Ahmed, Masood, and Hugh Bredenkamp, 2000, “Supporting Poverty Reduction in Low-Income Developing Countries: The International Community’s Response,” Finance & Development, Vol. 37 (December), pp. 10–13.
Baldacci, Emanuelc, Maria Teresa Guin-Siu, and Luiz de Mello, 2002, “More on the Effectiveness of Public Spending on Health Care and Education: A Covariance Structure Model,” IMF Working Paper 02/90 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).
Camdessus, Michel, 1997 (Managing Director of the IMF), “Camdessus on Globalization, Capital Account, IMF Support for Social Spending,” IMF Survey, Vol. 26, (May 12), p. 134.
Chu, Ke-young, and Richard Hemming, 1991, Public Expenditure Handbook: A Guide to Public Policy Issues in Developing Countries (Washington: Fiscal Affairs Department, International Monetary Fund).
Fischer, Stanley, Ernesto Hernández-Catá, and Mohsin S. Khan, 1998, “Africa: Is This the Turning Point?” IMF Paper on Policy Analysis and Assessments 98/6 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).
Gupta, Sanjeev, and Others, 2000, Social Issues in IMF-Supported Programs, IMF Occasional Paper No. 191 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).
Gupta, Sanjeev, Marijn Verhoeven, and Erwin Tiongson, 1999, “Does Higher Government Spending Buy Better Results in Education and Healthcare?” IMF Working Paper 99/21 (Washington: international Monetary Fund).
Hernández-Catá, Ernesto, 2000, “Raising Growth and Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa: What Can Be Done?” IMF Policy Discussion Paper 00/4 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).
International Monetary Fund, 2002, Review of the Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility: Issues and Options, Executive Board document available via the Internet at http://www.imf.org/External/NP/prgf/2002/021402.htm.
Khan, Mohsin S., and Sunil Sharma, 2001, “IMF Conditionality and Country Ownership of Programs,” IMF Working Paper 01/142 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).
Klitgaard, Robert E., 1996, Governance and the Economy in Africa: Tools for Analysis and Reform of Corruption (College Park, Maryland: Center for Institutional Reform and the Informal Sector, University of Maryland).
Köhler, Horst, 2000 (Managing Director of the IMF), “Köhler Discusses Activities of First Weeks in Office, Outlines Double Track for Forthcoming Agenda,” IMF Survey, Vol. 29, (June 5), pp. 187–90.
Moser, Gary G., and Toshihiro Ichida, 2001, “Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa,” IMF Working Paper 01/112 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).
Ramakrishnan, Subramaniam, 1988, “Budgeting and Financial Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: Key Policy and Institutional Issues,” HIID Discussion Paper No. 622, (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard Institute for International Development).
Sen, Amartya, 1992, “The Political Economy of Targeting,” paper presented at the World Bank Conference on Public Expenditures and the Poor: Incidence and Targeting, Washington, June 17–19.
Srinivasan, T.N., 2001, “Growth and Poverty Alleviation: Lessons from Development Experience,” paper presented at IMF Institute Seminar Series, Washington, May 17.
Treserras, R. J. Canela, and others, 1992, “Infant Mortality, Per Capita Income, and Adult Illiteracy: An Ecological Approach,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 82, (March), pp. 435–37.
UNDESA, 2000, Classifications of Expenditure According to Purpose (New York: United Nations Department of Economics and Social Affairs).
Wolfensohn, James D., 2000, “Building an Equitable World,” address to the Board of Governors of the World Bank and the Fund, Prague, Czech Republic, September 26.
The author wishes to thank Jaouad Sebti and Sishir Battharai for their excellent assistance with the data collection and econometric work; David Andrews, Benedict Clements, and Ernesto Hernández-Catá for valuable comments on preliminary drafts; and Tom Walter and Francis Tyaba for their editorial help.
While the averages for the sub-Saharan social indicators were extracted from a single, published source (World Bank, 2001), for the spending indicators they were calculated using a 49-country compiled for this study from the IMF’s Government Finance Statistics (IMF, 2001a) and World Economic Outlook (IMF, 2001b) country-desk databases. As a result, country and time discontinuities in data availability had to be taken into account by adjusting the calculation of the regional averages, which thus do not include the same number of countries for every year. Moreover, given its large regional weight, South Africa was excluded from the averages, because its markedly higher but unevenly distributed level of social spending would distort the picture of the spending situation for the typical SSA country. Two other small countries (Mauritius and Seychelles) with even higher social spending indicators were accordingly also excluded.