The Financial Wealth of Corporations
A First Look at Sectoral Balance Sheet Data

Contributor Notes

Authors’ E-Mail Address: YHashimoto@imf.org; NKinoshita@imf.org

This paper analyzes the nonfinancial corporation (NFC) sector’s financial balance sheets using data available from the OECD. In our sample of 20 advanced economies, corporate debt in percent of GDP—a frequently used indicator in the context of corporate balance sheet adjustments—has remained high since the global financial crisis, with significant differences in the level and the trend between the high-debt and low-debt groups. Looking at financial balance sheets more broadly, including net financial wealth, the NFC sector’s balance sheet conditions have improved recently, particularly reflecting accumulation of corporate cash and valuation gains on financial assets. Longer time series and more granular data for Japan, which has been experiencing a prolonged period of balance sheet adjustments, indicate that a continued strengthening of balance sheets might occur even after debt levels are reduced.

Abstract

This paper analyzes the nonfinancial corporation (NFC) sector’s financial balance sheets using data available from the OECD. In our sample of 20 advanced economies, corporate debt in percent of GDP—a frequently used indicator in the context of corporate balance sheet adjustments—has remained high since the global financial crisis, with significant differences in the level and the trend between the high-debt and low-debt groups. Looking at financial balance sheets more broadly, including net financial wealth, the NFC sector’s balance sheet conditions have improved recently, particularly reflecting accumulation of corporate cash and valuation gains on financial assets. Longer time series and more granular data for Japan, which has been experiencing a prolonged period of balance sheet adjustments, indicate that a continued strengthening of balance sheets might occur even after debt levels are reduced.

I. Introduction

Advanced economies experienced a sharp contraction of private fixed investment during and after the global financial crisis, a key factor holding back global growth.2 Both housing and business investment fell sharply during the crisis, but the latter contributes to the bulk of the ongoing slump. While weak economic activity is the main factor affecting business investment and employment, the need to repair corporate balance sheets is also playing a role, especially in Europe.3

A significant number of papers have examined the balance sheet adjustments of the nonfinancial corporation (NFC) sector in advanced economies.4 This paper seeks to complement previous studies in the following three respects:

  • The focus of most of the existing studies is on the process of reducing corporate debt, particularly in proportion to GDP. We propose to look at the balance sheet conditions more broadly using a set of balance sheet indicators.

  • The flow adjustments are often described by saving and investment on the real side and net lending/net borrowing (NL/NB) on the financial side. We consider it necessary to look also at how the flow balance translates into changes in financial balance sheets at the level of financial instruments because the composition of adjustments could have important implications.

  • Relatively little attention has been paid to the role of valuation effects and other volume changes affecting the balance sheets. We explicitly examine these effects—“other economic flows (OEFs)” in statistical terms—as an important driver of changes in balance sheet conditions.

The approach in this paper allows us to describe changes in financial balance sheets comprehensively with instrument-level breakdowns and in a flow-stock consistent manner, thus providing a fuller understanding of the evolution of the financial wealth of the NFC sector.

The sectoral accounts and balance sheet data have long been an essential part in the System of National Accounts (SNA). The importance of these data was highlighted in October 2009 when the G20 Data Gaps Initiative identified improved compilation and dissemination of sectoral accounts as one of 20 recommendations to close major financial and economic information gaps.5 Subsequently, the IMF’s Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS) Plus included sectoral financial balance sheets as one of nine new data categories, in an effort to help close this gap through the IMF’s Data Standards Initiatives.6 Reflecting these efforts to enhance data availability for financial stability analysis, consistent and cross-country comparable aggregated data based on the SNA are expected to become more available in the coming years.

The paper is organized as follows: Section II provides an overview of the developments surrounding the NFC sector’s financial balance sheets. Section III provides a detailed account of the corporate balance sheet adjustments in Japan. Section IV concludes.

II. Corporate Balance Sheets in Selected Advanced Economies

A. The Data Structure

The balance sheet data used in this paper are derived from the SNA. The data record stock positions of financial assets and liabilities for each economic sector and by financial instruments. This dataset is referred to as “sectoral financial balance sheet” data. The SNA provides for stock positions as well as flow transactions, or “financial accounts”. The financial balance sheet data, together with the financial accounts data, enable us to look at the evolution of financial transactions and positions by financial instruments and by domestic sectors and vis-à-vis the rest of the world. The Data Appendix provides a more in-depth explanation of the structure and components of the sectoral accounts in the SNA as well as the data source and the data tables for the NFC sector in 20 advanced economies which constitute our sample.7 In this section, we construct and use net financial wealth (NFW) and other balance sheet indicators as shown below (Table 1).

Table 1.

Financial Balance Sheet Components and Aggregates

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Calculated by taking the sum of the instruments shaded in blue and subtracting the instruments shaded in pink.

Values are zero for nonfinancial corporations.

Includes short-term and long-term marketable securities.

Includes trade credit and advances and other items due to be received or paid (such as taxes, dividends, rent, wages and salaries, and social contributions).

NFW is calculated by taking the sum of all the financial assets and subtracting the financial liabilities except for equity and investment fund shares. It should be noted that NFW is a distinct concept from “net worth” as defined in the SNA which covers all nonfinancial assets, financial assets, and liabilities. NFW focuses on financial assets and liabilities and, for the NFC sector, excludes equity liability (“Equity and investment fund shares” in the SNA terminology) from the calculation because NFW measured in this way represents financial wealth which ultimately belongs to the shareholders.8 Although we recognize the important roles that non-financial assets play in the NFC sector, our present analysis is limited to financial balance sheets.

As for other balance sheet aggregates, “Cash” covers holdings of currency and deposits as well as debt securities, the amount of which reflects the NFCs’ preference for holding liquid and safe assets. “Debt” covers debt securities and loans on the liability side. It should be noted here that, since we use non-consolidated data given the availability for a larger set of countries (Data Appendix), debt includes intercompany loans within the NFC sector, suggesting an overestimation of true indebtedness of the sector as a whole. An analysis of the role of intercompany financial transactions and positions, while potentially useful where data are available, is not within the scope of this paper.

B. Changing Balance Sheet Conditions

In this sub-section, we present a set of indicators to assess the NFC sector’s balance sheet conditions at the highest level of aggregation for the advanced economies in the sample.9 These indicators are chosen to have a comprehensive view of the corporate financial balance sheets in terms of both stock-to-flow and stock-to-stock positions while taking into account market valuations of equity assets.

This is our “first look” in the sense that cross-country comparable SNA-based sectoral accounts and balance sheet data became available relatively recently. To the best of our knowledge, these data have not yet been investigated systematically. A question may be raised that NFC sector’s balance sheet conditions vary significantly across countries, industrial sectors, and individual firms and such granularity would be masked in the aggregated indicators. The aim here is to show the data that have become available (and are expected to become increasingly available) and to suggest how these data could be used to shed light on relevant issues, complementing other more granular data. Based on the initial observations, we will leave some questions open for further analysis in future.

Fall and rise of financial wealth

The global financial crisis took a heavy toll on the NFC sector’s NFW, mainly due to the valuation losses on equity assets (Figure 1). The equity asset-to-GDP ratio shows that the value of NFC sector’s equity holding has been on the rise over time, indicating both increasing trends in corporations’ share holdings and valuation effects. The equity asset-to-GDP ratio was above 45 percent in 2000, declined in the early 2000s due to the collapse of the so-called IT bubble. In the run-up to the global financial crisis, the equity asset-to-GDP ratio steadily increased, suggesting that cross-share holdings among corporations helped accelerate the positive effects on equity prices and so the value of these holdings on their balance sheets. The equity asset-to-GDP ratio has been recovering following a sharp decline during the crisis.

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Selected Advanced Economies: Net Financial Wealth and Equity Asset, 2000–13

(Percent of GDP)

Citation: IMF Working Papers 2016, 011; 10.5089/9781484395073.001.A001

Source: Authors’ calculation from OECD data.

NFW equivalent to about 15 percent of total GDP of the 20 advanced economies was lost in 2008 (Table 2). Clearly, equity securities held by nonfinancial corporations lost value as stock prices tumbled. There were also write-offs of loans and debt securities held by NFCs. “Other economic flows (OEFs)” reflecting these factors accounted for a loss of NFW amounting to about 11 percent of total GDP.

Table 2.

Selected Advanced Economies: Changes in Net Financial Wealth, 2008–13

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Sources: Authors’ calculations from OECD data.

The negative change in NFW in 2008 attributable to transactions, amounting to 3.8 percent of total GDP, suggests two possibilities: NFCs either liquidated their financial assets or resorted to new financing. It appears that the new financing was hard to come by in the case of the U.S. where NFCs undertook a large drawing down of currency and deposits (Appendix Table 6). In such cases, global liquidity shortages in the financial markets during the crisis had a significant impact on their financial behavior.

It took the following five years (2009–13) for the NFC sector to recover the loss of NFW. The recovery of asset prices since the crisis helped boost NFW through OEFs. This is captured by the positive contributions from OEFs which contain both other volume changes and valuation effects (such as holding gains on financial assets). The data used for our analysis do not allow us to distinguish the pure valuation effects from other volume changes, but it is likely that the positive contributions from OEFs are mostly due to holding gains on equity and investment fund shares.

In this recovery process, the accumulation of NFW through transactions (acquisition of financial assets and incurrence of financial liabilities) contributed significantly, accounting for almost two-fifths of the total increase in NFW. This means that NFCs made significant efforts to restore NFW by generating surpluses of savings in excess of investment. An interesting question, one that could have important implications for considering real-financial linkages of the NFCs’ financial behavior, is how they allocated financial surpluses: whether to reduce financial liabilities or to accumulate financial assets.

Slow pace of corporate debt reduction

Despite the recovery in NFW, high corporate debt levels remain a source of concern in the balance sheet conditions in many advanced economies. This has resulted from a rapid buildup of debt in the run-up to and during the global financial crisis, with the corporate debt-to-GDP ratio of the 20 advanced economies reaching a high of 86.4 percent of GDP in 2009 (Figure 2, left panel). The trend has been reversed since, but the reduction in the corporate debt-to-GDP ratio has been slow, having declined to 82.6 percent of GDP by end-2013 and remained above the pre-crisis level.

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Selected Advanced Economies: Corporate Debt, 2000–13

(Percent of GDP)

Citation: IMF Working Papers 2016, 011; 10.5089/9781484395073.001.A001

Source: Authors’ calculation from OECD data.1/ Includes Belgium, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden.2/ Includes Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovak Republic.

Behind this aggregate trend, we observe significant divergence between countries with high corporate debt levels and those with low levels (Figure 2, right panel). The countries whose corporate debt-to-GDP ratios were relatively high before the global financial crisis experienced a sharp rise in debt levels during the crisis, and these countries have seen little debt reduction. In contract, the countries whose corporate debt-to-GDP ratios were relatively low before the crisis have maintained or even reduced debt levels over the years.

An empirical study shows that high corporate debt above certain levels (defined in percent of GDP) becomes a drag on growth (Cecchetti, Mohanty, and Zampolli, 2011). Although this is plausible, growth in some of the advanced economies in the high debt group, particularly Belgium, Netherlands, and Sweden, does not appear being affected much by such debt hangover effects. This suggests that the effects of corporate debt on investment and growth would require taking into account country specific factors.

Rising corporate cash relative to GDP

Increasing corporate cash holdings explain part of the recovery in NFW after the crisis. The NFC sector of the 20 advanced economies as a whole has been accumulating cash since the beginning of the 2000s and at an accelerating pace after the crisis: the cash-to-GDP ratio rose from 19 percent in 2000 to over 23 percent in 2013 (Figure 3, left panel).

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Selected Advanced Economies: Corporate Cash, 2000–13

(Percent of GDP)

Citation: IMF Working Papers 2016, 011; 10.5089/9781484395073.001.A001

Source: Authors’ calculation from OECD data.

Cash holdings by the U.S. NFC sector relative to GDP is significantly lower than the average for the advanced economies (Figure 3, right panel). Interestingly, recent studies examine if U.S. corporations are holding too much cash (Hodrick, 2013; Sanchez and Yurdagul, 2013), and another study examines the role of cash as a buffer against financial shocks, especially for corporations with high debt levels (Armentar, 2012). If it is indeed the case that the U.S. corporations are holding too much cash, the issue would be worth examining for most advanced economies in the sample.

It is also worth highlighting that some of the advanced economies experienced a decline in the corporate cash-to-GDP ratio: Germany for 2001–06 and Greece for 2008–12 (Figure 4). A study for Germany indicates that the tax reform in 2001 favored internal financing to external financing, which could justify the reduction in both the debt- and cash-to-GDP ratios (Ruscher and Wolff, 2013). In the case of Greece, a relevant issue would be whether corporate cash holdings were affected by the weakness of the economy and the banking sector after the financial crisis in the euro area. Developments in the corporate debt- and corporate cash-to-GDP ratios seem to suggest that the Greek NFC sector used cash holdings to cope with the real and financial shocks. The cause and effects of the decline in corporate cash holdings in Greece would deserve a further examination.

Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Germany and Greece: Corporate Debt and Cash, 2000–13

(Percent of GDP)

Citation: IMF Working Papers 2016, 011; 10.5089/9781484395073.001.A001

Source: Authors’ calculation from OECD data.

Stable relations between corporate cash and debt

Looking at the corporate cash-to-debt ratio, it is noticeable that the ratio is relatively stable not only for the total but also for a large number of countries in the sample (Figure 5). This observation gives rise to a question: whether corporate cash and corporate debt move independently or not. Two explanations could be suggested to explain the possible co-movements. One explanation would be that NFCs are willing to hold cash as a liquidity buffer to cope with vulnerability arising from higher debt levels. Another explanation would be that NFCs are willing to use excess cash to reduce debt. Aggregate data are not suitable to address this question as they may not reflect the movement in cash and debt of individual NFCs, and examining the issue using firm-level data would be an interesting topic for further analysis.

Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Selected Advanced Economies: Corporate Cash-to-Debt, 2000–13

(Percent)

Citation: IMF Working Papers 2016, 011; 10.5089/9781484395073.001.A001

Source: Authors’ calculation from OECD data.

III. Corporate Balance Sheet Adjustments in Japan: A Deeper look

Rising corporate financial wealth under a stagnant economy

In the two decades of growth slump and deflationary era since the early 1990s, Japan’s NFC sector has been accumulating financial wealth, turning itself from negative NFW to positive NFW by the mid-2000s (Figure 6). At the first look, this may seem contradictory, but the improvement in financial balance sheet position reflects the response of the sector to prolonged slow growth and lack of profitable investment opportunities. A significantly positive NFW may be seen as indicating a low level of balance sheet vulnerabilities; however, the composition of balance sheets is an important factor, and a high corporate debt-to-GDP ratio in Japan compared with other advanced economies means that vulnerabilities within sector would need to be assessed carefully, possibly with more granular (firm-level) data.

Figure 6.
Figure 6.

Japan: Net Financial Wealth of the Nonfinancial Corporations Sector, 1980–2013

Citation: IMF Working Papers 2016, 011; 10.5089/9781484395073.001.A001

Source: Authors’ calculation from OECD data.

During the 1990s, the Japanese economy experienced a significant deceleration in growth (early 1990s), a surge in the value of yen (mid 1990s), low inflation as well as deflation, and a financial crisis in 1997 involving bankruptcies of a major bank and security firms. As could be expected, NFCs were severely affected by these developments, with some having become a source of systemic banking sector weaknesses by generating nonperforming loans.

A significant improvement in the NFC sector’s financial balance sheets took place in the 2000s. The first half of this period corresponds to the government of Prime Minister Koizumi which pressed for broad structural and fiscal reforms and a resolution of nonperforming loans in the banking system. Indeed, the NFC sector reduced debt liabilities sharply in 2000–03 through transactions, which resulted in the sector’s move into a net asset position (Table 3). In the following four years (2004–07), while the NFC sector further strengthened its balance sheets, the composition of adjustments shifted noticeably from debt reduction to financial asset accumulation.

Table 3.

Japan: Changes in Net Financial Wealth of the Nonfinancial Corporation Sector

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Source: Authors’ calculations from OECD data.

Cumulative.

Includes “Currency and deposits” and “Debt securities”.

Excluding equity liabilities.

Includes “Debt securities” and “Loans”.

Then the global financial crisis of 2008 hit the Japanese economy. Although it was not the epicenter of the crisis, the recession that followed was one of the deepest among advanced economies with real GDP contracting by 1.0 percent in 2008 and 5.5 percent in 2009. The NFC sector in 2008 lost as much as 18 percent of GDP on OEFs of financial assets, which mostly reflect the valuation losses of equity held by Japanese corporations.

In the following years, Japanese NFCs have sought to repair their balance sheets. The composition of balance sheet adjustments in response to the crisis is similar to the period preceding it in that they relied more on financial asset accumulation and less on liability reduction. A noticeable difference between 2004–07 and 2009–13 is that OEFs on financial assets accounted for a significant part of the improvement in NFW in the latter period, reflecting the recovery of the equity values.

Shifting adjustments from debt reduction to financial asset accumulation

Looking at the more granular level of composition by instruments, the adjustment shifted from reducing liability by debt reduction (2000–03) to accumulating financial assets other than cash (2004–07). After the global financial crisis, the adjustment took place with the accumulation of financial assets (2009–13).

Japan’s experience could have implications for countries undergoing corporate balance sheet adjustments. It suggests that the strengthening process may not be over even when corporate debt levels are reduced significantly. It also raises an important issue of how different approaches to strengthening the balance sheet—whether these take place on the liability side or the asset side—impact the economy. While these issues are outside the scope of the present study, the dataset—containing comparable data across a number of advanced economies—combined with other indicators would make it possible to shed light on these issues.

The impact of fluctuating asset values on corporate real and financial behavior

Looking at the further breakdown by instruments for other economic flows on the financial assets side, it is clear that the fall and the recovery of stock prices in Japan was the main driving factor in strengthening balance sheets during and after the global financial crisis. We also notice that OEFs other than equity asset values were significant especially during 2009–13, which may arise from valuation changes in trade credit or offshore assets due to currency fluctuations. Although such detailed information is not available in the data used for this paper, country sources could possibly contain such information.

Another policy relevant issue that would be worth pursuing by taking advantage of the sectoral account and balance sheet data is whether and to what extent changes in NFW due to fluctuations in asset values affect the real and financial behavior of nonfinancial corporations.

High and rising propensity for corporations to save

In the previous section, we noted that the NFC sector in Japan is a clear outlier among the sample group of countries in terms of its high levels of cash accumulation which is clearly linked to high and rising propensity for Japanese NFCs to save (Figure 7). Some argue that excessively high corporate savings in Japan are hurting the economy (“A US$2.5 trillion problem,” Economist, September 27, 2014; Andrew Smithers, “Japan must cut depreciation allowances, Financial Times, March 27, 2014). Recent analyses by IMF staff concludes that: cash accumulation is due to financial imperfections, rising corporate profitability, and uncertainty (Sher, 2014); weak corporate governance might be contributing to high cash holdings (Aoyagi and Ganelli, 2014); and recent corporate governance reforms are expected to unlock the cash position (IMF, 2015). A recent policy debate has focused on strengthening incentives for the Japanese NFC sector to reduce savings by raising wages and dividend payments and to reduce cash holdings by increasing fixed capital formation. In this regard, cash holdings (stock) and savings (flow) by the NFC sector in other advanced economies, although lower than in Japan, could be highlighted as a policy issue in the context of corporate sector balance sheet adjustments.

Figure 7.
Figure 7.

Selected Advanced Economies: Gross Saving of the Nonfinancial Corporation Sector, 2000–13

(Percent of GDP)

Citation: IMF Working Papers 2016, 011; 10.5089/9781484395073.001.A001

Source: Author’s calculations from OECD data.1/ Japan is the maximum among all the countries in the sample.2/ Weighted average for the 20 countries in the sample.

IV. Conclusions

In this paper, we have examined stock-flow consistent cross-country comparable aggregate balance sheet data for the NFC sector in selected advanced economies. We have highlighted the key features of ongoing corporate balance sheet adjustments by taking a comprehensive look at flow and stock data, including both the asset and liability sides of financial balance sheets. In our sample of 20 advanced economies, corporate debt in percent of GDP has been slow to adjust since the global financial crisis. The NFC sector’s NFW to GDP ratio has improved recently, particularly reflecting an accumulation of corporate cash and valuation gains on financial assets. Developments in individual countries differ significantly with some of the countries making progress in strengthening balance sheets and others facing continued pressures for debt reduction. Japan’s experience highlights the possibility that strengthening balance sheets could continue even after debt levels are reduced.

There are several areas which warrant a deeper look with more granular data, including by financial instrument, given the role of the NFC sector in determining business conditions, driving economic growth and employment and affecting financial stability. It is hoped that our work will help promote further compilation and dissemination as well as more and better use of SNA-based sectoral balance sheet data and associated financial account data.

Reference

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Data Appendix

Sectoral accounts and balance sheet in the System of National Accounts

The System of National Accounts (SNA) provides for a framework to compile sectoral accounts and sectoral balance sheet data which describe comprehensively and consistently the economic and financial behavior by entities.1 Sectoral accounts data record, by institutional sectors, the production of goods and services, income generated and distributed through current transfers, and its allocation to consumption and saving.

Sectoral balance sheet data record accumulated financial transactions and other economic flows. At the economy level, the balance sheets data show the stock position of the domestic economy vis-à-vis the rest of the world. The balance sheet data are often available by economic sectors, enabling an analysis of financial stock positions and flows (transactions and other economic flows) of each sector. The financial balance sheets data are also called “sectoral balance sheet” data as they provide stock positions of assets and liabilities for each of economic sector.

The financial accounts and financial balance sheets data, coupled with non-financial accounts data, enable us to trace economic flows over time. The net lending/borrowing represents the financial transactions during the reference period. Other financial flows that are not captured by financial transactions are called “other economic flows (OEFs)” (see below). These flows may include valuation changes in assets/liabilities held due to holding gains or other changes in volume. The financial transactions and other economic flows constitute change in the stock of financial assets and liabilities from the beginning to the end of the period.

As shown in Appendix Figure 1 above, the framework is designed in such a way that “The balance sheets shows the stock of assets and liabilities at the beginning and end of each period and are fully integrated with the transactions and other economic flows for those assets and liabilities.” (IMF, 2007, page 19). The sectoral breakdowns are provided according to the common institutional classification. To the extent countries compile and report data using the common framework, data are expected to be fully comparable.

Appendix Figure 1.
Appendix Figure 1.

The SNA Framework and Balance Sheet Data1

Citation: IMF Working Papers 2016, 011; 10.5089/9781484395073.001.A001

Financial balance sheet data can be further disaggregated by instruments. The main instrument breakdowns are illustrated in the table below.

Appendix Table 1.

Sectoral Balance Sheet Data Required under SDDS Plus

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Source: The SDDS Plus Guide for Adherents and Users.

Data sources

Sectoral account and balance sheet data are compiled and disseminated by many advanced countries, often as part of flow of funds data. The OECD makes these data available for 33 countries on its online statistical database, OECD StatExtracts (Appendix Table 3).

Appendix Table 2.

Countries Included in the Aggregate Analysis of Selected Advanced Economies

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Appendix Table 3.

Summary of Available Balance Sheet and Financial Account Data for the Nonfinancial Corporation Sector1

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Availability as of June 29, 2015.

Countries for which only 1993SNA data are available.

For most countries, financial balance sheets (stock position data) and financial accounts (transaction data) are available on both non-consolidated and consolidated bases. Balance sheet figures from non-consolidated data sets are larger than those from consolidated data sets because holdings of financial instruments between institutional units in the same group are eliminated in consolidated data. As of June 2015, non-consolidated transaction and balance sheet data are available for 30 countries and consolidated data are available for 24 countries. Only non-consolidated data are available for some of the large advanced economies such as Canada, Japan and the Unites States. Given the larger data availability and the information contained in the non-consolidated financial accounts and balance sheets, we use the non-consolidated data for our analysis in the paper.

For the aggregated analysis in the paper, we used the non-consolidated data for 20 selected advanced economies for which comprehensive flow and stock indicators are available for 2000–13 (Appendix Table 2).

The data for selected balance sheet indicators are show on the Appendix Tables 48.

Appendix Table 4.

Selected Advanced Economies: Financial Balance Sheet of the Nonfinancial Corporation Sector, 2000–13

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Source: Authors’ estimates from OECD StatExtracts data. S Total for 20 advanced economies for which data are available for the whole period covered on the table. Locan currency data are coverted to U.S. dollars using purchacing power parities.
Appendix Table 5.

Selected Advanced Economies: Debt Ratios of the Nonfinancial Corporation Sector, 2000–14

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Source: Authors’ estimates from OECD data.
Appendix Table 6.

Selected Advanced Economies: Cash Ratios of the Nonfinancial Corporation Sector, 2000–14

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Source: Authors’ estimates from OECD data.