This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes data module provides a review of Senegal’s data dissemination practices against the IMF’s General Data Dissemination System, complemented by an in-depth assessment of the quality of the national accounts, consumer price index, government finance, monetary balance of payments, and income poverty statistics. The assessment reveals that Senegal generally follows the recommendations of this system for the coverage, periodicity, and timeliness of all data categories. Overall, the institutional environment of the data-producing agencies supports statistical quality.


This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes data module provides a review of Senegal’s data dissemination practices against the IMF’s General Data Dissemination System, complemented by an in-depth assessment of the quality of the national accounts, consumer price index, government finance, monetary balance of payments, and income poverty statistics. The assessment reveals that Senegal generally follows the recommendations of this system for the coverage, periodicity, and timeliness of all data categories. Overall, the institutional environment of the data-producing agencies supports statistical quality.

I. Introduction

1. This data module of the Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) provides an assessment of Senegalese data dissemination practices vis-à-vis the General Data Dissemination System (GDDS), in which Senegal has participated since January 2001. It is complemented by a detailed assessment of the quality of the national accounts, consumer price index (CPI), government finance statistics (GFS), monetary, balance of payments, and income poverty statistics, based on the application of the Data Quality Assessment Framework (DQAF) developed by the International Monetary Fund’s (IMF) Statistics Department (STA).1 This report was prepared by a STA mission that visited Dakar during September 12-22, 20012 The assessment is based on published data as well as data provided to STA before and during the mission.

2. Section II contains an assessment of Senegal’s data dissemination practices with reference to the GDDS. Section III presents a brief assessment of the quality of the key macroeconomic statistics and income poverty statistics, based on the specific DQAFs for these datasets. Section IV lists the recommendations made by the IMF mission to improve the quality of these statistics.

II. Data Dissemination Practices and The GDDS

3. This report applies the GDDS dimensions to Senegal’s key macroeconomic data and income poverty statistics. While noting weaknesses detected, the report takes into account the improvements planned by the authorities, the implementation of which depends in part on additional resources or external technical assistance.

4. Senegal has been participating in the GDDS and its metadata have been posted on the IMF’s Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board (DSBB) since September 2001. The official statistics assessed in this report are produced by several agencies. The Forecasting and Statistics Directorate (DPS) of the Ministry of Finance (MEF) is responsible for the national accounts, price, foreign trade, and socio-demographic statistics.3 The Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO) (Headquarters and the Senegal National Agency of the BCEAO (DNS)) is responsible for the balance of payments, the international investment position, and the monetary statistics. BCEAO Headquarters and the DNS work together on the monetary statistics. GFS are compiled by the General Directorate of Government Accounting and the Treasury (DGCPT) of the MEF, which is responsible for the Government How of Funds Table (TOFE), and the Debt and Investment Directorate (DDI) of the MEF, which handles external debt statistics, while the DPS is responsible for dissemination.

5. Senegal disseminates its data and metadata using a wide variety of media, in particular the following Internet sites:

Data dimension: coverage, periodicity and timeliness

6. In general, Senegal follows the recommendations of the GDDS with regard to the general framework and recommended indicators. The main exceptions are as follows. For data coverage, the institutional sector accounts would need to be compiled more regularly, total public debt to be disseminated, and the coverage of the data on central government to be extended. The industrial production index, unemployment data, GFS, and poverty statistics would need to be produced with more frequent periodicity. Timeliness for the monetary statistics, balance of payments, international reserves, and poverty statistics would need to be improved upon. Table 1 shows an overview of current practices regarding coverage, periodicity, and timeliness of Senegal’s main macroeconomic data compared to the GDDS (Appendix I in the accompanying document presenting the detailed assessment provides more details.

Table 1.

Senegal: Overview of Current Practices Regarding Coverage, Periodicity, and Timeliness of Data Compared to the General Data Dissemination System

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Italics indicate encouraged categories.Note: D = Daily; W = weekly; M = monthly; Q = quarterly; A = annual; and NA = not applicable.

7. As for the extensions encouraged by the GDDS, all encouraged practices are followed with the exception of the lack of a producer price index and the incomplete coverage for data on the operations of general government and the public sector, guaranteed debt, and private debt not guaranteed. On timeliness, other exceptions to the GDDS encouraged practices include the timeliness of the gross national income and saving, and the international investment position.

Quality dimension

8. The documents on the methodology used to produce the macroeconomic and income poverty statistics are available on the IMF’s DSBB and by following the hyperlinks on the MEF website. In addition, methodological descriptions are disseminated by the BCEAO for the balance of payments, and by the DPS for the national accounts and CPI.

Integrity dimension

9. The terms and conditions under which data are collected and compiled in Senegal are partially available to the public, in both electronic and hard copy form, providing a legal framework that is intended to guarantee the integrity of the statistical data. Procedures on internal government access to the data before their dissemination to the public are spelled out on the DSBB for the MEF and BCEAO, but are not indicated for the DPS.

Access dimension

10. While some of the data are published on a regular basis, the effectiveness of dissemination would be enhanced by an advance release calendar for the macroeconomic and socio-demographic data. The CPI is disseminated simultaneously to all groups of users; the other statistics (national accounts, GFS, monetary statistics, balance of payments, and income poverty) are provided to government users before being published.

Plans for improvement

11. The plans for improvement are described in Senegal’s GDDS metadata (see also Appendix I in the accompanying document presenting the detailed assessment). The plans for improvement for the national accounts focus on the adoption of the System of National Accounts 1993 (1993 SNA) in late 2002. For the CPI, in the medium term the DPS plans to conduct a supplementary survey to correct the bias in the seasonality of the basket. For the GFS, in the context of the application of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) directives by end-2004, there are plans to produce the TOFE based on the General Accounts Balance, with improved coverage and classification. For the monetary statistics, the main proposal is the implementation of the Monetary and Financial Statistics Manual (MFSM) in the short term. For the balance of payments, the plans focus on the integration of other sources (BIS in short term and Centrale des bilans in medium term). For the poverty data, there are plans to create a socio-demographic database accessible to users.

III. Summary Assessment of Data Quality

12. Interest in assessing the quality of data derives from the objectives of complementing the data dissemination standards with a consideration of the quality of the disseminated data. Against this background, the Statistics Department of the IMF has developed a tool to provide a structure and a common language to assess data quality. The DQAF comprises a generic framework and a set of dataset-specific frameworks. The frameworks cover five dimensions of data quality—integrity, methodological soundness, accuracy and reliability, serviceability, and accessibility—and a set of prerequisites (see also Appendix III in the accompanying document presenting the detailed assessment).

13. While Senegal’s statistics and statistical base are broadly adequate for surveillance purposes, the IMF staff noted areas where improvements could be made with a view to improving accuracy and timeliness in the analysis of economic, financial, and social developments, and the formulation of appropriate policies. The main findings are detailed below.

Prerequisites of quality

This category in the DQAF identifies conditions within the agency in charge of producing statistics that have an impact on data quality. The elements within the category refer to the legal and institutional environment, resources, and quality awareness.

14. The DPS, which is part of the MEF, is responsible for compiling and disseminating the real sector and socio-demographic statistics. The legal and institutional environment in which the DPS operates is established by the Statistics Law of 1966 and the draft Decree on the organization of the DPS. However, the Statistics Law is obsolete on a number of points (especially the obligations of individuals surveyed and the procedures for consultations with users). The coordination between DPS and other agencies involved with statistics is ad hoc, as the Statistical Surveys Coordination Committee (COCOES) provided by the law has not officially been in operation since 1990. Moreover, since the early 1990s, the DPS has been operating without official legal basis (the draft Decree on the DPS has not yet been made into law). The DPS has sufficient staff (but only barely so in the Price Bureau), the level of training is good, but salary levels are not considered an incentive by the staff. The capacity of DPS’s computer is limited and there is no maintenance budget. Financial resources are insufficient to guarantee the regular collection of source data, which as a result depend partially on external resources. In general, management of the DPS is quality-oriented in spite of resources constraints.

15. GFS are primarily compiled by the DGCPT, and are disseminated by the DPS with both units part of the MEF. The dissemination procedures could be clarified and formalized, and this would enhance transparency. The modalities for the coordination and exchange of source data, which are organized among the monitoring groups within the MEF, in coordination with the BCEAO, seem adequate on the whole. The two MEF units primarily responsible for GFS (the DGCPT for compilation and the DPS for dissemination) complement each other quite well in practice owing to an efficient division of labor. However, the DGCPT is hampered by serious staff shortages, and the DPS, by equipment shortages. This may explain why the procedures for checking the quality of data collection and processing are insufficiently systematized and documented. While the regulations specifically identify the DGCPT as being responsible for preparing the data on government operations (TOFE), provision is not made for tracking of the public debt, which in practice is deficient.

16. The monetary and balance of payments are prepared and disseminated by the BCEAO and the work involved is divided between the staff at Headquarters and the staff of the DNS. The charter of the BCEAO, which sets out its missions and responsibilities, does not explicitly mention activities related to monetary statistics. However, BCEAO Headquarters and the DNS cooperate on the collection of source data, their processing, and the dissemination of Senegal’s monetary statistics; the division of labor between the two entities is rational, and the circulation of raw or processed data is organized appropriately. The commercial banks are required by the banking law to provide the DNS with monthly financial statements, the content of which is determined by the Bank Chart of Accounts of the West African Monetary Union (WAMU); the data contained in these submissions are sufficiently detailed. Additional data are obtained from the Postal Checking Center (CCP) and the Treasury. The source data used to compile the balance of payments are collected, processed and disseminated by the DNS in accordance with standards set by the BCEAO, in Regulation R09/CM/UEMOA (1998). The DNS may demand any information from organizations holding or collecting raw data, and it uses reports provided by transactors, financial intermediaries, and governments. The monetary statistics, like the balance of payments statistics disseminated by the BCEAO, respect the principles of statistical secrecy. Staffing is sufficient and computer and physical are adequate.


Integrity identifies features that support firm adherence to objectivity in the collection, compilation, and dissemination of statistics so as to maintain users’ confidence. Elements refer to the professionalism and ethical standards that should guide policies and practices, which should be reinforced by their transparency.

17. The DPS, which reports to the MEF, has a tradition of impartiality and professionalism, and its choice of statistical definitions and techniques is based exclusively on statistical considerations. However, given that the surveys are not funded through the budget, the DPS has no control over the objectives of externally funded surveys, particularly the socio-demographic surveys. For social and economic policy purposes, some government officials outside the DPS have access to the data (national accounts, CPI, poverty surveys) before their dissemination to the public; the transparency would be enhanced if such access was made public. In addition to the Statistics Law, the DPS could develop a code of staff conduct for potential conflicts of interest.

18. The independence of GFS compilers, who are subject to the general ethical standards applicable to Treasury Inspectors, would in principle be guaranteed if the TOFE was based on accounting sources (such as the General Balance of Accounts) and established in accordance with strict rules4 and with a methodology used throughout the WAEMU. However, GFS are compiled from multiple sources. Transparency would be enhanced if the independence of the unit that compiles the TOFE was more formally guaranteed. This is especially relevant when the unit in charge of production is also responsible both for keeping the government accounts and advising the government on its economic and financial policy5. Moreover, apart from what is available in the WAEMU directives and the DSBB, which focus mainly on conceptual aspects, the public could be better informed about the practical aspects of compilation of the GFS, including their dissemination and the specific rules related to internal access before publication.

19. The charter of the BCEAO guarantees its independence from the public authorities of the member states of the WAEMU. The BCEAO officials are tenured in their positions and may not be dismissed except in case of serious misconduct. When recruited, they are formally informed of the ethical rules. The data sources and statistical techniques used are compliant with internationally recognized practices for the compilation of balance of payments and monetary statistics. Statistical policies and practices are communicated with clear identification of the BCEAO source; however, it would be useful if methodological changes were announced ahead of their implementation. The public is advised of the access of government officials to data before dissemination via the metadata posted on the DSBB.

Methodological soundness

Methodological soundness refers to the application of international standards, guidelines, and agreed practices. Application of such standards, which are specific to the dataset, is indicative of the soundness of the data and fosters international comparability. Elements refer to the basic building blocks of concepts and definitions, scope, classification and sectorization, and basis for recording.

20. The national accounts are prepared primarily in accordance with the 1968 SNA. The production and assets boundaries generally follow the 1968 SNA without distinguishing all the elements of production and assets recommended by the 1993 SNA. The domestic activity of a number of regional organizations is not covered. The classification system used follows national or regional classifications derived from international classifications. It would be useful to resume the compilation of institutional sector accounts, the most recent data being for 1990. The methods for valuing flows and stocks generally follow the 1968 SNA. The basis for valuing output differs by economic activity, and agricultural output is based on the crop year instead of the calendar year. Gross value added is valued at producer prices, a practice accepted by the 1993 SNA when valuation at basic prices is not feasible. In principle, the DPS uses the cash basis system of recording, rather than the accrual basis system, as required by the 1993 SNA, and the aggregates are valued only on a gross basis, without estimation of fixed capital consumption. Work is underway to adopt the 1993 SNA.

21. The methodology, concepts and definitions used for the CPI are those used for the harmonized consumer price index of the member countries of the WAEMU, which are in line with the guidelines of the International Labor Organization (ILO). Geographic coverage is limited to Dakar, which nonetheless represents 54 percent of the urban population of Senegal. Moreover, rental services for owner-occupied housing are excluded from the CPI. In the long term, the DPS plans to increase the CPI’s geographic coverage.

22. The TOFE follows a regional standard that is generally in line with the structure and methodology of the Manual on Government Finance Statistics, 1986 (GFSM 1986). The time of recording—cash basis for revenue and payment order basis for expenditure—and the amounts recorded and classifications used seem to be in line with accepted standards on the whole. In addition, the operations of correspondent accounts should be more transparently split into a financing part and an expenditure part (adequately allocated). Some work on the scope would be useful, particularly the dissemination of the total public debt, which is currently limited to the external debt, and the monitoring of public enterprises. The current TOFE covers Central Budgetary Government in the broad sense.6 It is expected that the sectoral coverage will be improved with the implementation of the WAEMU directives in 2002.

23. The methodological framework used to compile the monetary statistics generally reflects the concepts and definitions set out in the Guide to Money and Banking Statistics published in the International Financial Statistics (IFS). Depository corporations covered by the monetary statistics are the central bank, the commercial banks, and the Postal Checks Center (CCP). The National Savings Bank and the savings and loan cooperatives are not covered, although they collect savings deposits similar to those taken by the commercial banks, which should be included in the money supply. The financial statements collected by the BCEAO from the “etablissements financiers” (nonbank credit corporations) are not used. The BCEAO plans to implement the MFSM which implies numerous substantial changes to the content and collection of the source data and the compilation procedures for the monetary statistics; this entails, among other things, presenting doubtful claims gross of provisions and incorporating accrued interest in the outstanding amount of the principal.

24. The concepts and definitions of the Balance of Payments Manual, fifth edition (BPM5) are used to compile the balance of payments statistics. The data are presented using the standard presentation headings. Because of the monetary arrangements in the area, only the balance of payments of the entire WAEMU area gives an accurate picture of the official reserves, which are for the most part not allocated by country. The reserves consolidated at the community level and subsequently redistributed by country are used to calculate errors and omissions in the balance of payments. This means that the amounts entered under these two headings in Senegal’s balance of payments are the national shares in the variation in the reserve assets and errors and omissions. The coverage, which is based on the principles of residence and center of economic interest, and the sectors and operations, are in accordance with the BPM5. The recording basis is accrual in accordance with the BPM5. Except in the case of goods (customs basis) and income (cash basis), the recording of flows uses the value on the day of the transaction, while stocks, which are used to calculate variations in positions, are based on year-end values and the average exchange rate for the period, as required by BPM5.

25. The income poverty statistics are generally compiled in line with internationally accepted practices, and guidelines. The key concepts and definitions are in line with the methods used by the United Nations institutions or regional institutions (Sub-Saharan African Economic and Statistical Observatory) in consultation with international experts (United Nations Development Programme and World Bank). The scope is generally comprehensive as it is in line with internationally or regionally accepted guidelines or practices. On the whole, geographic coverage and/or coverage in terms of socioeconomic groups is adequate, but collective households and the homeless are not included. Sufficient data exist on the income and consumption and the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of households. Classifications are in accordance with international guidelines.

Accuracy and reliability

Accuracy and reliability identifies features that contribute to the goal that data portray reality. Elements refer to identified features of the source data, statistical techniques, and supporting assessments and validation.

26. The source data for the national accounts are limited essentially to administrative sources, supplemented by irregular surveys that depend on external financing from regional and multilateral organizations. The DPS primarily uses the Statistical and Tax Returns (DSF) filed annually by enterprises in the so-called modern sector, and data supplied by other government agencies. The industrial production index is not used because of its obsolete base (1976). Household surveys are not conducted regularly. For the informal sector very little information is available, and therefore, there is no reliable estimate of its size. Deflators are generally derived from the CPI owing to the lack of more pertinent price indices. The lag in the collection of source data (particularly the DSFs) slows the production and dissemination of the definitive accounts. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) calculation method is based on the production approach only, with final consumption by households being derived as a residual, which affects the accuracy of this aggregate. Opportunities for validating the main estimates against other data are limited owing to the lack of other independent methods for estimating GDP. However, the accuracy of the data could be improved with the use of the ERE/TES (supply-use and input-output tables) module, which is being introduced, and which would lead to better use and validation of existing sources.

27. The prices collected and weights are generally in line with the definitions, scope and classifications required for CPI purposes. However, the weights and basket for the index are affected by a seasonal bias since they are based on the Survey of the Expenditure of Households in the Capital (EDMC), which was conducted over three months only in 1996. The DPS plans an additional survey in the medium term to correct this seasonal bias. The number of prices collected each month is adequate. Products sold in nonstandard units are purchased, which makes it possible to accurately determine the unit prices. Information on the prices collected is first checked manually, and then by the reconciliation module of the CHAPO price calculation software, which detects anomalous data. The data could be compared against the unpublished price series collected by the BCEAO.

28. For GFS, the information flows among the various directorates of the MEF and with the BCEAO ensure a supply of source data that makes it possible to produce a quarterly (and even monthly) TOFE with little lag. However, more direct and automated use of the General Balance of Accounts, whose monthly production recently resumed, should guarantee greater reliability and allow the use of direct accounting sources to compile financing statistics, rather than the counterpart information currently used. The WAEMU directives7 should complete the process under way of tightening the links between budget line items, accounting items, and TOFE categories, ensuring increased reliability for the government accounts. An improved monitoring of external financing operations and more systematic crosschecking between various sources and their revisions would improve the overall accuracy of the TOFE and the debt, in particular for the first estimates. Finally, there are substantial discrepancies between the TOFE and the Net Government Position8 vis-à-vis the banking system (before 1999), on the one hand, and the national accounts (before 1997), on the other; revising the historical data would help to explain, if not eliminate, such discrepancies.

29. On the whole, the accuracy and reliability of the data seem acceptable for the monetary statistics. The source data are obtained from detailed accounting documents. The monthly financial statement of the DNS is based essentially on the overall statement of the BCEAO prepared by the Accounting Directorate at Headquarters and verified by the Internal Audit Unit; however, the BCEAO has no documents that clearly set out its general accounting rules, its detailed chart of accounts, and the content of each heading in its financial statements. The monthly financial statements of the commercial banks are prepared in accordance with the WAMU Bank Chart of Accounts, the requirements of which are precise and detailed. The statistics are calculated on the basis of the most recent data, generally available two to three months after the closing of the accounts. The source data are checked, as are the intermediate and final results, and their consistency with other macroeconomic aggregates is verified. The statistics are almost always final when published.

30. For the balance of payments statistics, the available data combine the transactions of ail significant economic transactors (enterprises, banks, governments, international organizations) or their intermediaries. The data are recorded in accordance with a clearly established timetable provided to the reporting entities. The statistical techniques are largely based on automated processing and control. Source data are regularly evaluated according to specific protocols, as are the processing results, via the dissemination of detailed series, the other macroeconomic accounts and certain critical thresholds, in particular for errors and omissions. Data revisions are noted and introduced when the figures for the following year are published. Studies are undertaken to improve the preliminary data, which are drawn primarily from the settlement quarterly balances.

31. The data used to compile the income poverty statistics are based on irregular surveys of households that depend on external financing from multilateral and regional organizations. These surveys use the population census data as the sampling frame, but the last census dates back to 1988, which could affect the quality of the surveys. The sampling designs for the surveys, the estimation method, the sample size, and stratification follow internationally accepted techniques. However, there are no formal mechanisms for validating the survey results against other economic and socio-demographic data.


Serviceability focuses on practical aspects of how well a dataset meet user’s needs. Elements refer to the extent to which data are relevant, produced and disseminated in a timely fashion with appropriate periodicity, are consistent internally and with other datasets, and follow a predictable revisions policy.

32. The national accounts are published along with tables, charts and comments. The periodicity and timeliness of the aggregates are in line with the recommendations of the GDDS, with the exception of the institutional sectors that are not longer compiled. Consistent time series for the period 1987 to 2000 are available from the DPS. Preliminary data are clearly identified as such. The usefulness of the data would be improved by publishing a calendar of revisions and the data revision policy. Procedures could also be developed to monitor the relevance and serviceability of the national accounts statistics, such as tracking users’ needs on a regular basis.

33. The CPI is used by a wide public (government, monetary authorities, civil society, donors, etc.). The monthly data are regularly published on the 10th of the following month, well above the GDDS recommendations on periodicity and timeliness and meeting the Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS) requirements. Publication of the CPI is accompanied with tables, charts and comments. Consistent time series without breaks are available. However, regular consultations are not held with users of the statistics. There are no other published price indices against which to compare the data. It would be useful to establish and publish a timetable for revisions of the CPI base.

34. The TOFE is a particularly useful tool for monitoring budget execution and it is part of the forecasting processes, particularly those connected with the budget laws. In Senegal, the TOFE plays a key role in discussions between levels of government, and in the dialogue with the IMF in the context of program monitoring. The TOFE, which seems well suited to the needs of the public authorities, would benefit from an improved frequency of reporting (from quarterly to monthly, in line with the practice of most neighbor countries). Other users’ needs would also be better served with a more frequent publication and if the documentation, both in terms of compilation methods and publication practices, was readily accessible. The establishment of a revision calendar would also be very useful.

35. The monetary statistics produced for Senegal are clearly intended mainly for the monetary authorities and, secondarily, for other public authorities. This is evidenced by the relatively brief published documentation which may be suitable for official users in the BCEAO or economic departments, but less so for external users. It would be useful to consult external users on a regular basis to familiarize them with the data and to understand their needs. The monthly periodicity of the monetary statistics is in conformity with the GDDS recommendations, but not the timeliness as the data are released with significant delays even though they are available internally. The monetary statistics are available in monthly time series for the period 1984—2001.

36. Reflecting historical and technical reasons, the balance of payments dissemination practices largely favor internal users within the BCEAO or government, with other users’ needs taken into account only on a marginal basis. Timeliness of the data exceeds GDDS recommendations. The series produced are consistent over time, can be checked against other macroeconomic data (foreign trade, fiscal and debt data), and respect the accounting identities for the detailed aggregates. Decisions on revisions are made on an as-needed basis and do not follow a predetermined timetable. Although they are systematically announced to users when they take place, explanations for the revisions are provided only to users in the MEF.

37. The poverty statistics cover all relevant data for estimating the incidence, seriousness, and distribution of poverty. In addition to the aggregated data on poverty and incomes, data on households and their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics are also available, either in publications or on request. The DPS is planning a mechanism for regular consultations with users. The timeliness of the data is not in line with international recommendations. Reports are published 11 months, two years and one year, respectively, after data collection for the three most recent surveys. Likewise, the periodicity of the data is not in line with international recommendations, as the various surveys do not follow a regular timetable owing to the lack of a permanent survey system. The survey results are not systematically compared or reconciled with other aggregates such as the national accounts, and other survey/census results.


Accessibility deals with the availability of information to users. Elements refer to the extent to which data and metadata are clear and easily available and to which assistance to the user is adequate to help them find and use the data.

38. The national accounts statistics are disseminated in sufficient detail in various media: hardcopy publications (Les comptes economiques du Senegal, Les ressources et emplois du PIB, La Situation Economique et Sociale du Senegal), and the MEF website. The release timetable is relatively stable from one year to the next, but the usefulness of the data would be enhanced by the publication of an advance release calendar. Nonconfidential detailed data, methodological notes, and the list of all sources used are available on request. The metadata could be designed for a wider public. The catalogue of publications, rates, and customer service are available on request from the documentation unit of the DPS.

39. Detailed data for the CPI are published in the monthly memorandum. The CPI is also published in the Bulletin statistique (bi-monthly), the Note de conjoncture (quarterly) and the Situation Economique et Sociale du Senegal and on the MEF website. The public has access to longer time series and different levels of aggregation of the index upon request from the Price Bureau. Various methodological documents are available. Contact persons are identified in the monthly memorandum. The catalogue of publications and rates are available on request from the documentation unit of the DPS.

40. The dissemination media for the GFS are inadequate in terms of format and content, resulting in underutilization of the data. The TOFE would be a useful format of dissemination. Instead, data published in the Situation Economique et Sociale are based on a budget presentation, while the quarterly data in the Note de conjoncture are based on extracts from the TOFE. The recent posting of the TOFE (simplified and on an annual basis only) on the MEF website is, quite apart from significantly improving its timeliness, an encouraging first step in a transparency policy. Transparency could be further enhanced by rendering the metadata more accessible and improving catalogues.

41. In the Notes d’Information et Statistiques (NIS) published by BCEAO Headquarters, Senegal’s monetary statistics are presented clearly in the form of tables accompanied by charts, but with no commentary. The BCEAO Headquarters website posts only the tables, without the charts. There is no national publication of Senegal’s monetary statistics, nor is there an advance release calendar, either official or internal. While the GDDS metadata are accessible on the DSBB, there would be a need for more detailed methodological documentation. It would also be useful to publish the detailed data that are available internally. Contact persons are currently identified on the DSBB and such identification could also be extended to the NIS and the BCEAO website. The complete catalogue of periodicals and other publications of the BCEAO is available on its website.

42. The balance of payments statistics use a standard presentation including tables and charts that provide analytical details and illustrate the analyses. The balance of payments data are made available to the main documentation and information centers, however, they are not tailored to different audiences. The public could be informed (e.g., press release) when the data are made public.

43. The income poverty statistics are disseminated in special reports following each survey. The reports are sufficiently detailed and contain metadata and an analysis of estimates for the current period. Detailed documentation is available on request. However, except for key government users, there are no mechanisms to assess user needs. The statistics are made available to all users at the same time, after the publication authorization by the MEF. Assistance to users is provided by the documentation unit of the DPS. Information on publications, documents, and other services, along with their rates, is widely disseminated and regularly updated. It would be useful if the income poverty statistics were released according to a pre-announced timetable.

IV. Recommendations of IMF Staff

44. Based on the results of the data quality assessments, subsequent technical discussions with the authorities in Senegal, and responses from data users, the following measures are proposed to enhance the organizational structure of the statistical system, bring Senegal’s statistical system in line with international standards, and improve the usefulness of the data. The recommendations are subdivided into short term (within one year) or medium term (two-five years). The recommendations that are in line with the plans posted by Senegal on the GDDS metadata are identified below as “(GDDS).”

General recommendations

Short term

  • As a priority, make into law the Decree on the organization and responsibilities of the DPS.

  • As a priority, increase of resources allocated for the compilation and dissemination of statistics at the DPS and the DGCPT

  • Posting on the websites of the data-producing institutions of the GDDS metadata in French.

  • Verification, amendment and enhancement of the GDDS metadata.

Medium term

  • Updating of the Statistics Law, in regard to the obligations of entities subject to surveys, procedures for consultations with data producers and users, and the professional independence of the DPS

  • Creation of a help desk at the BCEAO to assist users.

National Accounts

Short term

  • Adoption of the 1993 SNA, and use of the ERE/TES module. Change of the base year for the accounts from 1987 to 1999, and compilation of a series of simplified accounts (1997-2001) using the new base (GDDS).

  • Reduction of lags in the collection of source data, especially the DSFs.

Medium term

  • Improvement of the source data through a household survey, an informal employment survey, a general population and housing census, and overhaul of the industrial production index (GDDS).

  • Compilation of the institutional sectors accounts in line with the 1993 SNA.

  • Supplement the DSFs with regular business surveys to improve source data.

Consumer Price Index

Short term

  • Comparison of the price series collected by the DPS with those collected by the BCEAO.

Medium term

  • Extension of the CPI’s geographic coverage (GDDS).

  • Increase in the number of price surveys for the “housing” category. Supplementary survey to correct the seasonality of the basket which is currently based on only three months of 1996 (GDDS).

  • Establishment of a producer price index (extension recommended by the GDDS).

Government Finance Statistics

Short term

  • As a priority, compilation of a monthly TOFE and dissemination (e.g., on the ministry website) within two months of a quarterly (or monthly) TOFE, and quarterly total outstanding public debt and its components.

  • As a priority, inclusion of the quarterly and annual TOFE and debt tables in DPS publications, and inclusion of a notice indicating the availability of the TOFE data on the MEF website.

  • As a first step towards the implementation towards the Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 (GFSM 2001), production of expenditure on a commitment and on a certified spending basis—initially as memorandum items.

  • Improvement of the reliability of statistics on external debt and investments (notably their first estimates) by incorporating more systematically available information and clarification of the treatment of “deposits of guarantees” and correspondents’ accounts.

  • Publication of a simplified description of sources and methods.

  • Adoption of additional provisions clarifying and formalizing the responsibilities and modalities for an independent compilation and regular dissemination of GFS.

Medium term

  • Sourcing of the TOFE from the Balance Générale des Comptes, which should be compiled more regularly and in line with the WAEMU directives (GDDS).

  • Extension of the TOFE to cover all general government, including social security and local governments, by 2003, and adoption of the GFSM 2001 in accordance to the WAEMU directives (GDDS).

  • Completion and publication of a comprehensive compilation of the texts on the regulatory and institutional framework and on methodologies, including a bridge table between the Balance Générale des Comptes and the TOFE.

Monetary Statistics

Short term

  • Implementation of the MFSM methodology (GDDS).

  • Overhaul of the BCEAO “accounting” application; reduction of the lag in compilation of monetary statistics from three months to 45 days (GDDS).

  • Publication of a pre-announced release schedule for the NIS publication; creation of a statistical database accessible to the public (GDDS).

  • Inclusion of the operations of the Caisse nationale d’epargne in the integrated monetary survey, and compilation and dissemination of a sectoral survey of “other financial intermediaries” (“etablissements financiers” in the WAMU banking regulation).

  • Posting of monetary statistics on the BCEAO website as soon as available, as well as monthly time series covering ten years.

  • Drafting of a detailed methodological document on the monetary statistics to be published annually in the NIS, and posted on the BCEAO website.

Medium term

  • Clarification of BCEAO’s responsibilities concerning the compilation and dissemination of monetary statistics; and in obtaining from all financial institutions the data needed for the compilation of the monetary and financial statistics (see MFSM methodology).

Balance of Payments Statistics

Short term

  • As a priority, publication of a press release when the balance of payments statistics become available.

  • Integration of BIS data as source data (GDDS).

  • Publication of the conditions under which data and metadata are accessible to the public, including clarification of responsibilities between the BCEAO headquarters and the DNS.

  • Clarification (to be made publicly available) of the BCEAO treatment of data confidentiality, the attribution to the BCEAO of its data re-disseminated by other agencies, and qualification of data as provisional or final, as applicable.

Medium term

  • Integration of Centrale des bilans as source data (GDDS).

  • Dissemination of quarterly balance of payments that are internally compiled on a settlement basis, but that are not published.

Income Poverty Statistics

Short term

  • Conduct of the third general population and housing census (GDDS).

  • Reduction of lags in publishing the results of household surveys.

Medium term

  • Establishment of a user network as a regular consultation mechanism (GDDS).

  • Budgetary funding for a regular program of surveys for poverty monitoring purposes.

  • More systematic comparison of households survey results with national accounts, census data, and other socio-demographic data, as a means to improve survey results.

Table 2.

Senegal: Data Quality Assessment Framework: Summary Presentation of Results All Datasets

Key to symbols: NA = Not Applicable; O = Practice Observed; LP = Practice Largely Observed; LNO = Practice Largely Not Observed; NO = Practice Not Observed; SDDS = Complies with SDDS Criteria

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The DQAF for income poverty statistics was developed by the World Bank and covers income poverty statistics based on data on household income and expenditure.


The mission consisted of Mr. Michel Le Marois, Ms. Michelle Hassine, Mr. Vincent Marie, Ms. Silvia Matei, Mr. Pierre Papadacci, and Mr. Philippe de Rougemont (STA) and Mr. Saeed Ordoubadi (World Bank).


The DPS is responsible with the Ministry of Health for data on health, and with the Ministry of National Education for data on education.


This report does not include an assessment of the accounting system, the adherence to accounting rules and budget procedures and, in particular, the extent of the “payment without mandate” practice. Such assessment will be covered in the fiscal transparency ROSC to be prepared by the IMF Fiscal Affairs Department (FAD) in 2002.


This partly reflects suggestions, notably by FAD, to assign the responsibility of producing the TOFE to another agency/unit—such as the DPS—that would be more detached from the monitoring aspects of government activities.


Central Budgetary Government in the broad sense consists of the institutional unit (or group of units) covering general budget operations, the special accounts of the Treasury, specific budgets if any (budgets annexes), and externally financed investments (comptes annexes).


These directives, which amend and harmonize the budgetary and public accounting procedures, establish new TOFE, accounting and budgetary nomenclatures, as well as bridge tables between them.


NGP: Claims on government less deposits of government.