Gemerts, Glenn, et al (1996), “Small-Scale Mining in Suriname: Problems and Opportunities,” Geological Mining Service of Suriname and OAS Special Mission, Suriname.
Prepared by Mariana Torres.
The shield stretches from the Amazon River in Brazil to the Orinoco River in Venezuela.
Most of the population of Suriname lives in the narrow coastal region. The population in the interior mainly consists of Amerindians (around 10,000) and Maroons (around 50,000) which have only limited contact with the formal and urban sectors of the population.
The artisan miners in the Guianas have traditionally been referred to as porknockers, while Brazilian gold diggers are called garimpeiros.
Treaty for Peace and National Reconciliation and Development dated August 8, 1992.
Mercury is used to bind gold and separate it from the dirt by creating a gold-mercury amalgam. Gold is then separated by heating the amalgam. In the process, the mercury evaporates into the air, creating a health hazard for workers and contaminating surface waters.
In Guyana, sellers pay a 2 percent fee, based on the value of the gold to the Guyana Gold Board plus a royalty fee from 3 to 5 percent based on the international price of gold. If international gold prices are below US$260 per ounce, the royalty is 3 percent; for prices between US$260 and US$285 per ounce, 4 percent and for prices that exceed US$285 per ounce, 5 percent. This royalty fee is earmarked for the Guyana Geology and Mine Commission. In comparison, Suriname charges royalties of 2.25 percent and extra royalty of 6.5 percent on revenue that exceed and international gold price of US $425 per ounce.
The operation uses cyanide in a recirculated process instead of mercury, reducing substantially the environmental impact.
Revenue stabilization funds or fiscal rules could be considered. See chapter on fiscal revenue instability.