Ablo, E.Y., and Ritva Reinikka, 1998, “Do Budgets Really Matter? Evidence from Public Spending on Education and Health in Uganda,” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 1926 (Washington: World Bank)
Appleton, Simon, Tom Emwanu, Johnson Kagugube, and James Muwonge, 1999, “Changes in Poverty and Inequality,” Assessing an African Success: Firms, Farms and Government in Uganda’s Recovery, ed. By Paul Collier and Ritva Reinikka (Washington: World Bank; forthcoming).
- Search Google Scholar
- Export Citation
)| false Appleton, Simon, Tom Emwanu, Johnson Kagugube, and James Muwonge, 1999, “ Changes in Poverty and Inequality,” Assessing an African Success: Firms, Farms and Government in Uganda’s Recovery, ed. By ( Paul Collierand Ritva Reinikka Washington: World Bank; forthcoming).
Blackden, C. Mark, and Chitra Bhanu, 1999, Gender, Growth, and Poverty Reduction: Special Program of Assistance for Africa, 1998 Status Report on Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa, World Bank Technical Paper No. 428 (Washington: World Bank).
Calamitsis, Evangelos A., Anupam Basu and Dhaneshwar Ghura, 1999, “Adjustment and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa,” IMF Working Paper 99/51 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).
Goetz, Anne Marie, and Rhys Jenkins, 1998, “Creating a Framework for Reducing Poverty: Institutional and Process Issues in National Poverty Policy,” Uganda Country Report (unpublished; Brighton, England: Institute for Development Studies).
Government of Uganda, 1999a, Background to the Budget 1999/2000 (Kampala, Uganda: Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development).
Government of Uganda, 1999b, Uganda Poverty Status Report (Kampala, Uganda: Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development).
International Monetary Fund, 1998a, External Evaluation of the ESAF: Report by a Group of Independent Experts (Washington: International Monetary Fund).
International Monetary Fund, 1998b, Uganda—Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix, IMF Staff Country Report No. 98 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).
Sharer, Robert, Hema R. De Zoysa, and Calvin McDonald, 1995, Uganda: Adjustment with Growth, 1987–94, IMF Occasional Paper No. 121 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).
United Kingdom Department for International Development, 1999, Uganda Country Strategy Paper (London: United Kingdom Department for International Development).
World Bank, 1993, Adjustment in Africa: Reforms, Results, and the Road Ahead (Oxford: Oxford University Press for the World Bank).
This chapter was prepared by Alejandro Lopez-Mejia, Mwanza Nkusu, Caroline Robb, and Edgardo Ruggiero. It draws heavily on studies prepared by World Bank staff and the Ugandan authorities.
The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality derived from the Lorenz curve. The closer the Gini coefficient is to zero, the more equal are incomes; the closer it is to one, the more unequal are incomes.
The poverty line approach uses data on household consumption to estimate the proportion of people who are unable to meet the cost of basic needs. This approach does not capture important dimensions of poverty, such as access to education, civil liberties, freedom from discrimination, and people’s ability to live long and healthy lives.
A survey of 19 districts, covering 250 government-aided primary schools and close to 100 health clinics, was carried out in 1996, covering the period 1991–95.
In the short term, the uneven reduction of poverty has also been determined by climatic factors because they influence growth in the agricultural sector—and most people work in the agricultural sector. Consequently, the rural sector and the poorer segments of the society were the most affected by El Nino in 1996/97 and 1997/98. Still, with the improvement of weather conditions in 1998/99, the poor benefited most because economic recovery was primarily due to food crops.
This background paper uses the methodology presented in Section V of International Monetary Fund (1998b) to decompose the changes in per capita social spending. It also updates the earlier findings. As in the earlier background paper, data on health and education spending include only current spending.
Furthermore, a note of caution must be sounded about the reliability and comparability of the data series. For example, there are doubts about the sector deflators used for health and education. The data on education and health outlays are partly based on cash releases from the budget, and it is not always possible to track how they are spent, especially at the district level. Moreover, information is not available on the education and health components of externally funded development expenditures.
However, the financial cost of implementing the Land Act appears to be unaffordable at present; the cost is close to the amount spent on health services (Government of Uganda, 1999a)
Such as the creation of the Commission of Inquiry into Violations of Human Rights (1986–94), the consolidation of an independent mass communications media, the creation of the Uganda Human Rights Commission (1996), the ratification of the new Constitution, the holding of regular elections, and the enaction of the Children’s Statute (1996), which promotes the protection of children’s rights.