International Lending, 1980-First Half 1986
(In billions of U.S. dollars; or in percent)
|International lending through banks and bond markets|
|BIS-based (gross) 3||260||294||230||152||187||308||147|
|BIS-based (net of redepositing) 3||179||194||144||131||152||181||101|
|Bond issues (net) 4||19||29||49||46||62||76||46|
|Bank lending1, 2|
|BIS-based (net of redepositing)||160||165||95||85||90||105||55|
|International lending to industrial countries|
|BIS-based (gross) 3||192||221||180||106||147||247||122|
|BIS-based (net) 3||111||121||94||87||113||120||74|
|Bond issues (net) 4||15||22||39||36||51||62||40|
|International lending to developing countries5|
|Bond issues (net) 3, 4||1||2||3||2||3||6||2|
|Total gross bond issues||38||52||76||77||110||166||109|
IMF-based data on cross-border lending by banks are derived from the Fund’s international banking statistics (IBS) (cross-border interbank accounts by residence of borrowing bank plus international bank credits to nonbanks by residence of borrower), excluding changes attributed to exchange rate movements. BIS-based data are derived from quarterly statistics contained in the BIS’s International Banking and Financial Market Developments; the figures shown are adjusted for the effects of exchange rate movements. Differences between the IMF data and the BIS data are mainly accounted for by the different coverages. The BIS data are derived from geographical analyses provided by banks in the BIS reporting area. The IMF data derive cross-border interbank positions from the regular money and banking data supplied by member countries, while the IMF analysis of transactions with nonbanks is based on data from geographical breakdowns provided by the BIS reporting countries and additional banking centers. Neither the IBS nor the BIS series are fully comparable over time because of expansion of coverage.
Total lending includes offshore centers, international organizations, and other nonmembers of the Fund as well as industrial and developing countries.
BIS figures for bond issues are Fund staff estimates based on BIS figures.
Net of redemption and repurchases, and of double counting, i.e., bonds taken up by the reporting banks to the extent that they are included in the banking statistics as claims on nonresidents and bonds issued by the reporting banks mainly for the purpose of underpinning their international lending activity.
Excludes the seven offshore centers (The Bahamas, Bahrain, the Cayman Islands, Hong Kong, the Netherlands Antilles, Panama, and Singapore).