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Prepared by Ivan Tchakarov.
For example, World Bank–financed infrastructure projects that had at least 95 percent of loan commitments disbursed between 1999 and 2003, had an average economic return of 35 percent, with a spread ranging from 19 percent for water and sanitation projects to 43 percent for transportation projects.
While a PPP is usually characterized by a design–build–finance–operate scheme, the term PPP is commonly used to refer to a wider set of arrangements, including ones that involve only operating an existing government–owned asset (concessions). For the purposes of this paper, we will take the broader definition of the PPPs and will use PPPs and concessions interchangeably.