Abstract

8.1 The financial account records transactions that involve financial assets and liabilities and that take place between residents and nonresidents. The financial account indicates the functional categories, sectors, instruments, and maturities used for net international financing transactions. The financial account is classified according to the instrument and functional categories, as discussed in Chapters 5 and 6, respectively. Table 8.1 shows some main headings in the financial account. The left-hand column of Table 8.1 shows the net acquisition of financial assets and the right-hand column shows the net incurrence of liabilities. In the presentation in Table 8.1, assets are shown before liabilities, in accord with the order used in the IIP and general practice. (However, if the double-entry recording for the balance of payments as a whole needs to be emphasized, the liabilities could be shown in the first column. That presentation would be consistent with corresponding entries being on opposite sides of the accounts—e.g., a current account credit usually has an increase in financial assets or reduction in liabilities as its corresponding entry.)

A. Concepts and Coverage

8.1 The financial account records transactions that involve financial assets and liabilities and that take place between residents and nonresidents. The financial account indicates the functional categories, sectors, instruments, and maturities used for net international financing transactions. The financial account is classified according to the instrument and functional categories, as discussed in Chapters 5 and 6, respectively. Table 8.1 shows some main headings in the financial account. The left-hand column of Table 8.1 shows the net acquisition of financial assets and the right-hand column shows the net incurrence of liabilities. In the presentation in Table 8.1, assets are shown before liabilities, in accord with the order used in the IIP and general practice. (However, if the double-entry recording for the balance of payments as a whole needs to be emphasized, the liabilities could be shown in the first column. That presentation would be consistent with corresponding entries being on opposite sides of the accounts—e.g., a current account credit usually has an increase in financial assets or reduction in liabilities as its corresponding entry.)

Table 8.1.

Overview of the Financial Account

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Note: This table is expository; for Standard Components, see Appendix 9.

8.2 Entries in the financial account can be corresponding entries to goods, services, income, capital account, or other financial account entries. For example, the corresponding entry for an export of goods is usually an increase in financial assets, such as currency and deposits or trade credit. Alternatively, a transaction may involve two financial account entries. Sometimes, the financial account transaction involves the exchange of one asset for another, for example, a bond may be exchanged for currency and deposits. In other cases, the transaction may involve the creation of a new financial asset and corresponding liability.

8.3 The overall balance on the financial account is called net lending/net borrowing. Net lending means that, in net terms, the economy supplies funds to the rest of the world, taking into account acquisition and disposal of financial assets and incurrence and repayment of liabilities. (Net borrowing means the opposite.) Despite the lending-oriented terms, net lending/net borrowing is a balance that takes into account equity, financial derivatives, and monetary gold, as well as debt instruments. Also, net lending includes reduction of liabilities and net borrowing includes reduction in assets. Net lending/net borrowing can be derived from either the sum of the balances on the current and capital accounts or from the balance on the financial account. In concept, the values should be equal. For a surplus of credits over debits in the current and capital accounts, there is a balancing net acquisition of financial assets or reduction of liabilities, which is shown in the financial account. Net lending/net borrowing of the international accounts is also equal to the net lending/net borrowing for the sum of the resident sectors of the national accounts.

8.4 It may be of interest to show balances for components of the financial account. For example, analysts may be interested in net flows for each functional category—such as net direct investment derived as net acquisition of direct investment assets less net incurrence of direct investment liabilities.

8.5 The financial account and the other changes in assets and liabilities account show the contribution to changes between the opening and closing stocks of financial assets and liabilities. (This relationship is also shown in Table 7.1.) These linkages of the financial account with the IIP and other changes accounts are made more transparent by the use of consistent classifications.

8.6 As shown in Table 8.1, the financial account shows net acquisition of financial assets and net incurrence of liabilities. Net acquisition of financial assets can be labeled net changes in financial assets, which is wider in that it includes changes resulting from other flows, as well as transactions. Similarly, net incurrence of liabilities can be called net changes in liabilities.

Net recording

8.7 Net recording in the financial account means aggregations whereby all debit entries of a particular asset or a particular liability are netted against all credit entries in the same asset type or in the same liability type. However, changes in financial assets should not be netted against changes in liabilities, with the possible exception for financial derivatives noted in paragraph 8.34 and in the balancing item. To illustrate the correct use of netting, acquisition of portfolio investment in equity is netted against the sales of that type of equity; new bonds issued are netted against redemption of bonds issued; but acquisition of bond assets is not netted against incurrence of bond liabilities. The net recording principle should be applied at the lowest level of classification of financial instruments, taking into account the functional category, institutional sector, maturity, and currency classifications, where applicable. In contrast to the net recording used in the financial account, the current and capital accounts are recorded on a gross basis, as explained in paragraph 3.113.

8.8 Net recording of flows in financial assets and liabilities are recommended in the international accounts for both analytical and pragmatic reasons. Financial markets are typified by large turnover. The focus of the financial account is on the net changes in each of external financial claims and liabilities due to transactions. Also, gross reporting of data may not be possible for certain classes of units and for some financial instruments.

Gross recording on a supplementary basis

8.9 Data on gross flows are useful for analyzing market turnover and market behavior, and for measuring service fees generated. Often, a small net value may be the outcome of large gross flows. Where practical to do so, data on drawings and repayments on loans or acquisitions or disposals of other instruments could be made available to users on a supplementary basis. The data could be provided comprehensively or only for particular components.

Timing and valuation

8.10 General principles for the time of recording for financial account entries are discussed in paragraphs 3.54–3.59. Transactions involving financial assets are recorded when economic ownership changes. Some financial liabilities, such as trade credit and advances, are the result of a transaction in nonfinancial items. In these cases, the financial claim is deemed to arise at the time the corresponding nonfinancial flow occurs.

8.11 In some cases, the parties to a transaction may perceive ownership to change on different dates because they acquire the documents evidencing the transaction at different times. This variation usually is caused by the time taken for delivery of documents and processing of transactions. The amounts involved in such “float” may be substantial in the case of transferable deposits and other accounts receivable or payable. If no precise date can be fixed, the date on which the creditor receives payment or some other financial claim can be adopted as a convention.

8.12 Financial account transactions in general are recorded at market values, as discussed in paragraphs 3.68–3.80. (Market values are defined in paragraph 3.70.)

8.13 The value of financial instruments should be recorded exclusive of any commissions, fees, service charges, regulatory levies, and taxes, whether charged explicitly, included in the purchaser’s price, or deducted from the seller’s proceeds. Commissions and dealers’ margins, as discussed in paragraphs 10.120–10.123, are payable in return for the provision of financial services, so they should be excluded from the instrument price and included in services, where applicable. Therefore, the buyer and seller record financial account transactions, at the same mid-price, that is, the midpoint between the buyer’s price and the seller’s price.

B. Direct Investment

8.14 Direct investment is defined in paragraphs 6.8–6.24. Specific issues in direct investment are discussed in the following paragraphs. Direct investment from direct investor to direct investment enterprise, reverse investment, and between fellow enterprises are identified separately. Presentation of direct investment financial flows according to the directional principle is discussed in paragraphs 6.42–6.45 and Box 6.4.

1. Reinvestment of earnings

8.15 Reinvestment of earnings arising from a direct investor’s equity in its direct investment enterprise is recorded as an imputed financial account entry. It is the corresponding entry and equal to reinvested earnings, which is an item in the primary income account (defined in paragraphs 11.33–11.36; it is the direct investor’s share of the retained earnings or net saving of the direct investment enterprise, before reinvested earnings payable are deemed distributed). The financial account entry is shown separately under direct investment equity.

8.16 Reinvestment of earnings may be negative in some cases, for example, in case of losses by the direct investment enterprise or if dividends payable in a period are larger than net earnings in that period. Just as positive reinvested earnings are treated as being an injection of equity into the direct investment enterprise by the direct investor, negative reinvested earnings is treated as a withdrawal of equity.

2. Direct investment flows in kind

8.17 Goods, services, and other resources may be supplied by or to affiliated enterprises at above or below market prices, or with no payment. For example, a direct investor may supply machinery and equipment to its direct investment enterprise. As discussed in paragraphs 3.77–3.78, 10.35, and 11.101–11.102, when such flows are able to be valued, in principle there is a corresponding entry for direct investment. When goods and services are supplied below cost by a direct investor to a direct investment enterprise, if there is no other indication about the motivation, it can be assumed to be for the purposes of building up the direct investor’s equity in the direct investment enterprise.

3. Mergers and acquisitions

8.18 Mergers arise when two or more companies agree to combine into a single operation. Acquisitions involve the purchase of one company or group of companies by another company or group of companies (though not all the shares may be acquired by the purchaser). Mergers and acquisitions data are not identified as standard components within direct investment. Nonetheless, there may be interest in such data because the nature of mergers and acquisitions may differ from other direct investment—for example, they may not provide any new financing for the firms involved but rather represent a change in investors. See OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment, Annex 9, which discusses the definition and collection of data on merger and acquisition transactions.

4. Corporate inversion and other restructuring

8.19 Corporate inversion describes the corporate restructuring of a transnational enterprise group such that the original parent company in one economy becomes a subsidiary of the new parent in another economy. In addition, ownership of a group of enterprises may be shifted to the new parent company. Such arrangements may be called corporate relocations, headquarters relocations, or corporate restructuring. The process may take place over more than one period. Although corporate inversion has a similar economic effect to a change of residence of the parent company (as discussed in paragraphs 4.167 and 9.21), it differs in that inversion is achieved by transactions in assets between different entities, rather than by a single entity changing its residence. So, corporate inversion results in financial transactions being recorded in the financial account. However, some other types of restructuring may involve other changes in volume, for example, the appearance or disappearance of entities.

8.20 While the economy of the direct investor is changed by corporate inversion, the operational structure and ultimate shareholders remain effectively unchanged, but the new parent company has the benefit of the taxation and regulatory environment of its economy of incorporation. Because inversions can involve large values in the financial account but with little or no movement in resources, there may be analytical interest in separating them from other direct investment. If not prevented by confidentiality, supplementary data could be provided.

8.21 In these cases, the assets of the original parent company are treated as having been returned to the shareholders of the parent company through the withdrawal of equity and then as being reinvested in the new parent company at the same value. That is, there is a rearrangement of balance sheets through transactions in equity in the financial account of equal value with no change in net lending or borrowing. (These entries may include both portfolio and direct investment.) With some forms of restructuring, the direct investment enterprises of the old parent may become the direct investment enterprises of the new one.

8.22 As noted, assets may be shifted from one enterprise to a second enterprise because of restructuring within an enterprise group. As with other stock swaps, the owners are selling securities in the first enterprise and buying securities in the second enterprise. (These are financial account entries, not capital transfers or other changes.)

5. Superdividends

8.23 Superdividends and liquidating dividends are defined in paragraphs 11.28 and 11.30. They are treated as a withdrawal of equity, rather than as income payable to the owners. Accordingly, these amounts are excluded from dividends and are shown as a reduction in equity in the financial account, just as any other withdrawal of equity. They also arise for equity other than direct investment.

6. Borrowing for fiscal purposes

8.24 Special rules apply to an entity owned or controlled by general government when that entity is resident in another territory and is used for fiscal purposes. Such entities are resident in their economy of incorporation or registration, and not in the economy of their owner (as discussed in paragraphs 4.134–4.135). For example, a government may use a special purpose or other entity to issue securities to fund its expenditure. Fiscal purposes refers to the distinctive motivation of the general government sector, as discussed in paragraphs 4.91–4.92. Fiscal purposes can be distinguished from commercial purposes, because fiscal purposes are always oriented to serving the objectives for the government’s home territory.

8.25 When an entity resident in one economy borrows on behalf of the government of another economy, and the borrowing is for fiscal purposes, the following entries are made:

  1. At the time of borrowing: a transaction creating a debt liability of the government to the borrowing entity is imputed equal to the amount of the borrowing. (The corresponding entry is an increase in the government’s equity in the borrowing entity.)

  2. At the time funds (or resources acquired with the funds) are passed to the government (as applicable): the flow of funds is shown as a transaction, matched by a reduction of the government’s equity in the borrowing entity by the same amount.

  3. At the time expenses are incurred or resources or funds are provided by the borrowing entity to a third party (i.e., are not passed to the government), where applicable: a current or capital transfer between the government and the entity is imputed, with the matching entry of a reduction in the value of the government’s equity. (For a wholly owned government entity, this imputation has the same value as the reinvestment of earnings that would have been imputed if the general treatment for direct investment enterprises was applicable.)

These entries are made symmetrically for both the government and the borrowing entity. These entries do not affect the transactions or positions between the borrowing entity and its creditors or other third parties, which are recorded as they occur with no imputations.

8.26 The reason for having a special approach for government entities is that, unlike in the private sector, the nonresident entity undertakes functions at the behest of general government for public policy, not commercial purposes. Without this approach, a misleading picture of government expenditure and debt could arise.

C. Portfolio Investment

8.27 Portfolio investment is defined in paragraphs 6.54–6.57.

1. Reinvestment of earnings in investment funds

8.28 Unlike other portfolio investment, the undistributed earnings of portfolio investment in investment funds are imputed as being payable to the owners and then as being reinvested in the fund. The financial account entry for reinvestment of earnings is the corresponding entry to the reinvested earnings of investment funds in the primary income account item (which is covered in paragraphs 11.37–11.39). The treatment and calculation of earnings are the same as for reinvested earnings of direct investment enterprises. Reinvestment of earnings may be negative, for example, when a fund has paid dividends out of realized holding gains, or when earnings accrued over previous periods are paid as dividends.

2. Convertible bonds

8.29 The classification of convertible bonds is discussed in paragraph 5.45. When the option to convert the bond into shares is implemented, two entries are shown: (a) redemption of the bond and (b) the issue or acquisition of shares.

3. Debt defeasance

8.30 Debt defeasance allows a debtor (whose debts are in the form generally of debt securities and loans) to remove certain liabilities from the balance sheet by pairing irrevocably assets of equal value to the liabilities.

8.31 Defeasance may be carried out (a) by placing the paired assets and liabilities in a trust account within the institutional unit concerned, or (b) by transferring the assets and liabilities to another institutional unit. In the former case, there are no transactions with respect to defeasance, and the assets and liabilities should not be excluded from the balance sheet of the unit. In the latter case, the transactions by which the assets and liabilities are moved to the second statistical unit are recorded in the financial account of the economies concerned, provided the units are resident of different economies, and are reported in the balance sheet of the unit that holds the assets and liabilities. Therefore, debt defeasance sometimes leads to a change in the institutional unit that records those liabilities.

4. Share and debt buybacks

8.32 If a corporation buys its own shares, the transaction is classified as being a reduction in the equity liability, rather than an acquisition of an asset. Because a corporation cannot have a claim on itself, the liability is deemed to be extinguished, even if the shares are not canceled. Similarly, purchase of a debt security by its issuer is treated as redemption of the debt.

5. Bonus shares

8.33 Sometimes corporations restructure their shares and may offer shareholders a number of new shares for each share previously held. This can be called stock splits or the issue of bonus shares. In contrast to when new shares are issued in return for additional funds, in these cases, no new resources are provided and no transaction is recorded.

D. Financial Derivatives (Other Than Reserves) and Employee Stock Options

1. Financial derivatives

8.34 Financial derivatives (other than reserves) and ESOs are defined in paragraphs 6.58–6.60. Transactions involving financial derivatives may arise at inception, on secondary markets, with ongoing servicing (such as for margin payments), and at settlement. Financial account entries for derivatives preferably should be shown separately for each of assets and liabilities, wherever possible, but net settlements are acceptable when gross reporting is impractical. Any explicit or implicit service charges should be deducted from the value of the financial derivative. However, distinguishing implicit service charges is not usually possible, in which case, the entire value of the financial derivative is classified as being for the financial asset.

8.35 At inception:

  1. The creation of a forward-type contract does not generally require the recording of a transaction in a financial derivative because risk exposures of equal value are usually being exchanged. That is, there is usually zero exposure and zero value for both sides. In some cases, however, there may be a nonzero transaction value at issue. (In addition, there may be a service charge for the issue, as mentioned in paragraph 10.121.)

  2. The purchaser of an option pays a premium to the seller, which is the acquisition price of the instrument. Sometimes a premium is paid after the inception of the contract. In that case, the value of the premium is recorded at the inception of the contract in the same manner as if it had been paid then, but is shown as being financed by accounts receivable/payable between the writer and the purchaser.

8.36 Subsequent changes in the prices of derivatives are recorded as holding gains or losses, not as transactions (included as revaluation, see paragraphs 9.30–9.31).

8.37 Sales of options in secondary markets—whether exchanges or over the counter—are valued at market prices and recorded in the financial account as transactions in financial derivatives.

8.38 When a contract requires ongoing servicing (such as an interest rate swap, where each party meets the servicing obligations that were originally held by the other) and a cash payment is received, there is a decrease (increase) in a financial derivative asset (liability) if, at the time of the payment, the contract is in an asset (liability) position. If compilers are unable to implement this approach because of market practice, all cash receipts should be recorded as reductions in financial assets, and all cash payments should be recorded as decreases in liabilities.

8.39 Margins are payments of cash or deposits of collateral that cover actual or potential obligations incurred through financial derivatives—especially futures or exchange traded options. (As discussed in paragraph 5.94, repayable margins in cash are classified as deposits or other accounts receivable/payable, and nonrepayable margins are classified as financial derivatives.)

8.40 At settlement, either a cash payment is made or an underlying item is delivered.

  1. When a financial derivative is settled in cash, a transaction equal to the cash value of the settlement is recorded for the derivative. In most instances, when a cash settlement payment is received, a reduction in a financial derivative asset is recorded. When a cash settlement payment is made, a reduction of a financial derivative liability is recorded.

  2. When an underlying item is delivered, two transactions are recorded:

    • The transaction involving the underlying item is valued at the market price at the time. The entry for the underlying item is recorded under the relevant heading (goods, financial instrument, etc.).

    • The transaction involving the derivative is valued as the difference, multiplied by the quantity, between the market price for the underlying item and the strike price specified in the derivative contract.

  3. When more than one contract is settled—in cash, at the same time, and with the same counterparty—some of the contracts being settled are in asset positions and some are in liability positions. In this situation, transactions involving assets should be recorded separately from those involving liabilities, wherever possible, but net settlements are acceptable when gross reporting is impractical.

2. Employee stock options

8.41 An ESO is created on a given date (the “grant” date), providing that an employee may purchase a given number of shares of the employer’s stock at a stated price (the “strike” price) either at a stated time (the “vesting” date) or within a period of time (the “exercise” period) immediately following the vesting date. Transactions in ESOs are recorded in the financial account as the corresponding entry to the compensation of employees (as discussed in paragraph 11.20) or direct investment (paragraph 11.21). When the option is exercised, the transaction in the ESO is recorded in the financial account at a value that reflects the difference between the market price of the equity and the price paid by the buyer for the equity (see also paragraph 8.40(a) and (b)). Cancellation of ESOs is discussed in paragraph 9.12, while revaluations are discussed in paragraph 9.30. ESOs do not generally raise separate issues to those for financial derivatives, but one special case occurs when an employee of a subsidiary is issued options for stock in the parent company. Because the parent is not the employer, the subsidiary is shown as acquiring the option from the parent. (If the subsidiary pays nothing or an unrealistic value to the parent, a value may be imputed, possibly direct investment, as discussed in paragraph 11.101 on transfer pricing.)

E. Other Investment

1. One-off guarantees and other debt assumption

8.42 Debt assumption means that one party takes on the liability of another party. Debt may be assumed under a preexisting guarantee, or without a guarantee, such as when a government wants to assist a project or a direct investor assumes the liabilities of its direct investment enterprises for reputational reasons. One-off guarantees are defined in paragraph 5.68. One-off guarantees are recognized only as financial assets and liabilities from the time they are activated.

8.43 The assumption of the debt may not require repayment at once. According to the accrual principle for time of recording, the assumption of the debt should be recorded at the time the guarantee is activated, rather than when actual payments are made by the guarantor. Repayments by the new debtor and interest accrued on the assumed debt should be recorded as these flows occur.

8.44 The recording in the international accounts of debt assumption through the activation of a one-off guarantee or for other reasons varies depending on the circumstances, as discussed in paragraph 8.45.

8.45 In all cases, the debt-assuming party records the creation of a new liability to the creditor (financial account entry). In addition:

  1. If the debt-assuming party does not acquire a claim on the (original) debtor because the original debtor no longer exists (e.g., the original debtor has been liquidated), a capital transfer from the debt-assuming party to the creditor is recorded as the corresponding entry to the creation of the liability. The original debt of the debtor to the creditor is written off in the accounts of both the original debtor and the creditor (other changes in financial assets and liabilities account).

  2. If the debt-assuming party does not acquire a claim on the (original) debtor because the debt assumer seeks to give a benefit to the debtor (as is sometimes the case when governments assume debts), then unless the guarantor is in a direct investment relationship with the original debtor (see (c)), a capital transfer from the debt-assuming party to the original debtor is recorded. The claim on the original debtor by the creditor is extinguished (financial account entries).

  3. In other cases, the debt-assuming party acquires a claim on the original debtor as a result of the assumption of the debt (financial account entry). Such a claim may be on the original debtor as a debt1 or as an increase in the guarantor’s equity in the original debtor (e.g., assumption of debt owed by a subsidiary will improve the balance sheet of the subsidiary and, hence, the direct investor’s equity in the subsidiary). In this case, the claim on the original debtor by the creditor is extinguished (financial account entry).

(The entries are shown in Box 8.1.)

2. Insurance technical reserves, pension fund entitlements, and provisions for calls under standardized guarantees

8.46 Insurance, pension fund, and standardized guarantee transactions need to be broken down into their service, income, transfer, and financial account elements. An overview of the statistical treatment of insurance, pension schemes, and standardized guarantees is given in Appendix 6c. Insurance technical reserves sometimes may be classified as direct investment, as discussed in paragraph 6.27. The following paragraphs show the composition of the financial account entries.

8.47 For nonlife insurance, insurance technical reserves consist of prepayments of insurance premiums and outstanding claims. Prepayments of premiums result from the fact that, in general, insurance premiums are paid in advance. Technical reserves against outstanding claims are reserves that insurance enterprises hold to cover the amounts they expect to pay out for claims that have been reported and are not yet resolved and to cover estimates of claims incurred but not yet reported—including equalization reserves that relate to events that have occurred.

8.48 Similarly, for life insurance, pension schemes, annuity funds, and standardized guarantee schemes, the changes in technical reserves due to transactions are recorded in the financial account and consist of the amounts of the estimated obligations to beneficiaries and holders that accrued during the period. Pension entitlements include those under both funded and unfunded schemes, but do not include potential benefits under social security schemes (see paragraph 5.67). The increase in pension entitlements shown in the financial account matches the entry in the use of income accounts for the adjustment for change in pension entitlements plus any change in pension entitlements due to capital transfers.

8.49 Totals for insurance technical reserves, pension fund entitlements, and provisions for calls under standardized guarantees and related investment income usually can be identified only in the accounts of insurers, funds, and guarantee providers, rather than in the accounts of their customers. For liabilities, these totals relate to resident providers and need to be allocated among resident and nonresident policyholders. In the absence of specific data on the allocation of these values to policyholders, an indicator such as premiums payable may be used. For assets, the reserves, entitlements, and provisions are liabilities of nonresidents and are not observable by residents, so counterpart data or indicators such as ratios of premiums to technical reserves may be necessary. Changes in technical reserves resulting from holding gains or losses are not transactions and therefore are recorded in the revaluation account and not in the financial account.

Entries Associated with Different Types of Debt Assumption

(Showing different situations, recording party, entry, and counterparty)

If debt-assuming party does not acquire a claim on the (original) debtor because the original debtor no longer exists (paragraph 8.45(a)):

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If debt-assuming party does not acquire a claim on the (original) debtor because the debt assumer seeks to give a benefit to the debtor (paragraph 8.45(b)):

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If debt-assuming party acquires a claim on the original debtor (paragraph 8.45(c)):

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In cases in paragraphs 8.45(b) and (c), three parties are involved in the transaction, so the treatment differs from the standard double-entry system.

3. Special drawing rights

8.50 The allocation of SDRs to IMF members is shown as the incurrence of a liability of the recipient under SDRs in other investment, with a corresponding entry under SDRs in reserve assets.

8.51 Other acquisitions and sales of SDRs are shown as transactions in reserve assets.

4. Securities repurchase agreements and other reverse transactions

8.52 These arrangements are defined in paragraphs 7.58–7.61. Because the risks and rewards of ownership stay largely with the original owner, no transaction in the security is recorded. If one party provides cash that is repayable when the security is returned, however, the provision of cash is classified as a loan (except when it is a liability of a deposit-taking corporation and part of broad money, in which case it is classified as other deposits).

5. Currency

8.53 Transactions in issued banknotes and coin are recorded under currency and deposits. Transactions by residents with nonresidents using domestically issued banknotes and coin are recorded as transactions in liabilities, and transactions by residents with nonresidents using foreign-issued banknotes and coin are transactions in assets. As noted in paragraphs 3.7–3.8, transactions in domestic liabilities between nonresidents and transactions in foreign assets between residents are not recorded in the balance of payments.

6. Change of contractual terms

8.54 If the original terms of a debt (typically a loan or debt security, but also other debt items) are changed by renegotiation by the parties, then the treatment is that the original liability is repaid and a new liability is created. In contrast, if the original terms of the contract provide that the maturity or interest rate terms or both change as a result of an event such as a default or decline in credit rating, then this involves a reclassification. (This distinction has an effect on net values in practice in cases in which the original and new terms have a different principal, different instrument classification, or different maturity classification; otherwise, the entries cancel out.)

F. Reserve Assets

8.55 Transactions involving monetary gold are recorded in the financial account only if they occur between two monetary authorities for reserve purposes or between a monetary authority and an international financial organization. (Monetary gold is discussed in paragraphs 5.74–5.78; and gold in the context of reserve assets is discussed in paragraphs 6.78–6.83.)

8.56 All transactions in gold bullion other than those included in monetary gold are recorded as non-monetary gold in the goods and services account (discussed in paragraphs 10.50–10.54). When a monetary authority acquires gold bullion from, or sells gold bullion to, an institutional unit other than a monetary authority or international financial organization, the gold is monetized or demonetized, as discussed in paragraphs 9.18–9.20.

8.57 Financial account transactions with the IMF involve reserve assets, reserve-related liabilities, other investment, and off-balance-sheet liabilities. They are dealt with in detail in Annex 7.1.

G. Arrears

8.58 The accumulation of arrears related to exceptional financing (when it occurs) needs to be included as a memorandum item to the financial account. Exceptional financing is defined and discussed in Appendix 1. Incurring arrears does not involve a transaction, because it is a unilateral act of one party. Therefore, it is not shown as giving rise to entries in the standard presentation of the financial account. However, if the debt is renegotiated, then the original instrument is extinguished and a new instrument is created.

8.59 In addition to arrears related to exceptional financing, other arrears indicate potential, or actual, problems servicing debt, and so may be shown as supplementary items.

References:

2008 SNA, Chapter 11, The Financial Account.

1

If the value of the debt claim received by the debt assumer is less than the value of the debt liability assumed, as in (b) a capital transfer for the difference is recorded, unless the parties are in a direct investment relationship (see also paragraph A2.52).