Ahmad, E., (1991a), “Social Safety Nets in Transition Economies”, in V. Tanzi (ed.), Fiscal Issues in Economies in Transition: The Institutional Dimension, International Monetary Fund, Washington D.C.
Development Committee Report (1991), “Development Issues: Presentations to the 39th Meeting of the Development Committee”, Report No. 26, World Bank, Washington D.C.
Drèze, J. and Sen, A.K., and Stern, N.H. (1987), “The Theory of Cost-Benefit Analysis”, in A. Auerbach and M. Feldstein (eds.), Handbook of Public Economics: Vol II, Amsterdam: North Holland.
Glewwe, P. (1990), “Improving Data on Poverty in the Third World”, The World Bank, Living Standards Measurement Survey, Working Paper No. 416, Washington D.C.
United Nations Development Program (1990), “The Social Dimensions of Adjustment (SDA) Project: An Interim Evaluation”, New York.
United Nations Development Program, (1991), “Proposals for a Program on Structural Adjustment and Social Development in Africa”, Memorandum.
World Bank (1991a), “Public Choices for Private Initiatives: Prioritising Public Expenditures for Sustainable and Equitable Growth in Uganda”, Report No. 9203-UG, Washington D.C.
The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and should not be ascribed to the International Monetary Fund. This paper is based on work by the authors to review Bank Public Expenditure Reviews for the Special Program of Assistance for Africa in 1991. It was presented to an International Workshop on Poverty Monitoring in International Agencies, held under the aegis of the ILO and UNICEF in Santiago, Chile, in September 1991. Mr. Chalk, a doctoral candidate at the University of California (Los Angeles), was a summer intern in 1991 in the Fiscal Affairs Department. Helpful comments from Ke-young Chu and assistance from Tarja Papavassiliou are acknowledged, but all errors are ours.
This position, taken by Fund staff, is reported in “The Fund and Poverty Issues: A Progress Report,” published in a Development Committee pamphlet 26 in 1991. For a discussion of the World Bank approach, where safety nets are seen as an adjunct to a two-pronged strategy encompassing investments in human and physical capital and labor-intensive growth, see World Development Report (1990), also summarized for the Development Committee pamphlet 26.
Fixed costs tend to be higher for secondary and tertiary education than primary education, which ensures that the former will be more expensive than the latter. Similar cost patterns hold with respect to health care. There may however be considerable waste in connection with all types of education and health care … such as primary schools without books and universities producing unemployable lawyers; or primary health clinics without personnel, and hospitals without drugs but with fancy equipment that cannot be used.
For example, educated teachers are needed to staff primary schools.
The Development Committee, # 26, (1990), p. 30.
See E. Ahmad and N.H. Stern (1991) for a theoretical discussion as well as empirical applications, and A. Tait (1988) for a description of a rate structure of indirect taxes which would be desirable from an administrative point of view.
Based on Fund missions for Article IV Consultations and Use of Fund Resources. Fund Recent Economic Development reports collect and report fairly detailed and up-to-date fiscal information, although formats tend to vary and are often less detailed than the GFS requirements. This information is not publicly available.
See International Monetary Fund (1986).
See “FAO Production Yearbook” and individual country profiles.
See the UNESCO statistical yearbook.