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We are grateful to Andrew Berg, Prachi Mishra and Laura Papi for comments and to May Inoue and Agnes Isnawangsih for their assistance.
On the other hand, they are unlikely to be the very poorest among rural households, as the lowest income rural households, including the elderly, disadvantaged groups, and extremely small households, are unlikely to have the assets to leave home.
Estimates of Gini coefficient by international institutions range from 0.42 to 0.47 in 2005–2007. Cheng (2007) estimate the Gini coefficient to be 0.29 in 1981.
World Development Indicators.
Other specifications related to income—for example, average growth over time combined with initial level - were also assessed; results were similar.
This in itself may be surprising as access to primary education might be expected to be a more important driver of reducing income inequality than secondary or tertiary education.