Back Matter
  • 1 https://isni.org/isni/0000000404811396, International Monetary Fund

V. References

1

The authors are thankful to Antonio Spilimbergo, Aasim M. Husain, and Marcos de Carvalho Chamon for their comments and suggestions; to Henrique Barbosa and Yuebo Li for research assistance; to Cristina Barbosa and Heidi Canelas for administrative support; and to Davide Arnold for incentivizing a timely completion of this paper.

2

GDP is projected using IMF’s WEO projections to 2024. Between 2024 and 2030, the projection assumes that GDP increases at the growth rate assumed for 2024 in WEO.

3

GDP per capita between US$6,000 and US$15,000 in 2016 is used to map the middle-income country group and associated benchmarks.

4

High-performing countries are those with an SDG4 education index above 82, to allow for a representative sample size of high performing middle-income countries.

5

The assumed enrollment rates are consistent with target rates of 50 percent for preprimary and tertiary education, and 100 percent for primary and secondary education.

6

The ratio of non-doctor to doctor wage is assumed to be 0.5; shares of capital and other current spending to total spending are imputed using the World Bank income group averages.

7

High-performing countries are those with an SDG3 health index above 78 in the middle-income country group.

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