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The author is grateful for many useful comments received from his colleagues in the Fiscal Affairs Department, in particular Jack Diamond, Janet Stotsky, and Davina Jacobs, as well as Naheed Kirmani, Bernardin Akitoby, Mwanza Nkusu, and Richard Stern in the African Department. The remaining errors are the author’s.
The term “Gender Mainstreaming” is a globally accepted strategy for promoting gender equality. Mainstreaming is not an end in itself but a strategy, an approach, a means to achieve the goal of gender equality. Mainstreaming involves ensuring that gender perspectives and attention to the goal of gender equality are central to all activities, policy development, research, advocacy/dialogue, legislation, resource allocation, and planning, implementation and monitoring of programs and projects. Source: Office of the Special Advisor on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women to the Secretary-General, available via the Internet at www.un.org/osagi.
For further details on the experiences of Australia, Canada, and South Africa, see Budlender and others (2002), pp. 161–64, 147–48, and 137–40, respectively.
For example, according to the World Bank (2002), in addition to the evidence that gender affects growth, the evidence from the 2000/2001 World Development Report shows that gender relations affect all aspects of poverty, including income, opportunity, security, and empowerment. In some countries, girls in poor families receive lower-quality nutrition, less healthcare, and poorer education than their brothers. Likewise, female household members often have less access to and control over the household’s productive resources and income than do male family members. Moreover, rigidities in the labor market, discriminatory practices, lack of access to land, credit and other productive resources, and the heavy time burdens of poor women, all lower their economic opportunities. Women also suffer from less security than men in many parts of the world. Because of their dependency on male incomes, they are particularly vulnerable to shocks such as husband’s death, desertion, or divorce.
Further explanations and details can be found in several documents available via the Internet at the Commonwealth Secretariat’s website at www.thecommonwealth.org/gender.
With the exception of the funds that are allocated to and accordingly appropriated for women’s affairs ministries or their equivalent organizations in different countries.
In addition to the references cited in this paper, see Commonwealth Secretariat’s website at www.thecommonwealth.org/gender.