Allen, R., S. Schiavo-Campo, and T.C. Garrity, 2004, “Assessing and Reforming Public Financial Management: A New Approach” (Washington: World Bank).
Brosio, G., 2000, “Decentralization in Africa,” paper presented at the Conference on Fiscal Decentralization (Washington: International Monetary Fund) November 20–21.
Devarajan, S., D. R. Dollar, and T. Holmgren, eds., 2001, Aid and Reform in Africa: Lessons from Ten Case Studies (Washington: World Bank).
Diamond, J., 1994, “The Role of Internal Audit in Government Financial Management: An International Perspective,” Working Paper No. 02/94 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).
Diamond, J., 1996, “Fiscal Stress and Structural Adjustment,” Policy Studies and Developing Nations, Vol. 3. pp. 45 –68, JAI Press.
Gupta, S., M. Plant, B. Clements, T. Dorsey, E. Baldacci, G. Inchauste, S. Tareq, and N. Thacker, 2002, Is the PRGF Living Up to Expectations? IMF Occasional Paper No. 216 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).
Le Houerou, P., and R. Taliercio, 2002, “Medium-Term Expenditure Frameworks: From Concept to Practice—Preliminary Lessons from Africa Region,” Working Paper No. 28 (Washington: World Bank).
Lienert, I.C., and F. Sarraf, 2001, “Systemic Weaknesses of Budget Management in Anglophone Africa,” Working Paper No. 01/211 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).
IMF, 2003, Update on Implementation of Action Plans to Strengthen Capacity of HIPCs to Track Poverty-Reducing Public Spending. Available at www.imf.org/external/np/hipc/2003/track/030703.htm.
The 10 countries were generally the largest consumers of FAD TA covered by one of the two PEM TA divisions within FAD. The more general development and economic context of six of the countries covered in this study is presented in some detail in Devarajan, Dollar, and Holmgren (2001).]
Tanzania got one of the best ratings in the Assessment and Action Plan (AAP) exercise.
For example, Ghana’s PEM systems have begun to improve significantly in recent years.
For a more detailed discussion of PEM measures in Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF)—supported programs, see Gupta, et al. (2002); for an overview of some PEM implications of structural adjustment, see Diamond (1996).
Increasingly, this approach has been shared with the World Bank and other TA providers.
For example see: “The IMF and the World Bank Group: An Enhanced Partnership for Sustainable Growth and Poverty Reduction, Joint Statement by Horst Köhler and James Wolfensohn,” September 5, 2000, available at: http://www.imf.org/external/np/omd/2000/part.htm; and “Policy Statement on IMF Technical Assistance,” April 1, 2001, available at: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/psta/index.htm.
A more general description of the functions of internal controls in public expenditure management, and the specific tasks of internal audit, are contained in Diamond (1994).
In Ghana, the system was recently decentralized under a World Bank initiative.
This approach is not exclusive to the AAP process or HIPC countries. Similar approaches have been developed by bodies such as the multidonor Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) group, which is developing a standardized PEM assessment framework. See Allen, Schiavo-Campo, and Garrity (2004).
For example, FAD has experimented recently with an “e-room” approach to allow PEM advisors in the field access to headquarters information and to share information with other advisors.