Abstract

List of Tables

List of Tables

Table A1.

Shares in World Merchandise Exports, 1963-861

(In percent)

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Sources: GATT, IMF, UN, UNCTAD; and Fund staff estimates. Based on GATT classifications (see Appendix III).

Based on nominal U.S. dollar values.

The most recent year for which comprehensive data are available.

EC (10): Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom.

The newly industrializing economies of Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan Province of China.

Table A2.

Shares in World Exports of Manufactures,1 1963-862

(In percent)

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Sources: GATT, IMF, UN, UNCTAD; and Fund staff estimates. Based on GATT classifications (see Appendix III).

Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) categories 5 through 8 minus 68.

Based on nominal U.S. dollar values.

EC (10): Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom.

The newly industrializing economies of Hong Kong, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan Province of China.

Table A3.

Depth of Tariff Reductions and Post-Tokyo Round Tariff Averages

(In percent)

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Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Secretariat.

The standard deviation of the average tariff rates shown exceeds one in all the countries listed.

Table A4.

Importance of GATT Tariff Bindings in Industrial Countries1

(In percent)

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Sources: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT); and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Tariff bindings are upper limits on tariffs agreed to in GATT. All data refer to 1984 except Australia (1980/81) and New Zealand (1983/84). Since the launching of the Uruguay Round in 1986, Australia and New Zealand have offered to bind a larger proportion of their tariffs.

Refers to imports subject to a most-favored-nation tariff.

Table A5.

Regional Trading Groups: Share of Intra-Area Exports in World Exports, 1960-861

(In percent of world exports)

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Sources: International Monetary Fund, Direction of Trade Statistics; and Commission of the European Communities, Eurostat.

Among industrial countries. Trade among developing countries subject to preferential arrangements amounts to only 1.2 percent of world exports. Trade between the EC and 66 African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries (ACP) subject to preferential arrangements under the Lomé Convention amounts to 1.8 percent of world exports. A negligible share of world trade occurs under association and cooperation agreements between the EC and Mediterranean countries.

Includes the original six members plus Denmark, Greece, Ireland, and the United Kingdom. Internal trade barriers among the EC(6) were abolished and a common external tariff came into effect in 1968.

The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a free trade area comprising Austria, Finland, Iceland, Sweden, Switzerland, and Norway. The United Kingdom and Denmark departed from EFTA in 1974 to join the EC.

A free trade area for industrial products was progressively established between the EC and EFTA over the period 1972-84.

The U.S.-Canada automotive pact, a sectoral free trade agreement covering automobiles and parts, was concluded in 1965. Trade under the pact accounts for one third of trade between the two countries. A free trade agreement covering all products is expected to come into effect in 1989, subject to ratification.

Preferential trading arrangement under the South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Agreement (Sparteca), established in 1981 and including Fiji, Papua New Guinea, and other small Pacific countries. Preferential trading also occurs under the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement (Anzcerta). In June 1988, the agreement was expanded to include services and the date of elimination of all trade barriers was brought forward to July 1990.

This figure rises to 37.3 percent if Spain and Portugal are added to the EC(10).

A framework trade agreement was signed in February 1988. The agreement does not contemplate a free trade area.

Table A6.

Industrial Countries: Antidumping Investigations and Actions, 1981-871

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Sources: Finger and Olechowski (1987); General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, “Semi-Annual Reports Under Article 14:4 of the Agreement” (Geneva), various issues. Based on GATT classifications (see Appendix III).

The countries listed have initiated virtually all the antidumping investigations undertaken worldwide. Actions taken include the imposition of definitive duties and minimum price undertakings by exporting countries. Investigations include those opened in the context of reviewing an existing antidumping duty or after allegations of breach of an undertaking.

The data are based on actions reported by signatories to the GATT Committee on Antidumping Practices, which exclude the actions taken against nonsignatories.

Table A7.

Industrial Countries: Countervailing Investigations and Actions, 1981-861

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Sources: Finger and Olechowski (1987); and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Based on GATT classifications (see Appendix III).

The countries listed have initiated virtually all the countervailing investigations undertaken by individual countries. Actions taken include the imposition of definitive duties and minimum price undertakings by exporting countries. Investigations include those opened in the context of reviewing an existing countervailing duty or after allegations of breach of an undertaking.

The data are based on actions reported by the signatories to the GATT Committee on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, which exclude the actions taken against nonsignatories.

Table A8.

Group of Five Countries: Imports Affected by Selected Nontariff Measures1

(In percent)

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Sources: Fund staff estimates based on World Bank/UNCTAD Inventory of Trade Barriers; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Costs and Benefits of Protection (Paris, 1985); and Balassa and Balassa (1984).

The nontariff measures (NTMs) included in this table are tariffs with quotas, variable import levies, total prohibitions, quotas, authorizations to control entry, minimum pricing, voluntary export restraints (VERs), and the Multifiber Arrangement (MFA). All ratios are based on 1981 trade data to avoid biases arising from the relative decline of restricted trade. The import coverage ratio is used as an indicator of the extent of NTMs. However, it does not measure the severity of such restrictions, since the measurement does not distinguish between NTMs that are more or less severe. In particular, more restrictive NTMs receive a lower weight than less restrictive ones because the former tend to reduce imports more.

Table A9.

United States: Investigations of Unfair Trade Practices Abroad and Safeguard Petitions, 1980-87

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Sources: Office of the U.S. Trade Representative; U.S. International Trade Commission; U.S. General Accounting Office; and U.S. Department of Commerce.

Under Section 301 of the U.S. Trade Act of 1974.

Under Section 201 of the U.S. Trade Act of 1974.

Excluded from the total to avoid double-counting.

Since the U.S. Trade Act of 1974 came into force, 60 investigations have been initiated under Section 201. Of these, 12 affected imports from any country, including several listed individually above.

Table A10.

Japan: Geographical Composition of Foreign Direct Investment in Manufacturing by Sector, 1981 and 1988

(In percent)

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Sources: Japan, Ministry of Finance; and Japan Economic Institute.

End-March of the year shown.

Mainly Asia and, to a lesser extent, Latin America.

Table A11.

Subsidies as Percent of GDP1,2

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Source; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, National Accounts, Vol. 1, Main Aggregates (Paris), various issues.

Countries listed in order of amount of subsidies as a percentage of GDP in 1985.

The data do not include subsidies such as tax concessions. In Germany total tax concessions to enterprises averaged about 1.8 percent of GDP a year in 1975-85 while in the United States federal tax concessions to industry were about 1.5 percent of GDP a year during 1975-87; similar data are not available for other countries.

Table A12.

Government Research and Development Funding of Manufacturing Industry

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Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Structural Adjustment and Economic Performance (Paris, 1987).

1981.

Aerospace, computers, electronics (including telecommunications), Pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical engineering.

Table A13.

OECD Countries: Subsidy Shares in Officially Supported Export Credits by Destination,1 1979-85

(In percent)

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Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Structural Adjustment and Economic Performance (Paris, 1987).

Subsidies are calculated as the net present value of credits using actual credit terms and estimated market terms. Data pertain to officially supported credits of over three years’ maturity. They do not include the aid component of tied aid credits. Thus, this table gives the subsidy element in officially supported nonaid export credits.

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.

Table A14.

Federal Republic of Germany: Nominal and Effective Protection in Industry

(In percent)

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Source: Witteler (1987).

Includes tariff equivalent of nontariff barriers.

Table A15.

Rates of Growth and Market Shares for World Exports by Areas and Commodity Croups, 1973-86

(In percent)

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Source: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. International Trade(Geneva), various issues.
Table A16.

Selected Developing Countries and Areas: Ratios of Imports and Exports to GDP, 1963-861

(In percent)

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Source: International Monetary Fund, Data Fund.

Some of the ratios shown are distorted by large fluctuations in the real exchange rates of the countries concerned. Calculations based on purchasing power parity would yield different results.

1964.

Average 1962-64.