Back Matter

APPENDIX I Turkmenistan—IMF Technical Assistance

1. The IMF has provided substantial technical assistance and training to Turkmenistan in recent years. This assistance encompassed all major macroeconomic areas, and included technical as well as policy advice. Missions from the Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department (MAE), the Fiscal Affairs Department (FAD), and the Statistics Department (STA) of the IMF have assisted the government in strengthening monetary and fiscal institutions, enhancing the effectiveness of monetary, exchange, and fiscal management, and in building a modern statistical data base. The Fund has stationed a Resident Representative in Ashgabat since October 1993. FAD has provided a resident advisor to the Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) during January 1994–February 1997, STA has given technical assistance (through its regional advisor) to the CBT during July 1996–July 1997 on the compilation of the balance of payments, and MAE has provided an advisor to the Central Bank of Turkmenistan (CBT) since February 1994.

2. Fund technical assistance continued in several areas in 1997. Three missions from the European II Department (EU2) assisted the government in the formulation of macroeconomic policies and the preparation of a macroeconomic framework. An FAD mission in August/September provided advice on fiscal management and extension of budget coverage. This contributed to improvements in budget preparation, evidenced by the much greater documentation accompanying the 1998 budget, which was also provided on the basis of an economic classification in addition to the traditional functional classification.

3. In October, an MAE mission advised the CBT on the strengthening of monetary policy instruments and the foreign exchange system, as well as on the introduction of a book-entry system for treasury bills in preparation for the introduction of treasury bill auctions. In December, in a follow-up mission, an MAE consultant provided further technical assistance to the Research Department of the CBT in monetary analysis, financial programming, and on improvements to the CBT’s monthly bulletin.

4. In April 1998, an STA consultant provided technical assistance to Turkmenstatprognos on national accounts.

5. Government officials continue to participate in IMF Institute courses and seminars, held at the Joint Vienna Institute and IMF headquarters. In 1997, 19 officials from Turkmenistan attended courses at the Joint Vienna Institute, covering a wide range of economic, financial, and statistical issues, and one official benefitted from the Japan/IMF Scholarship Program. The IMF Institute conducted a regional seminar in Ashgabat on financial programming in April/May 1998.

IMF technical assistance and training missions to Turkmenistan

The following list summarizes technical assistance by the Fund to Turkmenistan.

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APPENDIX II Turkmenistan—Government and State Organizations and Institutions1


  • 1. Ministry of Motor Vehicle Transport (urban passenger transport)*

  • 2. Ministry for Foreign Economic Relations

  • 3. Ministry of the Interior*

  • 4. Ministry of Public Health and the Medical Industry*

  • 5. Ministry of Foreign Affairs*

  • 6. Ministry of Culture*

  • 7. Ministry of Irrigation and Water Supplies*

  • 8. Ministry of the Oil and Gas Industry and Mineral Resources

  • 9. Ministry of Defense*

  • 10. Ministry of Education*

  • 11. Ministry for the Use and Protection of the Environment*

  • 12. Ministry of the Building Materials Industry

  • 13. Ministry of Communications (State Courier Service)*

  • 14. Ministry of Agriculture

  • 15: Ministry of Social Security*

  • 16. Ministry of the Textile Industry*

  • 17. Ministry of Commerce and Resources

  • 18. Ministry of Economy and Finance*

  • 19. Ministry of Energy and Industry

  • 20. Ministry of Justice*

  • 21. State Commodities and Raw Materials Exchange

State committees

  • 22. Committee for Land Use and the Conduct of Land Reform*

  • 23. Committee for National Security*

  • 24. State Border Service*

  • 25. Committee for the Fish Industry

  • 26. Turkmenstatprognos*

Administrative organs under the Cabinet of Ministers of Turkmenistan

  • 27. Monitoring Service of the President of Turkmenistan

  • 28. National Committee for Architectural and Construction Supervision*

  • 29. The “Turkmenetbugat” state manufacturing association*

  • 30. State Committee for Geodesy, Cartography, and Cadaster*

  • 31. Committee for Physical Fitness and Sport*

  • 32. Committee for the Protection of State Secrets in the Press and Other Mass Information Media*

  • 33. Gengeshi for religious affairs*

  • 34. Chief Archive Administration*

  • 35. State Inspectorate for the Quarantine of Plants*

Administrative organs under the President of Turkmenistan

  • 36. Scientific Research Institute for the Study of the Turkmen World*

  • 37. Turkmen National Institute for Democracy and Human Rights*

  • 38. Administration for the Support of Entrepreneurship*

Other organizations and institutions of the government of Turkmenistan

  • 39. State Tax Inspectorate*

  • 40. State Inspectorate for Standardization, Metrology, the Preservation of Underground Mineral Wealth, and the Safe Conduct of Work in the National Economy*

  • 41. State Seed Inspectorate*

  • 42. State Customs Inspectorate*

  • 43. The National Television and Radio Company*

  • 44. The Turkmen Press State Information Agency*

  • 45. State Motion Picture Video Company*

  • 46. Chamber of Commerce and Industry

  • 47. Office of the Procurator-General*

  • 48. Supreme Court*

  • 49. Higher Economic Tribunal*

  • 50. The “Turkmenkhovaellary” national administration

  • 51. The “Turkmendemirellary” administration

  • 52. Turkmenpotrbsoyuz (Turkmen Consumers’ Union)

  • 53. The Academy of Sciences*

  • 54. The Higher Council for Science and Technology under the President of Turkmenistan*


  • 55. Association for the Fruit and Vegetable Trade

  • 56. Association for the Food Industry

  • 57. Association of Joint-Stock Companies for the Production, Technical, and Agrochemical Servicing of “Turkmenobakhyzmat”

  • 58. The “Turkmenkhleboprodukty” grain products association

  • 59. Association for the Construction of Agricultural Facilities

  • 60. The “Turkmenmallary” association of joint-stock companies engaged in animal husbandry

Banks with government participation

  • 61. Central Bank of Turkmenistan (100 percent)

  • 62. State Bank for Foreign Economic Activity of Turkmenistan (100 percent)

  • 63. Central Bank of the Association of Daykhan banks

  • 64. The “Turkmenistan” joint-stock commercial bank

  • 65. The “Investbank” joint-stock commercial investment bank

  • 66. The Savings Bank of Turkmenistan (100 percent)

  • 67. The “Senagat” joint-stock commercial bank

  • 68. The International Joint-Stock Bank for Reconstruction, Development, and the Support of Entrepreneurship

  • 69. “Rossiiskii Kredit” bank

State corporations, concerns, associations, administrations, and other organizations

  • 70. The “Turkmengaz” state concern

  • 71. The “Turkmenavtoellary” state concern

  • 72. The “Turkmenpagta” state concern

  • 73. The “Turkmenneftegazstroy” state concern

  • 74. The “Turkmenneft” state concern

  • 75. The “Turkmenneftegaz” state trade corporation

  • 76. The “Turkmengeologiya” state corporation

  • 77. The “Turkmensiyakhat” state tourist corporation of Turkmenistan

  • 78. The “Turkmenavtokhyzmatsovtsa” corporation

  • 79. The state republican association “Turkmen Atlary”*

  • 80. The state “Turkmenkhaly” association (Turkmenkhalybirleshik)

  • 81. The “Sepet” state association for professional training*

  • 82. The “Turkmenmebel” joint-stock company

  • 83. The State Insurance Organization

  • 84. The “Turkmenlift” specialized state manufacturing association

  • 85. The Turkmen Maritime Steamship Company (city of Turkmenbashi)

  • 86. The Turkmen River Steamship Company (city of Chardzhev)

  • 87. State Agency for Foreign Investment under the President of Turkmenistan

  • 88. State Fund for the Development of the Oil and Gas Industry and Mineral Resources

  • 89. State Fund for the Development of Agriculture

  • 90. State Fund for the Development of Transportation and Communications

  • 91. State Health Development Fund


Turkmenistan: Summary of Major Taxes as of May 1, 1998

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Table 1.

Turkmenistan: Production of Selected Commodities, 1993-97

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Source: Data provided by the Turkmen authorities.

Domestic consumption is calculated as production minus net exports.

Data for 1997 are provisional.

Table 2.

Turkmenistan: Procurement Prices, 1995-97

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Sources: Data provided by the Turkmen authorities; the world market prices are taken from IMF, International Financial Statistics.

Manat price converted at the official exchange rate.

Average export price for Turkmen cotton is derived from the balance of payments statistics.

Table 3.

Turkmenistan: Index of Gross Output, by Sector, 1993-97

(In percent of the previous year)

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Source: Data provided by the Turkmen authorities.

Does not include gas and electric power, cotton ginnery, and cooking oil industries.

Does not include cotton processing. Index of the physical volume of cotton processing would be 58.2 percent, 1997 relative to 1996.

Table 4.

Turkmenistan: Money Incomes and Expenditures of the Population, 1994-97 1/

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Source: Data provided by the Turkmen authorities.

Includes only transactions that are made through the banking system.

Table 5.

Turkmenistan: Goods and Services for which Retail Prices are Regulated by the State, 1995-98

(In manat per units indicated; end-of-period)

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Source: Data provided by the Turkmen authorities.

Salt is provided free of charge. Flour is available with coupons in state stores

Free of charge, monthly: natural gas up to 50 cubic meters; electricity up to 35Kwh; water up to 7 cubic meters.

Table 6.

Turkmenistan: Consumer Price Index, 1995-98

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Source: Data provided by Turkmenstatprognos.

Due to rounding, components do not add up to 100.

For the overall index.

The increase in the average index for the last twelve months over the average index of the previous twelve months.

Table 7.

Turkmenistan: Nominal and Real Wages and Pensions, 1994-98

(Period average)

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Sources: Data provided by Turkmenstatprognos.

Average wage of the public sector (budgetary and off-budget ministries and organizations, and state enterprises).

From 1997 onwards, the minimum wage denotes the wage set by the government for the lowest skilled workers.

Table 8.

Turkmenistan: Employment by Sector, 1993-97


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Source: Data provided by Turkmenstatprognos.

Employment in the administration of local and central government agencies; excludes services such as education and health.