List of References
Council of Economic Advisers and the Office of the Chief Economist, U.S. Department of Labor, 1999, “20 Million Jobs: January 1993-November 1999,” December.
Council of Economic Advisers, 1999, “The Effects of Welfare Policy and the Economic Expansion on Welfare Caseloads: An Update,” December 3.
Fullerton, Howard N, Jr., 1999, “Labor Force Participation: 75 Years of Change, 1950-98 and 1998-2025,” Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December.
Krueger, Alan B. and Jorn-Steffen Pischke, 1997, “Observations and Conjectures on the U.S. Employment Miracle,” National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 6146, August.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1999, “Comparative Civilian Labor Force Statistics: Ten Countries, 1959-98,” October.
Prepared by Michael Leidy and Martin Kaufman.
Following the convention adopted by CEA (1999), “jobs” refers to the payroll statistics from the establishment survey of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and “employment” refers to statistics from the household survey of the BLS. The establishment survey canvasses a random sample of private nonfarm businesses (including government entities) to estimate the number of people on nonfarm payrolls. The household survey samples the civilian noninstitutional population to estimate the number of people employed in a given week.
The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act enacted in August 1996 was designed to facilitate movement from dependency on social assistance to employment by giving states greater flexibility in the design and implementation of welfare programs. Critical among the new rules, federally funded assistance is generally limited to no more than five years in a lifetime, and strengthened work requirements mandate that individuals have some participation in the labor force within two years of receiving assistance.
The data set covers the period 1959-98 for the G-7 countries and the Netherlands and Sweden. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics’ (BLS) has compiled international estimates of employment, labor-force growth, unemployment, and labor force participation, that use U.S. concepts of employment and working-age population. These data facilitate direct comparisons between the United States and these other countries.