Back Matter
  • 1 https://isni.org/isni/0000000404811396, International Monetary Fund

References

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1

Carol S. Carson is Director and Lucie Laliberté, Assistant Director, of the Statistics Department, International Monetary Fund. The authors gratefully acknowledge useful comments received from participants of the 2001 meeting of the IMF Balance of Payments Statistics Committee in Tokyo and from staff of the Statistics Department.

2

For information about the DQAF, see Fourth Review of the Fund’s Data Standards Initiative: Supplement on the Data Quality Assessment Framework, on the IMF website at http://www.imf.org/external/np/sta/dsbb/2001/supp.htm.

3

The term to be used for this characteristic has been elusive. However, because the term “reliability” is firmly embedded in the literature about revisions from the United States, Australia (along with “revisability”), and the United Kingdom, it was adopted for the DQAF for consistency with that considerable body of literature.

4

The DQAF comprises a generic framework, which is applicable to all datasets, and a set of specific frameworks that provide more detail and concreteness tailored to the dataset in question.

5

Much of what is said about assessing accuracy and reliability of balance of payments may also apply to international investment position statistics.

6

Another approach, which may be seen as a variant of time series analysis, has not been included. For example, one evaluation of “noise-to-signal” ratios calculated for GDP aggregates using an XI1-ARTMA seasonal adjustment model was identified, but it does not seem to have been followed up [see Statistics Canada, 1990, p. 101]. Another example of this approach is the reconciliation model for intra European trade statistics, which is still at an experimental stage [see Tyrman, 2001].

7

(Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office), pp. 72–74.

8

“The Statistical Discrepancy” box in the Survey of Current Business, August 1997, p. 19.

9

The most recent publication of the annual tables was in the August 2001 Survey of Current Business, in the “National Income and Product Tables.”

10

Kenneth A. Petrick, “Comparing NIPA Profits with S&P 500 Profits,” Survey of Current Business, April 2001, pp. 16–20.

11

Another approach that may be seen as a combination of source data and assessment technique is the use of an events tracking system to monitor international transactions by scanning business media. The tracked events are both company-specific and of a general background nature. The information is used by Statistics Canada in editing and updating of survey coverage for the balance of payments. [Statistics Canada, no date, p. 2.]

12

The most recent publication of this table was in the August 2001 Survey of Current Business, Table 4.5 B in the “National Income and Product Tables.”

13

The latest available reconciliation was published in the November 2001 Survey of Current Business and in Canada’s Balance of International Payments, Third Quarter 2001.

14

International Monetary Fund, 2000, Analysis of 1997 Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey Results and Plans for the 2001 Survey (Washington: IMF).

15

As typically calculated using percent change from quarter to quarter, at annual rates dispersion is: Σ | P – L |/n, where P is the percentage change in the current estimate, L is the percentage change in the latest estimate, n is the number of quarterly changes, relative dispersion is: Σ|PL|/nΣ|L|/n, and bias is: Σ(P – L)/n.

16

A new study is expected (as of December 2001) in a forthcoming issue of the Survey of Current Business.

17

The studies covered, in addition to national accounts, other “headline” series such as the index of production and the balance of trade in goods; [see Barklem, 2000].

18

[de Leeuw, 1990, pp.l91–203.]

Assessing Accuracy and Reliability: A Note Basedon Approaches Used in National Accounts and Balance of Payments Statistics
Author: Mrs. Carol S Carson and Ms. Lucie Laliberté