjan, Bouaké, Yamoussoukro, Daoukro, Daloa, Gagnoa and San-Pédro. However, the bulk of the investments has hitherto been devoted to the city of Abidjan alone, which to date has over 2,000 km of public network, which is still insufficient.

425. Barely 40% of urban households have access to an appropriate sanitation system. This is all the more worrying as the rate of urban sanitation has been declining over time with the development of towns where human settlement precedes the provision of infrastructure. Consequently, some diseases caused by poor sanitation are re-emerging.

426. Since 1996, Abidjan, the city with the largest sanitation network (over 2,000 km and 51 sewage backflow and lift stations), has not witnessed any investment in the sector and most of the infrastructural facilities put in place have deteriorated. Furthermore, the lagoon outfalls of most of the wastewater networks could contaminate the groundwater through infiltration. In Abidjan, annual industrial and households effluents of 4.4 million m3 enter the Ebrié Lagoon. Consequently, the partial development of storm basins causes serious frequent flooding in communes such as Yopougon and Abobo.

427. In the rural areas, the volume of water supplied and consumed generates virtually an equal quantity of wastewater that is currently released into the environment in raw state. This has resulted in rural sanitation becoming a neglected and marginalized in the various water supply programs. Risks of fecal peril are high as a result of this imbalance. In Côte d’Ivoire, less than 35% of rural households, including 9% with adequate system have access to sanitation facilities.

428. In plain language, the majority of the population does not enjoy adequate environmental hygiene.

2.17 Potable water

A situation of concern in the very short-term

429. Côte d’Ivoire has an efficient national hydrometric network for the quantitative assessment of surface water. The total volume of water that can be harnessed annually is 77 billion m3, 39 billion m3 which is surface water and an estimated 38 billion m3 of underground water. However, underground water reserves are difficult to evaluate and the sedimentary basin resources (Abidjan groundwater) are threatened in the long-term by urbanization and pollution.

430. Potable water is supplied to the communities through three technologies, namely (i) urban water supply system (UWS) to localities of over 4,000 inhabitants and all the sub-prefectures, (ii) improved village water supply system or (IVWS) for medium size localities of 2,000 - 4,000 inhabitants, and (iii) village water supply system (VWS) for localities with 400 to 2,000 inhabitants.

431. In 1973, the National Human Water Supply Program was launched and in 2008, 725 localities out of eligible 1,194 were equipped enabling 576,552 urban subscribers to be supplied with potable water (UWS). The rate of penetration is 61% in urban areas, 76% for VWS and 13% for IVWS.

432. With regard to VWS, 1,500 modern boreholes and 19,689 water points were provided out of a total requirement of 21,661 water points. However, 5,856 water points were abandoned despite the new unmet needs of 7,828 water points. For the IVWS, 199 out of a total of 1,515 eligible villages were equipped in 2008.

433. Despite these penetration rates, the population is inadequately supplied with potable water. This may be attributed to four main causes. The first cause is in terms of accessibility and is reflected by lack of continuous water supply in the major towns, mainly Abidjan, Bouaké, Korhogo, Daloa, Abengourou and Odienné. The second relates to water resources and is expressed by the lack of studies on securing potable water supply to the population of Côte d’Ivoire. The third concerns the management and is perceptible through the weakness of the mechanism for maintaining potable water supply equipment in rural areas. Finally, the fourth cause related to the inter-relationship characterized by the lack of concerted actions, notably with the energy, urbanization, mining and pollution sectors.

434. If the restoration and maintenance of continuous water supply is not ensured, the consequences will be tragic at four (4) main levels.

435. In terms of the level of potable water service, more than 77% of the urban population and more than 50% of people living in rural areas will suffer from serious disruptions in the supply of potable water, which could even result in water shortage. This situation would concern nearly 13.6 million people in Côte d’Ivoire in 2009, including 8.2 million in urban areas and 5.4 millions in rural areas.

436. Concerning water-borne diseases, the return to traditional unprotected sources (wells, marshes, ponds, etc.) would result in a disastrous situation through fresh outbreak of deadly water-borne diseases, notably diarrhea, cholera, onchocerciasis, bilharziasis, guinea worm, Buruli ulcer, etc.

437. At the social level, this situation leads to a prediction of many social unrests, strikes and acts of hooliganism on potable water supply facilities such as the burning of SODECI offices in Yopougon in 2006, the disruption of traffic on the motorway to the North by women of GESCO in 2007, the dead-city operation in Bouaké and Korhogo in 2005, etc.

438. At the educational level, there would be a decline in enrolment rate especially of young girls due to the increase in water collection chore ensured by women, girls and children and the drop in agricultural productivity and, consequently, economic growth.

439. Moreover, if the water resources intended for the supply of potable water are not controlled and protected, there will be four consequences. They include difficulties for planning water supply programs and for adequate design of structures for mobilizing water and managing natural disasters (floods, droughts). Another consequence will be the deterioration of the quality of water resources (pollution, protection zones, aquatic plants, toxic waste) and non-replenishment of the table.

440. Similarly, if the potable water equipment is not maintained in an efficient and sustainable manner, the functioning of the system will be interrupted resulting in the inaccessibility of the population to water and fresh outbreak of water-borne diseases.

441. The lack of synergy of actions between the human hydraulics sector and other sectors, notably energy, town planning, mining and environment, will lead to the pollution of the water table and surface waters, adding extra costs to the production and treatment of raw water and the slow down of the recharging. The lack of synergy will also cause the destruction of the catchment area and hydrometric observation as well as negative actions on the planning of human hydraulic infrastructure.

442. In the end, an important section of population, notably in rural areas, has no access to potable water. This, despite the high potential in water resources and the different programs supported, notably by the UE and the World Bank, which have increased the proportion of household having access to potable water from 46% in 1998 to 51.2% in 2002 and then to 61% in 2008 at the national level, or an increase of more than 10 points over the period.

443. By 2012, if adequate measures are not taken, the sector will be confronted with a critical situation of potable water supply, due to the increasing urbanization and various pollutions as well as shortages and hydric stress, notably in the big cities. This situation poses a threat mainly to the city of Abidjan, which constitutes 70% of the national consumption and which ensures the financial and social equilibrium of the sector through the policy of equalization.

Graph 6: