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The 2013 household survey collected more detailed data on food consumption, and focused more on urban population than the 2002 survey.
Djibouti: 2016 Article IV Consultation (IMF Country Report No. 17/87) found that the data provided to the Fund were broadly adequate for surveillance but shortcomings remained. While progress is being made on revising the national accounts, inadequate data sources hamper their quality. Fiscal data are reported with delays and there are no aggregated data on the accounts and contingent liabilities of public enterprises. Staff recommended strengthening national accounts and fiscal statistics based on the recommendations of IMF technical assistance.
In the national definition, an unemployed is a person of 15 to 54 years of age, who has not worked for 7 days, is available to work, and has been looking for a job during for at least 30 days (DISED 2016).
The 2016 survey estimates that the informal sector employs about 20 percent of the economically active population, compared with 46 percent employed by the public administration and 14 percent by public enterprises (DISED, 2016).
A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household.
Lt(p) is the fraction at time t of total income that the holders of the lowest pth fraction of incomes possess. This varies from zero to one, 0 ≤ p ≤ 1, and is presented as the inverse of the cumulative distribution function.
Djibouti has a currency board exchange rate arrangement, with the Djiboutian franc pegged to the U.S. dollar. The currency board arrangement limits monetary policy options.
With contributions from Louis Dicks-Mireaux (SPR).
See IMF Country Report 17/87, 2016 Debt Sustainability Analysis.
The DSA uses policy-dependent external debt-burden thresholds because the debt levels that LICs can sustain are influenced by the quality of their policies and institutions. Policy performance is measured by the Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) index, compiled annually by the World Bank.
Consumption taxes need to be carefully designed and implemented to avoid their bias against lower income groups, who tend to consume a larger share of their income.
Subsequent calculations are PPP-based.
This approach has limitations. A panel may not capture all the determinants of growth relevant to a particular country.
Growth of GDP per capita can be viewed as a transition from its current level to the steady-state level. Barro and Sala-i-Martin (1995) show that the time path of per capita GDP can be presented as:
Following Sachs and Warner (1997), per capita GDP will be initially y0 and will reach the steady state yss in the long run, if parameter β < 0. Growth will be initially faster, but will decelerate gradually over time as it approaches the steady state. The larger the gap (yss – y0) between the current level of GDP per capita and its steady state level, the faster will be the growth rate of the country; this is consistent with the empirically observed trend that low-income countries tend to grow on average faster than high-income countries as the former start from lower base.
Doing Business ranks are not comparable across years as new countries are added to the list.
The predicted steady state is calculated by solving the implicit differential equation underlying the regression equation: because the estimated coefficient on the 1990 per capita GDP is negative, GDP traces out a concave path that asymptotes at the steady state.
For these calculations, the coefficients in Figure 17 have been adjusted to linearize the nonlinear solution of the growth differential equation. Also, the assumption is that the structural changes would not affect the estimated parameters (Sachs and Warner, 1997).
Calculating the DB ranks involves three steps. In the first step, individual components for all 41 indicators are normalized to a common unit. In the second step, the scores obtained for individual indicators for each economy are aggregated through simple averaging into one distance to frontier score, first for each topic and then across all 10 topics. In the third step, the rank of economies is determined by sorting the aggregate distance to frontier scores.