Gruber, Jonathon and David A. Wise, “Different Approaches to Pension Reform from an Economic Point of View,” prepared for the NBER-Kiel Institute conference on Coping with the Pension Crisis—Where Does Europe Stand?, March 2000.
This chapter was prepared by Qingying Kong.
In view of similarities in benefit structure and financing, the rest of the analysis will focus only on the civil service pension scheme.
The fund is financed in part by a 0.2 percent wage tax.
The NPS’s assets are managed by a government agency that is subject to the influence of the Ministry of Finance and Economy and the Ministry of Health and Welfare.