Back Matter
Author: Mr. Jack Bame1
  • 1 https://isni.org/isni/0000000404811396, International Monetary Fund

Bibliography

  • Duncan, W. Joseph and Gross, C. Andrew,Statistics for the 21st Century.” The Dun and Bradstreet Corporation, New York, 1993.

  • Hooper, Peter and Richardson, J. David,International Economic Transactions -Issues in Measurement and Empirical Research,” NBER, Studies in Income and Wealth, Volume 55, University of Chicago Press, 1991.

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  • Julius, DeAnne,Global Companies and Public Policy: The Growing Challenge of Foreign Direct Investment,” (New York, N.Y.: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1990).

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  • Kester, Anne, Y.,Behind the Numbers: U.S. Trade in the World Economy.” National Research Council, Panel on Foreign Trade Statistics, (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1992).

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  • Landefeld, J. Steven et al, “Alternative Frameworks for U.S. International Transactions.” U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Washington, D.C., Survey of Current Business, December 1993.

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  • Lipsey, Robert,Outward Investment and the U.S. Economy.National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 4691, March 1994.

  • Ohmae, Kenichi,U.S.-Japan: Counting What Counts,Wall Street Journal, March 22, 1994.

  • Wriston, Walter,Bashing Japan with Flawed Figures,Washington Post, August 4, 1994.

1/

Hooper, Peter and J. David Richardson, Editors, International Economic Transactions - Issues in Measurement and Empirical Research. NBER, Studies in Income and Wealth, Volume 55, University of Chicago Press, 1991.

2/

Briefly, an institutional unit has a center of economic interest in a country if the unit has engaged, or intends to engage, in economic activities and transactions for one year or more (as a guideline). The economic territory excludes foreign government or international organization enclaves within a country’s geographical boundaries.

3/

National Research Council, Panel on Foreign Trade Statistics, Behind the Numbers: U.S. Trade in the World Economy, ed. Anne Y. Kester (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1992); DeAnne Julius, Global Companies and Public Policy: The Growing Challenge of Foreign Direct Investment (New York, N.Y.: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1990).

4/

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Alternative Frameworks for U.S. International Transactions. Landefeld, J. Steven et al, Washington, D.C., Survey of Current Business, December 1993.

5/

See Lipsey, Robert, Outward Investment and the U.S. Economy. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 4691, March 1994.

6/

Duncan, Joseph W. and Andrew C. Gross, Statistics for the 21st Century. The Dun and Bradstreet Corporation, New York, 1993.

7/

Wall Street Journal, U.S.-Japan: Counting What Counts, March 22, 1994. Similar comments were made by Walter Wriston in the Washington Post, Bashing Japan With Flawed Figures, August 4, 1994.

8/

These problems of interpreting statistics on establishment transactions were noted by Bernard Ascher and Obie G. Whichard in Hooper, op.cit., p. 216.

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Associates (defined as 50 percent or less foreign-owned) usually would not be included in establishment data used for trade negotiation purposes, because “control” is the generally operative concept in multilateral trade agreements, as opposed to the direct investment concept of “effective voice in management.”

The Meaning of Balance of Payments Statistics in an Interdependent World
Author: Mr. Jack Bame