## A. Problem of Seasonal Products

**23.1** The existence of seasonal products poses some significant challenges for price statisticians. *Seasonal commodities* are products that are either (1) not available in the marketplace during certain seasons of the year or (2) available throughout the year but there are regular fluctuations in prices or quantities that are synchronized with the season or the time of the year.^{1} A commodity that satisfies (1) is termed a *strongly seasonal commodity*, whereas a commodity that satisfies (2) is called a *weakly seasonal commodity*. Strongly seasonal products create the biggest problems for price statisticians in the context of producing monthly or quarterly export and import price indices (XMPIs). If a product price is available in only one of the two months (or quarters) being compared, then it is not possible to calculate a relative price for the product, and traditional bilateral index number theory breaks down. In other words, if a product is present in one month but not the next, how can the month-to-month amount of price change for that product be computed?^{2} In this chapter, a solution to this problem is presented that works even if the products produced are entirely different for each month of the year.^{3}

**23.2** There are two main sources of seasonal fluctuations in prices and quantities: (1) climate and (2) custom.^{4} In the first category, fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, and hours of daylight cause fluctuations in the demand or supply for many products; for example, think of summer versus winter clothing, the demand for light and heat, vacations, and so on. With respect to custom and convention as a cause of seasonal fluctuations, consider the following quotation:

Conventional seasons have many origins—ancient religious observances, folk customs, fashions, business practices, statute law.... Many of the conventional seasons have considerable effects on economic behaviour. We can count on active retail buying before Christmas, on the Thanksgiving demand for turkeys, on the first of July demand for fireworks, on the preparations for June weddings, on heavy dividend and interest payments at the beginning of each quarter, on an increase in bankruptcies in January, and so on. (Mitchell, 1927, p. 237)

**23.3** Examples of important seasonal products are the following: many food items; alcoholic beverages; many clothing and footwear items; water, heating oil, and electricity; flowers and garden supplies; vehicle purchases, vehicle operation; many entertainment and recreation expenditures; books; insurance expenditures; wedding expenditures; recreational equipment; toys and games; software; air travel; and tourism purchases. For a typical country, seasonal purchases will often amount to one-fifth to one-third of all consumer purchases.^{5}

**23.4** In the context of producing monthly or quarterly XMPIs, it must be recognized that there is no completely satisfactory way of dealing with strongly seasonal products. If a product is present in one month but missing in the next month, then none of the index number theories that were considered in Chapters 16 through 21 can be applied because all of these theories assumed that the dimensionality of the product space was constant for the two periods being compared. However, if seasonal products are present in the market during each season, then, in theory, traditional index number theory can be applied in order to construct month-to-month or quarter-to-quarter price indices. This traditional approach to the treatment of seasonal products is followed in Sections H, I, and J of this chapter. The reason why this straightforward approach is deferred to the end of the chapter is twofold:

The approach that restricts the index to products that are present in every period often does not work well in the sense that systematic

*biases*can occur; andThe approach is not fully

*representative;*that is, it does not make use of information on products that are not present in every month or quarter.

**23.5** In Section B, a modified version of Turvey’s (1979) artificial data set is introduced. This data set is used to numerically evaluate all of the index number formula that are suggested in this chapter. It will be seen in Section G that large seasonal fluctuations in volumes combined with systematic seasonal changes in price can make month-to-month or quarter-to-quarter price indices behave rather poorly.

**23.6** Even though existing index number theory cannot deal satisfactorily with seasonal products in the context of constructing month-to-month indices of consumer and producer prices, it can deal satisfactorily with seasonal products if the focus is changed from month-to-month XMPIs to XMPIs that compare the prices of one month with the prices of the *same* month in a previous year. Thus, in Section C, *year-over-year monthly XMPIs* are studied. Turvey’s seasonal data set is used to evaluate the performance of these indices, and they are found to perform quite well.

**23.7** In Section D, the year-over-year monthly indices defined in Section C are aggregated into an *annual index* that compares all of the monthly prices in a given calendar year with the corresponding monthly prices in a base year. In Section E, this idea of comparing the prices of a current calendar year with the corresponding prices in a base year is extended to annual indices that compare the prices of the last 12 months with the corresponding prices in the 12 months of a base year. The resulting *rolling-year indices* can be regarded as seasonally adjusted price indices. The modified Turvey data set is used to test out these year-over-year indices and they are found to work very well on this data set.

**23.8** The rolling-year indices can provide an accurate gauge of the movement of prices in the current rolling year compared to the base year. However, this measure of price inflation can be regarded as a measure of inflation for a year that is centered around a month that is six months prior to the last month in the current rolling year. As a result, for some policy purposes, this type of index is not as useful as an index that compares the prices of the current month to the previous month, so that more up-to-date information on the movement of prices can be obtained. However, in Section F, it is shown that under certain conditions, the current-month year-over-year monthly index, along with last month’s year-over-year monthly index, can successfully *predict* or *forecast* a rolling-year index that is centered around the current month.

**23.9** The year-over-year indices defined in Section C and their annual averages studied in Sections D and E offer a theoretically satisfactory method for dealing with *strongly seasonal products*, that is, products that are available only during certain seasons of the year. However, these methods rely on the year-over-year comparison of prices; therefore, these methods cannot be used in the month-to-month or quarter-to-quarter type of index, which is typically the main focus of a consumer and a producer price program. Thus, there is a need for another type of index, one that may not have strong theoretical foundations but can deal with seasonal products in the context of producing a *month-to-month index*. In Section G, such an index is introduced, and it is implemented using the artificial data set for the products that are available during each month of the year. Unfortunately, owing to the seasonality in both prices and quantities in the always available products, this type of index can be systematically biased. This bias is apparent in the modified Turvey data set.

**23.10** Because many XMPIs are month-to-month indices that use *annual basket quantity weights*, this type of index is studied in Section H. For months when the product is not available in the marketplace, the last available price is carried forward and used in the index. In Section I, an annual quantity basket is again used but instead of carrying forward the prices of seasonally unavailable items, an imputation method is used to fill in the missing prices. The annual basket-type indices defined in Sections H and I are implemented using the artificial data set. Unfortunately, the empirical results are not satisfactory because the indices show tremendous seasonal fluctuations in prices. This volatility makes them unsuitable for users who want up-to-date information on *trends* in general inflation.

**23.11** In Section J, the artificial data set is used in order to evaluate another type of month-to-month index that is frequently suggested in the literature on how to deal with seasonal products: namely the *Bean and Stine* (1924) *Type C* or *Rothwell* (1958) index. Again, this index does not get rid of the tremendous seasonal fluctuations that are present in the modified Turvey data set.

**23.12** Sections H and I showed that the annual basket-type indices with carryforward of missing prices (Section H) or imputation of missing prices (Section I) do not get rid of seasonal fluctuations in prices. However, in Section K, it is shown how seasonally adjusted versions of these annual basket indices can be used to successfully *forecast* rolling-year indices that are centered in the current month. In addition, the results in Section K show how these annual basket-type indices can be seasonally adjusted (using information obtained from rolling-year indices from prior periods or by using traditional seasonal adjustment procedures). Hence, these seasonally adjusted annual basket indices could be used as successful indicators of general inflation on a timely basis.

**23.13** Section L concludes with several suggestions for dealing with seasonal products.

## B. A Seasonal Product Data Set

**23.14** It will be useful to illustrate the index number formulas that are defined in subsequent sections by computing them for an actual data set. Turvey (1979) constructed an artificial data set for five seasonal products (apples, peaches, grapes, strawberries, and oranges) for four years by month, so that there are 5 times 4 times 12 observations, equal to 240 observations in all. At certain times of the year, peaches and strawberries (products 2 and 4) are unavailable, so in Tables 23.1 and 23.2, the prices and quantities for these products are entered as zeros.^{6} The data in Tables 23.1 and 23.2 are essentially equal to that constructed by Turvey except that a number of adjustments were made in order to illustrate various points. The two most important adjustments were as follows:

**Artificial Seasonal Data Set: Prices**

**Artificial Seasonal Data Set: Prices**

Year t | Month m | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1970 | 1 | 1.14 | 0 | 2.48 | 0 | 1.30 |

2 | 1.17 | 0 | 2.75 | 0 | 1.25 | |

3 | 1.17 | 0 | 5.07 | 0 | 1.21 | |

4 | 1.40 | 0 | 5.00 | 0 | 1.22 | |

5 | 1.64 | 0 | 4.98 | 5.13 | 1.28 | |

6 | 1.75 | 3.15 | 4.78 | 3.48 | 1.33 | |

7 | 1.83 | 2.53 | 3.48 | 3.27 | 1.45 | |

8 | 1.92 | 1.76 | 2.01 | 0 | 1.54 | |

9 | 1.38 | 1.73 | 1.42 | 0 | 1.57 | |

10 | 1.10 | 1.94 | 1.39 | 0 | 1.61 | |

11 | 1.09 | 0 | 1.75 | 0 | 1.59 | |

12 | 1.10 | 0 | 2.02 | 0 | 1.41 | |

1971 | 1 | 1.25 | 0 | 2.15 | 0 | 1.45 |

2 | 1.36 | 0 | 2.55 | 0 | 1.36 | |

3 | 1.38 | 0 | 4.22 | 0 | 1.37 | |

4 | 1.57 | 0 | 4.36 | 0 | 1.44 | |

5 | 1.77 | 0 | 4.18 | 5.68 | 1.51 | |

6 | 1.86 | 3.77 | 4.08 | 3.72 | 1.56 | |

7 | 1.94 | 2.85 | 2.61 | 3.78 | 1.66 | |

8 | 2.02 | 1.98 | 1.79 | 0 | 1.74 | |

9 | 1.55 | 1.80 | 1.28 | 0 | 1.76 | |

10 | 1.34 | 1.95 | 1.26 | 0 | 1.77 | |

11 | 1.33 | 0 | 1.62 | 0 | 1.76 | |

12 | 1.30 | 0 | 1.81 | 0 | 1.50 | |

1972 | 1 | 1.43 | 0 | 1.89 | 0 | 1.56 |

2 | 1.53 | 0 | 2.38 | 0 | 1.53 | |

3 | 1.59 | 0 | 3.59 | 0 | 1.55 | |

4 | 1.73 | 0 | 3.90 | 0 | 1.62 | |

5 | 1.89 | 0 | 3.56 | 6.21 | 1.70 | |

6 | 1.98 | 4.69 | 3.51 | 3.98 | 1.78 | |

7 | 2.07 | 3.32 | 2.73 | 4.30 | 1.89 | |

8 | 2.12 | 2.29 | 1.65 | 0 | 1.91 | |

9 | 1.73 | 1.90 | 1.15 | 0 | 1.92 | |

10 | 1.56 | 1.97 | 1.15 | 0 | 1.95 | |

11 | 1.56 | 0 | 1.46 | 0 | 1.94 | |

12 | 1.49 | 0 | 1.73 | 0 | 1.64 | |

1973 | 1 | 1.68 | 0 | 1.62 | 0 | 1.69 |

2 | 1.82 | 0 | 2.16 | 0 | 1.69 | |

3 | 1.89 | 0 | 3.02 | 0 | 1.74 | |

4 | 2.00 | 0 | 3.45 | 0 | 1.91 | |

5 | 2.14 | 0 | 3.08 | 7.17 | 2.03 | |

6 | 2.23 | 6.40 | 3.07 | 4.53 | 2.13 | |

7 | 2.35 | 4.31 | 2.41 | 5.19 | 2.22 | |

8 | 2.40 | 2.98 | 1.49 | 0 | 2.26 | |

9 | 2.09 | 2.21 | 1.08 | 0 | 2.22 | |

10 | 2.03 | 2.18 | 1.08 | 0 | 2.31 | |

11 | 2.05 | 0 | 1.36 | 0 | 2.34 | |

12 | 1.90 | 0 | 1.57 | 0 | 1.97 |

**Artificial Seasonal Data Set: Prices**

Year t | Month m | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1970 | 1 | 1.14 | 0 | 2.48 | 0 | 1.30 |

2 | 1.17 | 0 | 2.75 | 0 | 1.25 | |

3 | 1.17 | 0 | 5.07 | 0 | 1.21 | |

4 | 1.40 | 0 | 5.00 | 0 | 1.22 | |

5 | 1.64 | 0 | 4.98 | 5.13 | 1.28 | |

6 | 1.75 | 3.15 | 4.78 | 3.48 | 1.33 | |

7 | 1.83 | 2.53 | 3.48 | 3.27 | 1.45 | |

8 | 1.92 | 1.76 | 2.01 | 0 | 1.54 | |

9 | 1.38 | 1.73 | 1.42 | 0 | 1.57 | |

10 | 1.10 | 1.94 | 1.39 | 0 | 1.61 | |

11 | 1.09 | 0 | 1.75 | 0 | 1.59 | |

12 | 1.10 | 0 | 2.02 | 0 | 1.41 | |

1971 | 1 | 1.25 | 0 | 2.15 | 0 | 1.45 |

2 | 1.36 | 0 | 2.55 | 0 | 1.36 | |

3 | 1.38 | 0 | 4.22 | 0 | 1.37 | |

4 | 1.57 | 0 | 4.36 | 0 | 1.44 | |

5 | 1.77 | 0 | 4.18 | 5.68 | 1.51 | |

6 | 1.86 | 3.77 | 4.08 | 3.72 | 1.56 | |

7 | 1.94 | 2.85 | 2.61 | 3.78 | 1.66 | |

8 | 2.02 | 1.98 | 1.79 | 0 | 1.74 | |

9 | 1.55 | 1.80 | 1.28 | 0 | 1.76 | |

10 | 1.34 | 1.95 | 1.26 | 0 | 1.77 | |

11 | 1.33 | 0 | 1.62 | 0 | 1.76 | |

12 | 1.30 | 0 | 1.81 | 0 | 1.50 | |

1972 | 1 | 1.43 | 0 | 1.89 | 0 | 1.56 |

2 | 1.53 | 0 | 2.38 | 0 | 1.53 | |

3 | 1.59 | 0 | 3.59 | 0 | 1.55 | |

4 | 1.73 | 0 | 3.90 | 0 | 1.62 | |

5 | 1.89 | 0 | 3.56 | 6.21 | 1.70 | |

6 | 1.98 | 4.69 | 3.51 | 3.98 | 1.78 | |

7 | 2.07 | 3.32 | 2.73 | 4.30 | 1.89 | |

8 | 2.12 | 2.29 | 1.65 | 0 | 1.91 | |

9 | 1.73 | 1.90 | 1.15 | 0 | 1.92 | |

10 | 1.56 | 1.97 | 1.15 | 0 | 1.95 | |

11 | 1.56 | 0 | 1.46 | 0 | 1.94 | |

12 | 1.49 | 0 | 1.73 | 0 | 1.64 | |

1973 | 1 | 1.68 | 0 | 1.62 | 0 | 1.69 |

2 | 1.82 | 0 | 2.16 | 0 | 1.69 | |

3 | 1.89 | 0 | 3.02 | 0 | 1.74 | |

4 | 2.00 | 0 | 3.45 | 0 | 1.91 | |

5 | 2.14 | 0 | 3.08 | 7.17 | 2.03 | |

6 | 2.23 | 6.40 | 3.07 | 4.53 | 2.13 | |

7 | 2.35 | 4.31 | 2.41 | 5.19 | 2.22 | |

8 | 2.40 | 2.98 | 1.49 | 0 | 2.26 | |

9 | 2.09 | 2.21 | 1.08 | 0 | 2.22 | |

10 | 2.03 | 2.18 | 1.08 | 0 | 2.31 | |

11 | 2.05 | 0 | 1.36 | 0 | 2.34 | |

12 | 1.90 | 0 | 1.57 | 0 | 1.97 |

**Artificial Seasonal Data Set: Quantities**

**Artificial Seasonal Data Set: Quantities**

Year t | Month m | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1970 | 1 | 3,086 | 0 | 82 | 0 | 10,266 |

2 | 3,765 | 0 | 35 | 0 | 9,656 | |

3 | 4,363 | 0 | 9 | 0 | 7,940 | |

4 | 4,842 | 0 | 8 | 0 | 5,110 | |

5 | 4,439 | 0 | 26 | 700 | 4,089 | |

6 | 5,323 | 91 | 75 | 2,709 | 3,362 | |

7 | 4,165 | 498 | 82 | 1,970 | 3,396 | |

8 | 3,224 | 6,504 | 1,490 | 0 | 2,406 | |

9 | 4,025 | 4,923 | 2,937 | 0 | 2,486 | |

10 | 5,784 | 865 | 2,826 | 0 | 3,222 | |

11 | 6,949 | 0 | 1,290 | 0 | 6,958 | |

12 | 3,924 | 0 | 338 | 0 | 9,762 | |

1971 | 1 | 3,415 | 0 | 119 | 0 | 10,888 |

2 | 4,127 | 0 | 45 | 0 | 10,314 | |

3 | 4,771 | 0 | 14 | 0 | 8,797 | |

4 | 5,290 | 0 | 11 | 0 | 5,590 | |

5 | 4,986 | 0 | 74 | 806 | 4,377 | |

6 | 5,869 | 98 | 112 | 3,166 | 3,681 | |

7 | 4,671 | 548 | 132 | 2,153 | 3,748 | |

8 | 3,534 | 6,964 | 2,216 | 0 | 2,649 | |

9 | 4,509 | 5,370 | 4,229 | 0 | 2,726 | |

10 | 6,299 | 932 | 4,178 | 0 | 3,477 | |

11 | 7,753 | 0 | 1,831 | 0 | 8,548 | |

12 | 4,285 | 0 | 496 | 0 | 10,727 | |

1972 | 1 | 3,742 | 0 | 172 | 0 | 11,569 |

2 | 4,518 | 0 | 67 | 0 | 10,993 | |

3 | 5,134 | 0 | 22 | 0 | 9,621 | |

4 | 5,738 | 0 | 16 | 0 | 6,063 | |

5 | 5,498 | 0 | 137 | 931 | 4,625 | |

6 | 6,420 | 104 | 171 | 3,642 | 3,970 | |

7 | 5,157 | 604 | 202 | 2,533 | 4,078 | |

8 | 3,881 | 7,378 | 3,269 | 0 | 2,883 | |

9 | 4,917 | 5,839 | 6,111 | 0 | 2,957 | |

10 | 6,872 | 1,006 | 5,964 | 0 | 3,759 | |

11 | 8,490 | 0 | 2,824 | 0 | 8,238 | |

12 | 5,211 | 0 | 731 | 0 | 11,827 | |

1973 | 1 | 4,051 | 0 | 250 | 0 | 12,206 |

2 | 4,909 | 0 | 102 | 0 | 11,698 | |

3 | 5,567 | 0 | 30 | 0 | 10,438 | |

4 | 6,253 | 0 | 25 | 0 | 6,593 | |

5 | 6,101 | 0 | 220 | 1,033 | 4,926 | |

6 | 7,023 | 111 | 252 | 4,085 | 4,307 | |

7 | 5,671 | 653 | 266 | 2,877 | 4,418 | |

8 | 4,187 | 7,856 | 4,813 | 0 | 3,165 | |

9 | 5,446 | 6,291 | 8,803 | 0 | 3,211 | |

10 | 7,377 | 1,073 | 8,778 | 0 | 4,007 | |

11 | 9,283 | 0 | 4,517 | 0 | 8,833 | |

12 | 4,955 | 0 | 1,073 | 0 | 12,558 |

**Artificial Seasonal Data Set: Quantities**

Year t | Month m | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1970 | 1 | 3,086 | 0 | 82 | 0 | 10,266 |

2 | 3,765 | 0 | 35 | 0 | 9,656 | |

3 | 4,363 | 0 | 9 | 0 | 7,940 | |

4 | 4,842 | 0 | 8 | 0 | 5,110 | |

5 | 4,439 | 0 | 26 | 700 | 4,089 | |

6 | 5,323 | 91 | 75 | 2,709 | 3,362 | |

7 | 4,165 | 498 | 82 | 1,970 | 3,396 | |

8 | 3,224 | 6,504 | 1,490 | 0 | 2,406 | |

9 | 4,025 | 4,923 | 2,937 | 0 | 2,486 | |

10 | 5,784 | 865 | 2,826 | 0 | 3,222 | |

11 | 6,949 | 0 | 1,290 | 0 | 6,958 | |

12 | 3,924 | 0 | 338 | 0 | 9,762 | |

1971 | 1 | 3,415 | 0 | 119 | 0 | 10,888 |

2 | 4,127 | 0 | 45 | 0 | 10,314 | |

3 | 4,771 | 0 | 14 | 0 | 8,797 | |

4 | 5,290 | 0 | 11 | 0 | 5,590 | |

5 | 4,986 | 0 | 74 | 806 | 4,377 | |

6 | 5,869 | 98 | 112 | 3,166 | 3,681 | |

7 | 4,671 | 548 | 132 | 2,153 | 3,748 | |

8 | 3,534 | 6,964 | 2,216 | 0 | 2,649 | |

9 | 4,509 | 5,370 | 4,229 | 0 | 2,726 | |

10 | 6,299 | 932 | 4,178 | 0 | 3,477 | |

11 | 7,753 | 0 | 1,831 | 0 | 8,548 | |

12 | 4,285 | 0 | 496 | 0 | 10,727 | |

1972 | 1 | 3,742 | 0 | 172 | 0 | 11,569 |

2 | 4,518 | 0 | 67 | 0 | 10,993 | |

3 | 5,134 | 0 | 22 | 0 | 9,621 | |

4 | 5,738 | 0 | 16 | 0 | 6,063 | |

5 | 5,498 | 0 | 137 | 931 | 4,625 | |

6 | 6,420 | 104 | 171 | 3,642 | 3,970 | |

7 | 5,157 | 604 | 202 | 2,533 | 4,078 | |

8 | 3,881 | 7,378 | 3,269 | 0 | 2,883 | |

9 | 4,917 | 5,839 | 6,111 | 0 | 2,957 | |

10 | 6,872 | 1,006 | 5,964 | 0 | 3,759 | |

11 | 8,490 | 0 | 2,824 | 0 | 8,238 | |

12 | 5,211 | 0 | 731 | 0 | 11,827 | |

1973 | 1 | 4,051 | 0 | 250 | 0 | 12,206 |

2 | 4,909 | 0 | 102 | 0 | 11,698 | |

3 | 5,567 | 0 | 30 | 0 | 10,438 | |

4 | 6,253 | 0 | 25 | 0 | 6,593 | |

5 | 6,101 | 0 | 220 | 1,033 | 4,926 | |

6 | 7,023 | 111 | 252 | 4,085 | 4,307 | |

7 | 5,671 | 653 | 266 | 2,877 | 4,418 | |

8 | 4,187 | 7,856 | 4,813 | 0 | 3,165 | |

9 | 5,446 | 6,291 | 8,803 | 0 | 3,211 | |

10 | 7,377 | 1,073 | 8,778 | 0 | 4,007 | |

11 | 9,283 | 0 | 4,517 | 0 | 8,833 | |

12 | 4,955 | 0 | 1,073 | 0 | 12,558 |

The data for product 3 (grapes) were adjusted, so that the annual Laspeyres and Paasche indices (which are defined in Section D below) would differ more than in the original data set;

^{7}andAfter the aforementioned adjustments were made, each price in the last year of data was escalated by the monthly inflation factor 1.008, so that month-to-month inflation for the last year of data would be at an approximate monthly rate of 1.6 percent per month, compared with about 0.8 percent per month for the first three years of data.

^{8}

**23.15** Turvey sent his artificial data set to statistical agencies around the world, asking them to use their normal techniques to construct monthly and annual average price indices. About 20 countries replied; Turvey summarized the responses as follows:

It will be seen that the monthly indices display very large differences, for example, a range of 129.12–169.50 in June, while the range of simple annual means is much smaller. It will also be seen that the indices vary as to the peak month or year. (Turvey, 1979, p. 13)

The (modified) data below are used to test out various index number formulas in subsequent sections.

## C. Year-over-Year Monthly Indices

**23.16** It can be seen that the existence of seasonal products that are present in the marketplace in one month but absent the next causes the accuracy of a month-to-month index to fall.^{9} A way of dealing with these strongly seasonal products is to change the focus from short-term month-to-month price indices to year-over-year price comparisons for each month of the year. In the latter type of comparison, there is a good chance that seasonal products that appear in February, for example, will also appear in subsequent Februarys, so that the overlap of products will be maximized in these year-over-year monthly indices.

**23.17** For more than a century, it has been recognized that making year-over-year comparisons^{10} provides the simplest method for making comparisons that are free from the contaminating effects of seasonal fluctuations:

In the daily market reports, and other statistical publications, we continually find comparisons between numbers referring to the week, month, or other parts of the year, and those for the corresponding parts of a previous year. The comparison is given in this way in order to avoid any variation due to the time of the year. And it is obvious to everyone that this precaution is necessary. Every branch of industry and commerce must be affected more or less by the revolution of the seasons, and we must allow for what is due to this cause before we can learn what is due to other causes. (Jevons, 1863 reprinted 1884, p. 3)

**23.18** The economist Flux and the statistician Yule also endorsed the idea of making year-over-year comparisons to minimize the effects of seasonal fluctuations:

Each month the average price change compared with the corresponding month of the previous year is to be computed.... The determination of the proper seasonal variations of weights, especially in view of the liability of seasons to vary from year to year, is a task from which, I imagine, most of us would be tempted to recoil. (Flux, 1921, pp. 184–85)

My own inclination would be to form the index number for any month by taking ratios to the corresponding month of the year being used for reference, the year before presumably, as this would avoid any difficulties with seasonal commodities. I should then form the annual average by the geometric mean of the monthly figures. (Yule, 1921, p. 199)

In more recent times, Zarnowitz also endorsed the use of year-over-year monthly indices:

There is of course no difficulty in measuring the average price change between the same months of successive years, if a month is our unit “season”, and if a constant seasonal market basket can be used, for traditional methods of price index construction can be applied in such comparisons. (Zarnowitz, 1961, p. 266)

**23.19** In the remainder of this section, it is shown how year-over-year Fisher indices and approximations to them can be constructed.^{11} For each month *m* = 1, 2, … , 12, let *S*(*m*) denote the set of products that are available for purchase in each year *t* = 0, 1, … , *T*. For *t* = 0, 1, … , *T* and *m* = 1, 2, … , 12, let *n* that is available in month *m* of year *t* for *n* belongs to *S*(*m*). Let *p*^{t, m} and *q*^{t, m} denote the month *m* and year *t* price and quantity vectors, respectively. Then *the year-over-year monthly Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices* going from month *m* of year *t* to month *m* of year *t* + 1 can be defined as follows:

**23.20** The above formulas can be rewritten in price relative and monthly value share form as follows:

where the monthly value share for product n ∊ S(m) for month *m* in year *t* is defined as

and *s ^{t, m}* denotes the vector of month

*m*value shares in year

*t*,

*n*∊

*S(m)*.

**23.21** Current-period value shares

**23.22** Use the base-period monthly value share vectors *s ^{0, m}* in place of the vector of month

*m*and year value shares

*s*in equation (23.4) and use the base-period monthly value share vectors

^{t, m}*s*in place of the vector of month

^{0, m}*m*and year

*t*+ 1 value shares

*s*in equation (23.5). Similarly, replace the share vectors

^{t+1, m}*s*and

^{t, m}*s*in equation (23.6) with the base-period value share vector for month

^{t+1, m}*m, s*. The resulting

^{0, m}*approximate year-over-year monthly Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices*are defined by equations (23.8) through (23.10):

^{12}

**23.23** The approximate Fisher year-over-year monthly indices defined by equation (23.10) will provide adequate approximations to their true Fisher counterparts defined by equation (23.6) only if the monthly value shares for the base year 0 are not too different from their current-year *t* and *t* + 1 counterparts. Thus, it will be useful to construct the true Fisher indices on a delayed basis in order to check the adequacy of the approximate Fisher indices defined by equation (23.10).

**23.24** The year-over-year monthly approximate Fisher indices defined by equation (23.10) will normally have a certain amount of upward bias, because these indices cannot reflect long-term substitution toward products that are becoming relatively cheaper over time. This reinforces the case for computing true year-over-year monthly Fisher indices defined by equation (23.6) on a delayed basis, so that this substitution bias can be estimated.

**23.25** Note that the approximate year-over-year monthly Laspeyres and Paasche indices, *P _{AL}* and

*P*, defined by equations (23.8) and (23.9), satisfy the following inequalities:

_{AP}with strict inequalities if the monthly price vectors *p ^{t, m}* and

*p*are not proportional to each other.

^{t+1, m}^{13}Equation (23.11) says that the approximate year-over-year monthly Laspeyres index

*fails the time reversal test*with an upward bias while equation (23.12) says that the approximate year-over-year monthly Paasche index

*fails the time reversal test*with a downward bias. As a result, the fixed-weights approximate Laspeyres index

*P*has a built-in upward bias whereas the fixed-weights approximate Paasche index

_{AL}*P*has a built-in downward bias.

_{AP}*Statistical agencies should avoid the use of these formulas*. However, they can be combined, as in the approximate Fisher formula in equation (23.10). The resulting index should be free from any systematic formula bias, although some substitution bias could still exist.

**23.26** The year-over-year monthly indices defined in this section are illustrated using the artificial data set tabled in Section B. Although fixed-base indices were not formally defined in this section, these indices have formulas similar to those of the year-over-year indices that were defined, with the exception that the variable-base year *t* is replaced by the fixed-base year 0. The resulting 12 year-over-year monthly fixed-base Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices are listed in Tables 23.3 to 23.5.

**Year-over-Year Monthly Fixed-Base Laspeyres Indices**

**Year-over-Year Monthly Fixed-Base Laspeyres Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1085 | 1.1068 | 1.1476 | 1.1488 | 1.1159 | 1.0844 | 1.1103 | 1.0783 | 1.0492 | 1.0901 | 1.1284 | 1.0849 |

1972 | 1.2060 | 1.2442 | 1.3062 | 1.2783 | 1.2184 | 1.1734 | 1.2364 | 1.1827 | 1.1049 | 1.1809 | 1.2550 | 1.1960 |

1973 | 1.3281 | 1.4028 | 1.4968 | 1.4917 | 1.4105 | 1.3461 | 1.4559 | 1.4290 | 1.2636 | 1.4060 | 1.5449 | 1.4505 |

**Year-over-Year Monthly Fixed-Base Laspeyres Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1085 | 1.1068 | 1.1476 | 1.1488 | 1.1159 | 1.0844 | 1.1103 | 1.0783 | 1.0492 | 1.0901 | 1.1284 | 1.0849 |

1972 | 1.2060 | 1.2442 | 1.3062 | 1.2783 | 1.2184 | 1.1734 | 1.2364 | 1.1827 | 1.1049 | 1.1809 | 1.2550 | 1.1960 |

1973 | 1.3281 | 1.4028 | 1.4968 | 1.4917 | 1.4105 | 1.3461 | 1.4559 | 1.4290 | 1.2636 | 1.4060 | 1.5449 | 1.4505 |

**Year-over-Year Monthly Fixed-Base Paasche Indices**

**Year-over-Year Monthly Fixed-Base Paasche Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1074 | 1.1070 | 1.1471 | 1.1486 | 1.1115 | 1.0827 | 1.1075 | 1.0699 | 1.0414 | 1.0762 | 1.1218 | 1.0824 |

1972 | 1.2023 | 1.2436 | 1.3038 | 1.2773 | 1.2024 | 1.1657 | 1.2307 | 1.1455 | 1.0695 | 1.1274 | 1.2218 | 1.1901 |

1973 | 1.3190 | 1.4009 | 1.4912 | 1.4882 | 1.3715 | 1.3266 | 1.4433 | 1.3122 | 1.1664 | 1.2496 | 1.4296 | 1.4152 |

**Year-over-Year Monthly Fixed-Base Paasche Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1074 | 1.1070 | 1.1471 | 1.1486 | 1.1115 | 1.0827 | 1.1075 | 1.0699 | 1.0414 | 1.0762 | 1.1218 | 1.0824 |

1972 | 1.2023 | 1.2436 | 1.3038 | 1.2773 | 1.2024 | 1.1657 | 1.2307 | 1.1455 | 1.0695 | 1.1274 | 1.2218 | 1.1901 |

1973 | 1.3190 | 1.4009 | 1.4912 | 1.4882 | 1.3715 | 1.3266 | 1.4433 | 1.3122 | 1.1664 | 1.2496 | 1.4296 | 1.4152 |

**Year-over-Year Monthly Fixed-Base Fisher Indices**

**Year-over-Year Monthly Fixed-Base Fisher Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1080 | 1.1069 | 1.1474 | 1.1487 | 1.1137 | 1.0835 | 1.1089 | 1.0741 | 1.0453 | 1.0831 | 1.1251 | 1.0837 |

1972 | 1.2041 | 1.2439 | 1.3050 | 1.2778 | 1.2104 | 1.1695 | 1.2336 | 1.1640 | 1.0870 | 1.1538 | 1.2383 | 1.1930 |

1973 | 1.3235 | 1.4019 | 1.4940 | 1.4900 | 1.3909 | 1.3363 | 1.4496 | 1.3694 | 1.2140 | 1.3255 | 1.4861 | 1.4327 |

**Year-over-Year Monthly Fixed-Base Fisher Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1080 | 1.1069 | 1.1474 | 1.1487 | 1.1137 | 1.0835 | 1.1089 | 1.0741 | 1.0453 | 1.0831 | 1.1251 | 1.0837 |

1972 | 1.2041 | 1.2439 | 1.3050 | 1.2778 | 1.2104 | 1.1695 | 1.2336 | 1.1640 | 1.0870 | 1.1538 | 1.2383 | 1.1930 |

1973 | 1.3235 | 1.4019 | 1.4940 | 1.4900 | 1.3909 | 1.3363 | 1.4496 | 1.3694 | 1.2140 | 1.3255 | 1.4861 | 1.4327 |

**23.27** Comparing the entries in Tables 23.3 and 23.4, one can see that the year-over-year monthly fixed-base Laspeyres and Paasche price indices do not differ substantially for the early months of the year. However, there are substantial differences between the indices for the last five months of the year by the time the year 1973 is reached. The largest percentage difference between the Laspeyres and Paasche indices is 12.5 percent for month 10 in 1973 (1.4060/1.2496 = 1.125). However, all of the year-over-year monthly series show a nice smooth year-over-year trend.

**23.28** Approximate fixed-base year-over-year Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices can be constructed by replacing current-month revenue shares for the five products with the corresponding base-year monthly revenue shares for the same five products. The resulting approximate Laspeyres indices are equal to the original fixed-base Laspeyres, so there is no need to table the approximate Laspeyres indices. However, the approximate year-over-year Paasche and Fisher indices do differ from the fixed-base Paasche and Fisher indices found in Tables 23.4 and 23.5, so these new approximate indices are listed in Tables 23.6 and 23.7.

**Year-over-Year Approximate Monthly Fixed-Base Paasche Indices**

**Year-over-Year Approximate Monthly Fixed-Base Paasche Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1077 | 1.1057 | 1.1468 | 1.1478 | 1.1135 | 1.0818 | 1.1062 | 1.0721 | 1.0426 | 1.0760 | 1.1209 | 1.0813 |

1972 | 1.2025 | 1.2421 | 1.3036 | 1.2757 | 1.2110 | 1.1640 | 1.2267 | 1.1567 | 1.0788 | 1.1309 | 1.2244 | 1.1862 |

1973 | 1.3165 | 1.3947 | 1.4880 | 1.4858 | 1.3926 | 1.3223 | 1.4297 | 1.3315 | 1.1920 | 1.2604 | 1.4461 | 1.4184 |

**Year-over-Year Approximate Monthly Fixed-Base Paasche Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1077 | 1.1057 | 1.1468 | 1.1478 | 1.1135 | 1.0818 | 1.1062 | 1.0721 | 1.0426 | 1.0760 | 1.1209 | 1.0813 |

1972 | 1.2025 | 1.2421 | 1.3036 | 1.2757 | 1.2110 | 1.1640 | 1.2267 | 1.1567 | 1.0788 | 1.1309 | 1.2244 | 1.1862 |

1973 | 1.3165 | 1.3947 | 1.4880 | 1.4858 | 1.3926 | 1.3223 | 1.4297 | 1.3315 | 1.1920 | 1.2604 | 1.4461 | 1.4184 |

**Year-over-Year Approximate Monthly Fixed-Base Fisher Indices**

**Year-over-Year Approximate Monthly Fixed-Base Fisher Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1081 | 1.1063 | 1.1472 | 1.1483 | 1.1147 | 1.0831 | 1.1082 | 1.0752 | 1.0459 | 1.0830 | 1.1247 | 1.0831 |

1972 | 1.2043 | 1.2432 | 1.3049 | 1.2770 | 1.2147 | 1.1687 | 1.2316 | 1.1696 | 1.0918 | 1.1557 | 1.2396 | 1.1911 |

1973 | 1.3223 | 1.3987 | 1.4924 | 1.4888 | 1.4015 | 1.3341 | 1.4428 | 1.3794 | 1.2273 | 1.3312 | 1.4947 | 1.4344 |

**Year-over-Year Approximate Monthly Fixed-Base Fisher Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1081 | 1.1063 | 1.1472 | 1.1483 | 1.1147 | 1.0831 | 1.1082 | 1.0752 | 1.0459 | 1.0830 | 1.1247 | 1.0831 |

1972 | 1.2043 | 1.2432 | 1.3049 | 1.2770 | 1.2147 | 1.1687 | 1.2316 | 1.1696 | 1.0918 | 1.1557 | 1.2396 | 1.1911 |

1973 | 1.3223 | 1.3987 | 1.4924 | 1.4888 | 1.4015 | 1.3341 | 1.4428 | 1.3794 | 1.2273 | 1.3312 | 1.4947 | 1.4344 |

**23.29** Comparing the entries in Table 23.4 with the corresponding entries in Table 23.6, it can be seen that with few exceptions, the entries correspond fairly well. One of the bigger differences is the 1973 entry for the fixed-base Paasche index for month 9, which is 1.1664, while the corresponding entry for the approximate fixed-base Paasche index is 1.1920 for a 2.2 percent difference (1.1920/1.1664 = 1.022). In general, the approximate fixed-base Paasche indices are a bit bigger than the true fixed-base Paasche indices, as one might expect because the approximate indices have some substitution bias built in. This is due to the fact that their revenue shares are held fixed at the 1970 levels.

**23.30** Turning now to the chained year-over-year monthly indices using the artificial data set, the resultant 12 year-over-year monthly chained Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices, *P _{L}, P_{P}*, and

*P*, where the month-to-month links are defined by equations (23.4) through (23.6), are listed in Tables 23.8 to 23.10.

_{F}**Year-over-Year Monthly Chained Laspeyres Indices**

**Year-over-Year Monthly Chained Laspeyres Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1085 | 1.1068 | 1.1476 | 1.1488 | 1.1159 | 1.0844 | 1.1103 | 1.0783 | 1.0492 | 1.0901 | 1.1284 | 1.0849 |

1972 | 1.2058 | 1.2440 | 1.3058 | 1.2782 | 1.2154 | 1.1720 | 1.2357 | 1.1753 | 1.0975 | 1.1690 | 1.2491 | 1.1943 |

1973 | 1.3274 | 1.4030 | 1.4951 | 1.4911 | 1.4002 | 1.3410 | 1.4522 | 1.3927 | 1.2347 | 1.3593 | 1.5177 | 1.4432 |

**Year-over-Year Monthly Chained Laspeyres Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1085 | 1.1068 | 1.1476 | 1.1488 | 1.1159 | 1.0844 | 1.1103 | 1.0783 | 1.0492 | 1.0901 | 1.1284 | 1.0849 |

1972 | 1.2058 | 1.2440 | 1.3058 | 1.2782 | 1.2154 | 1.1720 | 1.2357 | 1.1753 | 1.0975 | 1.1690 | 1.2491 | 1.1943 |

1973 | 1.3274 | 1.4030 | 1.4951 | 1.4911 | 1.4002 | 1.3410 | 1.4522 | 1.3927 | 1.2347 | 1.3593 | 1.5177 | 1.4432 |

**Year-over-Year Monthly Chained Paasche Indices**

**Year-over-Year Monthly Chained Paasche Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1074 | 1.1070 | 1.1471 | 1.1486 | 1.1115 | 1.0827 | 1.1075 | 1.0699 | 1.0414 | 1.0762 | 1.1218 | 1.0824 |

1972 | 1.2039 | 1.2437 | 1.3047 | 1.2777 | 1.2074 | 1.1682 | 1.2328 | 1.1569 | 1.0798 | 1.1421 | 1.2321 | 1.1908 |

1973 | 1.3243 | 1.4024 | 1.4934 | 1.4901 | 1.3872 | 1.3346 | 1.4478 | 1.3531 | 1.2018 | 1.3059 | 1.4781 | 1.4305 |

**Year-over-Year Monthly Chained Paasche Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1074 | 1.1070 | 1.1471 | 1.1486 | 1.1115 | 1.0827 | 1.1075 | 1.0699 | 1.0414 | 1.0762 | 1.1218 | 1.0824 |

1972 | 1.2039 | 1.2437 | 1.3047 | 1.2777 | 1.2074 | 1.1682 | 1.2328 | 1.1569 | 1.0798 | 1.1421 | 1.2321 | 1.1908 |

1973 | 1.3243 | 1.4024 | 1.4934 | 1.4901 | 1.3872 | 1.3346 | 1.4478 | 1.3531 | 1.2018 | 1.3059 | 1.4781 | 1.4305 |

**Year-over-Year Monthly Chained Fisher Indices**

**Year-over-Year Monthly Chained Fisher Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1080 | 1.1069 | 1.1474 | 1.1487 | 1.1137 | 1.0835 | 1.1089 | 1.0741 | 1.0453 | 1.0831 | 1.1251 | 1.0837 |

1972 | 1.2048 | 1.2438 | 1.3052 | 1.2780 | 1.2114 | 1.1701 | 1.2343 | 1.1660 | 1.0886 | 1.1555 | 1.2405 | 1.1926 |

1973 | 1.3258 | 1.4027 | 1.4942 | 1.4906 | 1.3937 | 1.3378 | 1.4500 | 1.3728 | 1.2181 | 1.3323 | 1.4978 | 1.4368 |

**Year-over-Year Monthly Chained Fisher Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1080 | 1.1069 | 1.1474 | 1.1487 | 1.1137 | 1.0835 | 1.1089 | 1.0741 | 1.0453 | 1.0831 | 1.1251 | 1.0837 |

1972 | 1.2048 | 1.2438 | 1.3052 | 1.2780 | 1.2114 | 1.1701 | 1.2343 | 1.1660 | 1.0886 | 1.1555 | 1.2405 | 1.1926 |

1973 | 1.3258 | 1.4027 | 1.4942 | 1.4906 | 1.3937 | 1.3378 | 1.4500 | 1.3728 | 1.2181 | 1.3323 | 1.4978 | 1.4368 |

**23.31** Comparing the entries in Tables 23.8 and 23.9, it can be seen that the year-over-year monthly chained Laspeyres and Paasche price indices have smaller differences than the corresponding fixed-base Laspeyres and Paasche price indices in Tables 23.3 and 23.4. This is a typical pattern that was found in Chapter 20: *The use of chained indices tends to reduce the spread between Paasche and Laspeyres indices compared to their fixed-base counterparts*. The largest percentage difference between corresponding entries for the chained Laspeyres and Paasche indices in Tables 23.8 and 23.9 is 4.1 percent for month 10 in 1973 (1.3593/1.3059 = 1.041). Recall that the fixed-base Laspeyres and Paasche indices differed by 12.5 percent for the same month so that *chaining does tend to reduce the spread between these two equally plausible indices*.

**23.32** The chained year-over-year Fisher indices listed in Table 23.10 are regarded as the best estimates of year-over-year inflation using the artificial data set.

**23.33** The year-over-year chained Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices listed in Tables 23.8 to 23.10 can be approximated by replacing current-period product revenue shares for each month with the corresponding base-year monthly revenue shares. The resultant 12 year-over-year monthly approximate chained Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices *(P _{AL}, P_{AP}*, and

*P*, where the monthly links are defined by equations (23.8) through (23.10), are listed in Tables 23.11 through 23.13.

_{AF})**Year-over-Year Monthly Approximate Chained Laspeyres Indices**

**Year-over-Year Monthly Approximate Chained Laspeyres Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1085 | 1.1068 | 1.1476 | 1.1488 | 1.1159 | 1.0844 | 1.1103 | 1.0783 | 1.0492 | 1.0901 | 1.1284 | 1.0849 |

1972 | 1.2056 | 1.2440 | 1.3057 | 1.2778 | 1.2168 | 1.1712 | 1.2346 | 1.1770 | 1.0989 | 1.1692 | 1.2482 | 1.1939 |

1973 | 1.3255 | 1.4007 | 1.4945 | 1.4902 | 1.4054 | 1.3390 | 1.4491 | 1.4021 | 1.2429 | 1.3611 | 1.5173 | 1.4417 |

**Year-over-Year Monthly Approximate Chained Laspeyres Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1085 | 1.1068 | 1.1476 | 1.1488 | 1.1159 | 1.0844 | 1.1103 | 1.0783 | 1.0492 | 1.0901 | 1.1284 | 1.0849 |

1972 | 1.2056 | 1.2440 | 1.3057 | 1.2778 | 1.2168 | 1.1712 | 1.2346 | 1.1770 | 1.0989 | 1.1692 | 1.2482 | 1.1939 |

1973 | 1.3255 | 1.4007 | 1.4945 | 1.4902 | 1.4054 | 1.3390 | 1.4491 | 1.4021 | 1.2429 | 1.3611 | 1.5173 | 1.4417 |

**23.34** The year-over-year chained indices listed in Tables 23.11 through 23.13 approximate their true chained counterparts listed in Tables 23.8 through 23.10 closely. For 1973, the largest discrepancies are for the Paasche and Fisher indices for month 9: The chained Paasche is 1.2018, while the corresponding approximate chained Paasche is 1.2183, for a difference of 1.4 percent. The chained Fisher is 1.2181, while the corresponding approximate chained Fisher is 1.2305, for a difference of 1.0 percent. It can be seen that for the modified Turvey data set, the approximate year-over-year monthly Fisher indices listed in Table 23.13 approximate the theoretically preferred (but practically unfeasible) Fisher chained indices listed in Table 23.10 quite satisfactorily. Because the approximate Fisher indices are just as easy to compute as the approximate Laspeyres and Paasche indices, it may be useful to ask statistical agencies to make available to the public these approximate Fisher indices, along with the approximate Laspeyres and Paasche indices.

**Year-over-Year Monthly Approximate Chained Paasche Indices**

**Year-over-Year Monthly Approximate Chained Paasche Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1077 | 1.1057 | 1.1468 | 1.1478 | 1.1135 | 1.0818 | 1.1062 | 1.0721 | 1.0426 | 1.0760 | 1.1209 | 1.0813 |

1972 | 1.2033 | 1.2424 | 1.3043 | 1.2764 | 1.2130 | 1.1664 | 1.2287 | 1.1638 | 1.0858 | 1.1438 | 1.2328 | 1.1886 |

1973 | 1.3206 | 1.3971 | 1.4914 | 1.4880 | 1.3993 | 1.3309 | 1.4386 | 1.3674 | 1.2183 | 1.3111 | 1.4839 | 1.4300 |

**Year-over-Year Monthly Approximate Chained Paasche Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1077 | 1.1057 | 1.1468 | 1.1478 | 1.1135 | 1.0818 | 1.1062 | 1.0721 | 1.0426 | 1.0760 | 1.1209 | 1.0813 |

1972 | 1.2033 | 1.2424 | 1.3043 | 1.2764 | 1.2130 | 1.1664 | 1.2287 | 1.1638 | 1.0858 | 1.1438 | 1.2328 | 1.1886 |

1973 | 1.3206 | 1.3971 | 1.4914 | 1.4880 | 1.3993 | 1.3309 | 1.4386 | 1.3674 | 1.2183 | 1.3111 | 1.4839 | 1.4300 |

**Year-over-Year Monthly Approximate Chained Fisher Indices**

**Year-over-Year Monthly Approximate Chained Fisher Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1081 | 1.1063 | 1.1472 | 1.1483 | 1.1147 | 1.0831 | 1.1082 | 1.0752 | 1.0459 | 1.0830 | 1.1247 | 1.0831 |

1972 | 1.2044 | 1.2432 | 1.3050 | 1.2771 | 1.2149 | 1.1688 | 1.2317 | 1.1704 | 1.0923 | 1.1565 | 1.2405 | 1.1912 |

1973 | 1.3231 | 1.3989 | 1.4929 | 1.4891 | 1.4024 | 1.3349 | 1.4438 | 1.3847 | 1.2305 | 1.3358 | 1.5005 | 1.4358 |

**Year-over-Year Monthly Approximate Chained Fisher Indices**

Month | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | |

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1081 | 1.1063 | 1.1472 | 1.1483 | 1.1147 | 1.0831 | 1.1082 | 1.0752 | 1.0459 | 1.0830 | 1.1247 | 1.0831 |

1972 | 1.2044 | 1.2432 | 1.3050 | 1.2771 | 1.2149 | 1.1688 | 1.2317 | 1.1704 | 1.0923 | 1.1565 | 1.2405 | 1.1912 |

1973 | 1.3231 | 1.3989 | 1.4929 | 1.4891 | 1.4024 | 1.3349 | 1.4438 | 1.3847 | 1.2305 | 1.3358 | 1.5005 | 1.4358 |

## D. Year-over-Year Annual Indices

**23.35** Assuming that each product in each season of the year is a separate annual product is the simplest and theoretically most satisfactory method for dealing with seasonal products when the goal is to construct annual price and quantity indices. This idea can be traced back to Mudgett in the consumer price context and to Stone in the producer price context:

The basic index is a yearly index and as a price or quantity index is of the same sort as those about which books and pamphlets have been written in quantity over the years. (Mudgett, 1955, p. 97)

The existence of a regular seasonal pattern in prices which more or less repeats itself year after year suggests very strongly that the varieties of a commodity available at different seasons cannot be transformed into one another without cost and that, accordingly, in all cases where seasonal variations in price are significant, the varieties available at different times of the year should be treated, in principle, as separate commodities. (Stone, 1956, p. 74–75)

**23.36** Using the notation introduced in the previous section, the *Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher annual (chain link) indices* comparing the prices of year *t* with those of year *t* + 1 can be defined as follows:

**23.37** The above formulas can be rewritten in price relative and monthly value share form as follows:

where *the value share* for month *m* in year *t* is defined as

and the year-over-year monthly Laspeyres and Paasche (chain link) price indices *P*_{L}(*p*^{t, m}, *p*^{t+1,m}, *s*^{t, m}) and *P*_{P}(*p*^{t, m}, *p*^{t+1,m}, *s*^{t+1,m}) were defined in the previous section by equations (23.4) and (23.5), respectively. As usual, the annual chain link Fisher index *P*_{F} defined by equation (23.18), which compares the prices in every month of year *t* with the corresponding prices in year *t* + 1, is the geometric mean of the annual chain link Laspeyres and Paasche indices, *P*_{L} and *P*_{P}, defined by equations (23.16) and (23.17). The last equation in equations (23.16), (23.17), and (23.18) shows that these annual indices can be defined as (monthly) share-weighted averages of the year-over-year monthly chain link Laspeyres and Paasche indices, *P*_{L}(*p*^{t, m}, *p*^{t+1,m}, *s*^{t, m}) and *P*_{P}(*p*^{t, m}, *p*^{t+1,m}, *s*^{t+1,m}), defined earlier by equations (23.4) and (23.5). Hence, once the year-over-year monthly indices defined in the previous section have been numerically calculated, it is easy to calculate the corresponding annual indices.

**23.38** Fixed-base counterparts to the formulas defined by equations (23.16) through (23.18) can readily be defined: Simply replace the data pertaining to period *t* with the corresponding data pertaining to the base period 0.

**23.39** Using the data from the artificial data set in Table 23.1 of Section B, the annual fixed-base Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices are listed in Table 23.14. Table 23.14 shows that by 1973, the annual fixed-base Laspeyres index exceeds its Paasche counterpart by 4.5 percent. Note that each series increases steadily.

**Annual Fixed-Base Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

**Annual Fixed-Base Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

Year | P_{L} | P_{P} | P_{F} |
---|---|---|---|

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1008 | 1.0961 | 1.0984 |

1972 | 1.2091 | 1.1884 | 1.1987 |

1973 | 1.4144 | 1.3536 | 1.3837 |

**Annual Fixed-Base Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

Year | P_{L} | P_{P} | P_{F} |
---|---|---|---|

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1008 | 1.0961 | 1.0984 |

1972 | 1.2091 | 1.1884 | 1.1987 |

1973 | 1.4144 | 1.3536 | 1.3837 |

**23.40** The annual fixed-base Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices can be approximated by replacing any current shares with the corresponding base-year shares. The resulting annual approximate fixed-base Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices are listed in Table 23.15. Also listed in the last column of Table 23.15 is the fixed-base geometric Laspeyres annual index, *P*_{GL}. It is the weighted geometric mean counterpart to the fixed-base Laspeyres index, which is equal to a base-period weighted arithmetic average of the long-term price relative (see Chapter 20). It can be shown that *P*_{GL} approximates the approximate fixed-base Fisher index *P*_{AF} to the second order around a point where all of the long-term price relatives are equal to unity.^{14} It is evident that the entries for the Laspeyres price indices are exactly the same in Tables 23.14 and 23.15. This is as it should be because the fixed-base Laspeyres price index uses only revenue shares from the base year 1970; consequently, the approximate fixed-base Laspeyres index is equal to the true fixed-base Laspeyres index. Comparing the columns labeled *P*_{P} and *P*_{F} in Table 23.14 and *P*_{AP} and *P*_{AF} in Table 23.15 shows that the approximate Paasche and approximate Fisher indices are quite close to the corresponding annual Paasche and Fisher indices. Thus, for the artificial data set, *the true annual fixed-base Fisher can be closely approximated by the corresponding approximate Fisher index* P_{AF} *(or the geometric Laspeyres index* P_{GL}*), which can be computed using the same information set that is normally available to statistical agencies*.

**Annual Approximate Fixed-Base Laspeyres, Paasche, Fisher, and Geometric Laspeyres Indices**

**Annual Approximate Fixed-Base Laspeyres, Paasche, Fisher, and Geometric Laspeyres Indices**

Year | P_{AL} | P_{AP} | P_{AF} | P_{GL} |
---|---|---|---|---|

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1008 | 1.0956 | 1.0982 | 1.0983 |

1972 | 1.2091 | 1.1903 | 1.1996 | 1.2003 |

1973 | 1.4144 | 1.3596 | 1.3867 | 1.3898 |

**Annual Approximate Fixed-Base Laspeyres, Paasche, Fisher, and Geometric Laspeyres Indices**

Year | P_{AL} | P_{AP} | P_{AF} | P_{GL} |
---|---|---|---|---|

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1008 | 1.0956 | 1.0982 | 1.0983 |

1972 | 1.2091 | 1.1903 | 1.1996 | 1.2003 |

1973 | 1.4144 | 1.3596 | 1.3867 | 1.3898 |

**23.41** Using the data from the artificial data set in Table 23.1 of Section B, the annual chained Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices can readily be calculated using the equations (23.16) through (23.18) for the chain links. The resulting indices are listed in Table 23.16. That table shows that the use of chained indices has substantially narrowed the gap between the Paasche and Laspeyres indices. The difference between the chained annual Laspeyres and Paasche indices in 1973 is only 1.5 percent (1.3994 versus 1.3791), whereas in Table 23.14, the difference between the fixed-base annual Laspeyres and Paasche indices in 1973 is 4.5 percent (1.4144 versus 1.3536). *Thus, the use of chained annual indices has substantially reduced the substitution (or repre-sentativity) bias of the Laspeyres and Paasche indices*. Comparing Tables 23.14 and 23.16, one can see that for this particular artificial data set, the annual fixed-base Fisher indices are very close to their annual chained Fisher counterparts. However, the annual chained Fisher indices should normally be regarded as the more desirable target index to approximate, because this index will normally give better results if prices and revenue shares are changing substantially over time.^{15}

**Annual Chained Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

**Annual Chained Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

Year | P_{L} | P_{P} | P_{F} |
---|---|---|---|

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1008 | 1.0961 | 1.0984 |

1972 | 1.2052 | 1.1949 | 1.2001 |

1973 | 1.3994 | 1.3791 | 1.3892 |

**Annual Chained Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

Year | P_{L} | P_{P} | P_{F} |
---|---|---|---|

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1008 | 1.0961 | 1.0984 |

1972 | 1.2052 | 1.1949 | 1.2001 |

1973 | 1.3994 | 1.3791 | 1.3892 |

**23.42** The current-year weights,

**Annual Approximate Chained Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

**Annual Approximate Chained Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

Year | P_{AL} | P_{AP} | P_{AF} |
---|---|---|---|

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1008 | 1.0956 | 1.0982 |

1972 | 1.2051 | 1.1952 | 1.2002 |

1973 | 1.3995 | 1.3794 | 1.3894 |

**Annual Approximate Chained Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

Year | P_{AL} | P_{AP} | P_{AF} |
---|---|---|---|

1970 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1.1008 | 1.0956 | 1.0982 |

1972 | 1.2051 | 1.1952 | 1.2002 |

1973 | 1.3995 | 1.3794 | 1.3894 |

**23.43** Comparing the entries in Tables 23.16 and 23.17 shows that the approximate chained annual Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices are extremely close to the corresponding true chained annual Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices. Therefore, for the artificial data set, the true annual chained Fisher can be closely approximated by the corresponding approximate Fisher index, which can be computed using the same information set that is normally available to statistical agencies.

**23.44** The approach to computing annual indices outlined in this section, which essentially involves taking monthly expenditure share-weighted averages of the 12 year-over-year monthly indices, should be contrasted with the approach that simply takes the arithmetic mean of the 12 monthly indices. The problem with the latter approach is that months in which revenues are below the average (e.g., February) are given the same weight in the unweighted annual average as are months in which revenues are above the average (e.g., December).

## E. Rolling-Year Annual Indices

**23.45** In the previous section, the price and quantity data pertaining to the 12 months of a calendar year were compared to the 12 months of a base calendar year. However, there is no need to restrict attention to calendar-year comparisons; any 12 consecutive months of price and quantity data could be compared to the price and quantity data of the base year, provided that the January data in the noncalendar year are compared to the January data of the base year, the February data of the noncalendar year are compared to the February data of the base year, and so on.^{16} Alterman, Diewert, and Feenstra (1999, p. 70) called the resulting indices *rolling-year* or *moving-year* indices.^{17}

**23.46** In order to theoretically justify the rolling-year indices from the viewpoint of the economic approach to index number theory, some restrictions on preferences are required. The details of these assumptions can be found in Diewert (1996b, pp. 32–34; and 1999a, pp. 56–61).

**23.47** The problems involved in constructing rolling-year indices for the artificial data set that was introduced in Section B are now considered. For both fixed-base and chained rolling-year indices, the first 13 index number calculations are the same. For the year that ends with the data for December 1970, the index is set equal to 1 for the Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher moving-year indices. The base-year data are the 44 nonzero price and quantity observations for the calendar year 1970. When the data for January 1971 become available, the three nonzero price and quantity entries for January of calendar year 1970 are dropped and replaced with the corresponding entries for January 1971. The data for the remaining months of the comparison year remain the same; that is, for February through December of the comparison year, the data for the rolling year are set equal to the corresponding entries for February through December 1970. Thus, the Laspeyres, Paasche, or Fisher rolling-year index value for January 1971 compares the prices and quantities of January 1971 with the corresponding prices and quantities of January 1970, and for the remaining months of this first moving year, the prices and quantities of February through December 1970 are simply compared with the exact same prices and quantities of February through December 1970. When the data for February 1971 become available, the three nonzero price and quantity entries for February for the last rolling year (which are equal to the three nonzero price and quantity entries for February 1970) are dropped and replaced with the corresponding entries for February 1971. The resulting data become the price and quantity data for the second rolling year. The Laspeyres, Paasche, or Fisher rolling-year index value for February 1971 compares the prices and quantities of January and February 1971 with the corresponding prices and quantities of January and February 1970. For the remaining months of this first moving year, the prices and quantities of March through December 1971 are compared with the exact same prices and quantities of March through December 1970. This process of exchanging the price and quantity data of the current month in 1971 with the corresponding data of the same month in the base year 1970 in order to form the price and quantity data for the latest rolling year continues until December 1971 is reached, when the current rolling year becomes the calendar year 1971. Thus, the Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher rolling-year indices for December 1971 are equal to the corresponding fixed-base (or chained) annual Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices for 1971 listed in Tables 23.14 or 23.16 above.

**23.48** Once the first 13 entries for the rolling-year indices have been defined as indicated, the remaining fixed-base rolling-year Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices are constructed by taking the price and quantity data of the last 12 months and rearranging them so that the January data in the rolling year are compared to the January data in the base year, the February data in the rolling year are compared to the February data in the base year, and so on. The resulting fixed-base rolling-year Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices for the artificial data set are listed in Table 23.18.

**Rolling-Year Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

**Rolling-Year Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

Year | Month | P_{L} (fixed) | P_{P} (fixed) | P_{F} (fixed) | P_{L} (chained) | P_{P} (chained) | P_{F} (chained) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1970 | 12 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1 | 1.0082 | 1.0087 | 1.0085 | 1.0082 | 1.0087 | 1.0085 |

2 | 1.0161 | 1.0170 | 1.0165 | 1.0161 | 1.0170 | 1.0165 | |

3 | 1.0257 | 1.0274 | 1.0265 | 1.0257 | 1.0274 | 1.0265 | |

4 | 1.0344 | 1.0364 | 1.0354 | 1.0344 | 1.0364 | 1.0354 | |

5 | 1.0427 | 1.0448 | 1.0438 | 1.0427 | 1.0448 | 1.0438 | |

6 | 1.0516 | 1.0537 | 1.0527 | 1.0516 | 1.0537 | 1.0527 | |

7 | 1.0617 | 1.0635 | 1.0626 | 1.0617 | 1.0635 | 1.0626 | |

8 | 1.0701 | 1.0706 | 1.0704 | 1.0701 | 1.0706 | 1.0704 | |

9 | 1.0750 | 1.0740 | 1.0745 | 1.0750 | 1.0740 | 1.0745 | |

10 | 1.0818 | 1.0792 | 1.0805 | 1.0818 | 1.0792 | 1.0805 | |

11 | 1.0937 | 1.0901 | 1.0919 | 1.0937 | 1.0901 | 1.0919 | |

12 | 1.1008 | 1.0961 | 1.0984 | 1.1008 | 1.0961 | 1.0984 | |

1972 | 1 | 1.1082 | 1.1035 | 1.1058 | 1.1081 | 1.1040 | 1.1061 |

2 | 1.1183 | 1.1137 | 1.1160 | 1.1183 | 1.1147 | 1.1165 | |

3 | 1.1287 | 1.1246 | 1.1266 | 1.1290 | 1.1260 | 1.1275 | |

4 | 1.1362 | 1.1324 | 1.1343 | 1.1366 | 1.1342 | 1.1354 | |

5 | 1.1436 | 1.1393 | 1.1414 | 1.1437 | 1.1415 | 1.1426 | |

6 | 1.1530 | 1.1481 | 1.1505 | 1.1528 | 1.1505 | 1.1517 | |

7 | 1.1645 | 1.1595 | 1.1620 | 1.1644 | 1.1622 | 1.1633 | |

8 | 1.1757 | 1.1670 | 1.1713 | 1.1747 | 1.1709 | 1.1728 | |

9 | 1.1812 | 1.1680 | 1.1746 | 1.1787 | 1.1730 | 1.1758 | |

10 | 1.1881 | 1.1712 | 1.1796 | 1.1845 | 1.1771 | 1.1808 | |

11 | 1.1999 | 1.1805 | 1.1901 | 1.1962 | 1.1869 | 1.1915 | |

12 | 1.2091 | 1.1884 | 1.1987 | 1.2052 | 1.1949 | 1.2001 | |

1973 | 1 | 1.2184 | 1.1971 | 1.2077 | 1.2143 | 1.2047 | 1.2095 |

2 | 1.2300 | 1.2086 | 1.2193 | 1.2263 | 1.2172 | 1.2218 | |

3 | 1.2425 | 1.2216 | 1.2320 | 1.2393 | 1.2310 | 1.2352 | |

4 | 1.2549 | 1.2341 | 1.2444 | 1.2520 | 1.2442 | 1.2481 | |

5 | 1.2687 | 1.2469 | 1.2578 | 1.2656 | 1.2579 | 1.2617 | |

6 | 1.2870 | 1.2643 | 1.2756 | 1.2835 | 1.2758 | 1.2797 | |

7 | 1.3070 | 1.2843 | 1.2956 | 1.3038 | 1.2961 | 1.3000 | |

8 | 1.3336 | 1.3020 | 1.3177 | 1.3273 | 1.3169 | 1.3221 | |

9 | 1.3492 | 1.3089 | 1.3289 | 1.3395 | 1.3268 | 1.3331 | |

10 | 1.3663 | 1.3172 | 1.3415 | 1.3537 | 1.3384 | 1.3460 | |

11 | 1.3932 | 1.3366 | 1.3646 | 1.3793 | 1.3609 | 1.3700 | |

12 | 1.4144 | 1.3536 | 1.3837 | 1.3994 | 1.3791 | 1.3892 |

**Rolling-Year Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

Year | Month | P_{L} (fixed) | P_{P} (fixed) | P_{F} (fixed) | P_{L} (chained) | P_{P} (chained) | P_{F} (chained) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1970 | 12 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1 | 1.0082 | 1.0087 | 1.0085 | 1.0082 | 1.0087 | 1.0085 |

2 | 1.0161 | 1.0170 | 1.0165 | 1.0161 | 1.0170 | 1.0165 | |

3 | 1.0257 | 1.0274 | 1.0265 | 1.0257 | 1.0274 | 1.0265 | |

4 | 1.0344 | 1.0364 | 1.0354 | 1.0344 | 1.0364 | 1.0354 | |

5 | 1.0427 | 1.0448 | 1.0438 | 1.0427 | 1.0448 | 1.0438 | |

6 | 1.0516 | 1.0537 | 1.0527 | 1.0516 | 1.0537 | 1.0527 | |

7 | 1.0617 | 1.0635 | 1.0626 | 1.0617 | 1.0635 | 1.0626 | |

8 | 1.0701 | 1.0706 | 1.0704 | 1.0701 | 1.0706 | 1.0704 | |

9 | 1.0750 | 1.0740 | 1.0745 | 1.0750 | 1.0740 | 1.0745 | |

10 | 1.0818 | 1.0792 | 1.0805 | 1.0818 | 1.0792 | 1.0805 | |

11 | 1.0937 | 1.0901 | 1.0919 | 1.0937 | 1.0901 | 1.0919 | |

12 | 1.1008 | 1.0961 | 1.0984 | 1.1008 | 1.0961 | 1.0984 | |

1972 | 1 | 1.1082 | 1.1035 | 1.1058 | 1.1081 | 1.1040 | 1.1061 |

2 | 1.1183 | 1.1137 | 1.1160 | 1.1183 | 1.1147 | 1.1165 | |

3 | 1.1287 | 1.1246 | 1.1266 | 1.1290 | 1.1260 | 1.1275 | |

4 | 1.1362 | 1.1324 | 1.1343 | 1.1366 | 1.1342 | 1.1354 | |

5 | 1.1436 | 1.1393 | 1.1414 | 1.1437 | 1.1415 | 1.1426 | |

6 | 1.1530 | 1.1481 | 1.1505 | 1.1528 | 1.1505 | 1.1517 | |

7 | 1.1645 | 1.1595 | 1.1620 | 1.1644 | 1.1622 | 1.1633 | |

8 | 1.1757 | 1.1670 | 1.1713 | 1.1747 | 1.1709 | 1.1728 | |

9 | 1.1812 | 1.1680 | 1.1746 | 1.1787 | 1.1730 | 1.1758 | |

10 | 1.1881 | 1.1712 | 1.1796 | 1.1845 | 1.1771 | 1.1808 | |

11 | 1.1999 | 1.1805 | 1.1901 | 1.1962 | 1.1869 | 1.1915 | |

12 | 1.2091 | 1.1884 | 1.1987 | 1.2052 | 1.1949 | 1.2001 | |

1973 | 1 | 1.2184 | 1.1971 | 1.2077 | 1.2143 | 1.2047 | 1.2095 |

2 | 1.2300 | 1.2086 | 1.2193 | 1.2263 | 1.2172 | 1.2218 | |

3 | 1.2425 | 1.2216 | 1.2320 | 1.2393 | 1.2310 | 1.2352 | |

4 | 1.2549 | 1.2341 | 1.2444 | 1.2520 | 1.2442 | 1.2481 | |

5 | 1.2687 | 1.2469 | 1.2578 | 1.2656 | 1.2579 | 1.2617 | |

6 | 1.2870 | 1.2643 | 1.2756 | 1.2835 | 1.2758 | 1.2797 | |

7 | 1.3070 | 1.2843 | 1.2956 | 1.3038 | 1.2961 | 1.3000 | |

8 | 1.3336 | 1.3020 | 1.3177 | 1.3273 | 1.3169 | 1.3221 | |

9 | 1.3492 | 1.3089 | 1.3289 | 1.3395 | 1.3268 | 1.3331 | |

10 | 1.3663 | 1.3172 | 1.3415 | 1.3537 | 1.3384 | 1.3460 | |

11 | 1.3932 | 1.3366 | 1.3646 | 1.3793 | 1.3609 | 1.3700 | |

12 | 1.4144 | 1.3536 | 1.3837 | 1.3994 | 1.3791 | 1.3892 |

**23.49** Once the first 13 entries for the fixed-base rolling-year indices have been defined as indicated above, the remaining *chained* rolling-year Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices are constructed by taking the price and quantity data of the last 12 months and comparing them to the corresponding data of the rolling year of the 12 months preceding the current rolling year. The resulting chained rolling-year Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices for the artificial data set are listed in the last three columns of Table 23.18. Note that the first 13 entries of the fixed-base Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices are equal to the corresponding entries for the chained Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices. Also the entries for December (month 12) of 1970, 1971, 1972, and 1973 for the fixed-base rolling-year Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices are equal to the corresponding fixed-base annual Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices listed in Table 23.14. Similarly, the entries in Table 23.18 for December (month 12) 1970, 1971, 1972, and 1973 for the chained rolling-year Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices are equal to the corresponding chained annual Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices listed in Table 23.16.

**23.50** In Table 23.18, the rolling-year indices are smooth and free from seasonal fluctuations. For the fixed-base indices, each entry can be viewed as a *seasonally adjusted annual XMPI* that compares the data of the 12 consecutive months that end with the year and month indicated with the corresponding price and quantity data of the 12 months in the base year, 1970. Thus, rolling-year indices offer statistical agencies an *objective* and *reproducible* method of seasonal adjustment that can compete with existing time-series methods of seasonal adjustment.^{18}

**23.51** Table 23.18 shows that the use of chained indices has substantially narrowed the gap between the fixed-base moving-year Paasche and Laspeyres indices. The difference between the rolling-year chained Laspeyres and Paasche indices in December 1973 is only 1.5 percent (1.3994 versus 1.3791), whereas the difference between the rolling-year fixed-base Laspeyres and Paasche indices in December 1973 is 4.5 percent (1.4144 versus 1.3536). *Thus, the use of chained indices has substantially reduced the substitution (or representativity) bias of the Laspeyres and Paasche indices*. As in the previous section, the chained Fisher rolling-year index is regarded as the *target seasonally adjusted annual index* when seasonal products are in the scope of the consumer price index. This type of index is also a suitable index for central banks to use for inflation targeting purposes.^{19} The six series in Table 23.18 are charted in Figure 23.1. The fixed-base Laspeyres index is the highest one, followed by the chained Laspeyres, the two Fisher indices (which are virtually indistinguishable), the chained Paasche, and, finally, the fixed-base Paasche. An increase in the slope of each graph can clearly be seen for the last 8 months, reflecting the increase in the month-to-month inflation rates that was built into the data for the last 12 months of the data set.^{20}

**23.52** As in the previous section, the current-year weights,

**Rolling-Year Approximate Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

**Rolling-Year Approximate Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

Year | Month | P_{AL} (fixed) | P_{AP} (fixed) | P_{AF} (fixed) | P_{AL} (chained) | P_{AP} (chained) | P_{AF} (chained) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1970 | 12 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1 | 1.0082 | 1.0074 | 1.0078 | 1.0082 | 1.0074 | 1.0078 |

2 | 1.0161 | 1.0146 | 1.0153 | 1.0161 | 1.0146 | 1.0153 | |

3 | 1.0257 | 1.0233 | 1.0245 | 1.0257 | 1.0233 | 1.0245 | |

4 | 1.0344 | 1.0312 | 1.0328 | 1.0344 | 1.0312 | 1.0328 | |

5 | 1.0427 | 1.0390 | 1.0409 | 1.0427 | 1.0390 | 1.0409 | |

6 | 1.0516 | 1.0478 | 1.0497 | 1.0516 | 1.0478 | 1.0497 | |

7 | 1.0617 | 1.0574 | 1.0596 | 1.0617 | 1.0574 | 1.0596 | |

8 | 1.0701 | 1.0656 | 1.0679 | 1.0701 | 1.0656 | 1.0679 | |

9 | 1.0750 | 1.0702 | 1.0726 | 1.0750 | 1.0702 | 1.0726 | |

10 | 1.0818 | 1.0764 | 1.0791 | 1.0818 | 1.0764 | 1.0791 | |

11 | 1.0937 | 1.0881 | 1.0909 | 1.0937 | 1.0881 | 1.0909 | |

12 | 1.1008 | 1.0956 | 1.0982 | 1.1008 | 1.0956 | 1.0982 | |

1972 | 1 | 1.1082 | 1.1021 | 1.1051 | 1.1083 | 1.1021 | 1.1052 |

2 | 1.1183 | 1.1110 | 1.1147 | 1.1182 | 1.1112 | 1.1147 | |

3 | 1.1287 | 1.1196 | 1.1241 | 1.1281 | 1.1202 | 1.1241 | |

4 | 1.1362 | 1.1260 | 1.1310 | 1.1354 | 1.1268 | 1.1311 | |

5 | 1.1436 | 1.1326 | 1.1381 | 1.1427 | 1.1336 | 1.1381 | |

6 | 1.1530 | 1.1415 | 1.1472 | 1.1520 | 1.1427 | 1.1473 | |

7 | 1.1645 | 1.1522 | 1.1583 | 1.1632 | 1.1537 | 1.1584 | |

8 | 1.1757 | 1.1620 | 1.1689 | 1.1739 | 1.1642 | 1.1691 | |

9 | 1.1812 | 1.1663 | 1.1737 | 1.1791 | 1.1691 | 1.1741 | |

10 | 1.1881 | 1.1710 | 1.1795 | 1.1851 | 1.1747 | 1.1799 | |

11 | 1.1999 | 1.1807 | 1.1902 | 1.1959 | 1.1855 | 1.1907 | |

12 | 1.2091 | 1.1903 | 1.1996 | 1.2051 | 1.1952 | 1.2002 | |

1973 | 1 | 1.2184 | 1.1980 | 1.2082 | 1.2142 | 1.2033 | 1.2087 |

2 | 1.2300 | 1.2074 | 1.2187 | 1.2253 | 1.2133 | 1.2193 | |

3 | 1.2425 | 1.2165 | 1.2295 | 1.2367 | 1.2235 | 1.2301 | |

4 | 1.2549 | 1.2261 | 1.2404 | 1.2482 | 1.2340 | 1.2411 | |

5 | 1.2687 | 1.2379 | 1.2532 | 1.2615 | 1.2464 | 1.2540 | |

6 | 1.2870 | 1.2548 | 1.2708 | 1.2795 | 1.2640 | 1.2717 | |

7 | 1.3070 | 1.2716 | 1.2892 | 1.2985 | 1.2821 | 1.2903 | |

8 | 1.3336 | 1.2918 | 1.3125 | 1.3232 | 1.3048 | 1.3139 | |

9 | 1.3492 | 1.3063 | 1.3276 | 1.3386 | 1.3203 | 1.3294 | |

10 | 1.3663 | 1.3182 | 1.3421 | 1.3538 | 1.3345 | 1.3441 | |

11 | 1.3932 | 1.3387 | 1.3657 | 1.3782 | 1.3579 | 1.3680 | |

12 | 1.4144 | 1.3596 | 1.3867 | 1.3995 | 1.3794 | 1.3894 |

**Rolling-Year Approximate Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

Year | Month | P_{AL} (fixed) | P_{AP} (fixed) | P_{AF} (fixed) | P_{AL} (chained) | P_{AP} (chained) | P_{AF} (chained) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1970 | 12 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 | 1.0000 |

1971 | 1 | 1.0082 | 1.0074 | 1.0078 | 1.0082 | 1.0074 | 1.0078 |

2 | 1.0161 | 1.0146 | 1.0153 | 1.0161 | 1.0146 | 1.0153 | |

3 | 1.0257 | 1.0233 | 1.0245 | 1.0257 | 1.0233 | 1.0245 | |

4 | 1.0344 | 1.0312 | 1.0328 | 1.0344 | 1.0312 | 1.0328 | |

5 | 1.0427 | 1.0390 | 1.0409 | 1.0427 | 1.0390 | 1.0409 | |

6 | 1.0516 | 1.0478 | 1.0497 | 1.0516 | 1.0478 | 1.0497 | |

7 | 1.0617 | 1.0574 | 1.0596 | 1.0617 | 1.0574 | 1.0596 | |

8 | 1.0701 | 1.0656 | 1.0679 | 1.0701 | 1.0656 | 1.0679 | |

9 | 1.0750 | 1.0702 | 1.0726 | 1.0750 | 1.0702 | 1.0726 | |

10 | 1.0818 | 1.0764 | 1.0791 | 1.0818 | 1.0764 | 1.0791 | |

11 | 1.0937 | 1.0881 | 1.0909 | 1.0937 | 1.0881 | 1.0909 | |

12 | 1.1008 | 1.0956 | 1.0982 | 1.1008 | 1.0956 | 1.0982 | |

1972 | 1 | 1.1082 | 1.1021 | 1.1051 | 1.1083 | 1.1021 | 1.1052 |

2 | 1.1183 | 1.1110 | 1.1147 | 1.1182 | 1.1112 | 1.1147 | |

3 | 1.1287 | 1.1196 | 1.1241 | 1.1281 | 1.1202 | 1.1241 | |

4 | 1.1362 | 1.1260 | 1.1310 | 1.1354 | 1.1268 | 1.1311 | |

5 | 1.1436 | 1.1326 | 1.1381 | 1.1427 | 1.1336 | 1.1381 | |

6 | 1.1530 | 1.1415 | 1.1472 | 1.1520 | 1.1427 | 1.1473 | |

7 | 1.1645 | 1.1522 | 1.1583 | 1.1632 | 1.1537 | 1.1584 | |

8 | 1.1757 | 1.1620 | 1.1689 | 1.1739 | 1.1642 | 1.1691 | |

9 | 1.1812 | 1.1663 | 1.1737 | 1.1791 | 1.1691 | 1.1741 | |

10 | 1.1881 | 1.1710 | 1.1795 | 1.1851 | 1.1747 | 1.1799 | |

11 | 1.1999 | 1.1807 | 1.1902 | 1.1959 | 1.1855 | 1.1907 | |

12 | 1.2091 | 1.1903 | 1.1996 | 1.2051 | 1.1952 | 1.2002 | |

1973 | 1 | 1.2184 | 1.1980 | 1.2082 | 1.2142 | 1.2033 | 1.2087 |

2 | 1.2300 | 1.2074 | 1.2187 | 1.2253 | 1.2133 | 1.2193 | |

3 | 1.2425 | 1.2165 | 1.2295 | 1.2367 | 1.2235 | 1.2301 | |

4 | 1.2549 | 1.2261 | 1.2404 | 1.2482 | 1.2340 | 1.2411 | |

5 | 1.2687 | 1.2379 | 1.2532 | 1.2615 | 1.2464 | 1.2540 | |

6 | 1.2870 | 1.2548 | 1.2708 | 1.2795 | 1.2640 | 1.2717 | |

7 | 1.3070 | 1.2716 | 1.2892 | 1.2985 | 1.2821 | 1.2903 | |

8 | 1.3336 | 1.2918 | 1.3125 | 1.3232 | 1.3048 | 1.3139 | |

9 | 1.3492 | 1.3063 | 1.3276 | 1.3386 | 1.3203 | 1.3294 | |

10 | 1.3663 | 1.3182 | 1.3421 | 1.3538 | 1.3345 | 1.3441 | |

11 | 1.3932 | 1.3387 | 1.3657 | 1.3782 | 1.3579 | 1.3680 | |

12 | 1.4144 | 1.3596 | 1.3867 | 1.3995 | 1.3794 | 1.3894 |

**23.53** Comparing the indices in Tables 23.18 and 23.19, one can see that the approximate rolling-year fixed-base and chained Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher indices listed in Table 23.19 are very close to their true rolling-year counterparts listed in Table 23.18. In particular, the approximate chain rolling-year Fisher index (which can be computed using just base-year expenditure share information along with current information on prices) is very close to the preferred target index, the rolling-year chained Fisher index. In December 1973, these two indices differ by only 0.014 percent (1.3894/1.3892 = 1.00014). The indices in Table 23.19 are charted in Figure 23.2. Figures 23.1 and 23.2 are similar; in particular, the Fisher fixed-base and chained indices are virtually identical in both figures.

**Rolling-Year Approximate Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

**Rolling-Year Approximate Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

**Rolling-Year Approximate Laspeyres, Paasche, and Fisher Price Indices**

**23.54** These tables demonstrate that year-over-year monthly indices and their generalizations to rolling-year indices perform very well using the modified Turvey data set; that is, like is compared to like and the existence of seasonal products does *not* lead to erratic fluctuations in the indices. The only drawback to the use of these indices is that it seems that they cannot give any information on *short-term month-to-month fluctuations in prices. This is most evident if seasonal baskets are completely different for each month, because in this case there is no possibility of comparing prices on a month-to-month basis*. However, the following section shows that a current period year-over-year monthly index *can* be used to predict a rolling-year index that is centered at the current month.

## F. Predicting Rolling-Year Index Using Current-Period Year-over-Year Monthly Index

**23.55** In a regime where the long-run trend in prices is smooth, changes in the year-over-year inflation rate for this month compared to last month could theoretically give valuable information about the long-run trend in price inflation. For the modified Turvey data set, this conjecture turns out to be true, as is seen below.

**23.56** The basic idea is illustrated using the fixed-base Laspeyres rolling-year indices that are listed in Table 23.18 and the year-over-year monthly fixed-base Laspeyres indices listed in Table 23.3. In Table 23.18, the fixed-base Laspeyres rolling-year entry for December 1971 compares the 12 months of price and quantity data pertaining to 1971 with the corresponding prices and quantities pertaining to 1970. This index number is the first entry in the first column of Table 23.20 and is labeled as *P*_{L}. Thus, in the first column of Table 23.20, the fixed-base rolling-year Laspeyres index, *P*_{LRY} taken from Table 23.18, is tabled starting at December 1971 and carrying through to December 1973, 24 observations in all. The first entry of this column shows that the index is a weighted average of year-over-year price relatives over all 12 months in 1970 and 1971. Thus, this index is an average of year-over-year monthly price changes, centered between June and July of the two years whose prices are being compared. As a result, an *approximation* to this annual index could be obtained by taking the arithmetic average of the June and July year-over-year monthly indices pertaining to the years 1970 and 1971 (see the entries for months 6 and 7 for the year 1971 in Table 23.3, 1.0844 and 1.1103).^{21} For the next rolling-year fixed-base Laspeyres index corresponding to the January 1972 entry in Table 23.18, *an approximation to this rolling-year index, P _{ARY}*, could be derived by taking the arithmetic average of the July and August year-over-year monthly indices pertaining to the years 1970 and 1971 (see the entries for months 7 and 8 for the year 1971 in Table 23.3, 1.1103 and 1.0783, respectively). These arithmetic averages of the two year-over-year monthly indices that are in the middle of the corresponding rolling year are listed in the third column of Table 23.20. Table 23.20 shows that column 3,

*P*

_{ARY}, does not approximate column 1 particularly well, because the approximate indices in column 3 have some pronounced seasonal fluctuations, whereas the rolling-year indices in column 1,

*P*

_{LRY}, are free from seasonal fluctuations.

**Rolling-Year Fixed-Base Laspeyres and Seasonally Adjusted Approximate Rolling-Year Price Indices**

**Rolling-Year Fixed-Base Laspeyres and Seasonally Adjusted Approximate Rolling-Year Price Indices**

Year | Month | P_{LRY} | P_{SAARY} | P_{ARY} | SAF |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1971 | 12 | 1.1008 | 1.1008 | 1.0973 | 1.0032 |

1972 | 1 | 1.1082 | 1.1082 | 1.0943 | 1.0127 |

2 | 1.1183 | 1.1183 | 1.0638 | 1.0512 | |

3 | 1.1287 | 1.1287 | 1.0696 | 1.0552 | |

4 | 1.1362 | 1.1362 | 1.1092 | 1.0243 | |

5 | 1.1436 | 1.1436 | 1.1066 | 1.0334 | |

6 | 1.1530 | 1.1530 | 1.1454 | 1.0066 | |

7 | 1.1645 | 1.1645 | 1.2251 | 0.9505 | |

8 | 1.1757 | 1.1757 | 1.2752 | 0.9220 | |

9 | 1.1812 | 1.1812 | 1.2923 | 0.9141 | |

10 | 1.1881 | 1.1881 | 1.2484 | 0.9517 | |

11 | 1.1999 | 1.1999 | 1.1959 | 1.0033 | |

12 | 1.2091 | 1.2087 | 1.2049 | 1.0032 | |

1973 | 1 | 1.2184 | 1.2249 | 1.2096 | 1.0127 |

2 | 1.2300 | 1.2024 | 1.1438 | 1.0512 | |

3 | 1.2425 | 1.2060 | 1.1429 | 1.0552 | |

4 | 1.2549 | 1.2475 | 1.2179 | 1.0243 | |

5 | 1.2687 | 1.2664 | 1.2255 | 1.0334 | |

6 | 1.2870 | 1.2704 | 1.2620 | 1.0066 | |

7 | 1.3070 | 1.2979 | 1.3655 | 0.9505 | |

8 | 1.3336 | 1.3367 | 1.4498 | 0.9220 | |

9 | 1.3492 | 1.3658 | 1.4943 | 0.9141 | |

10 | 1.3663 | 1.3811 | 1.4511 | 0.9517 | |

11 | 1.3932 | 1.3827 | 1.3783 | 1.0032 | |

12 | 1.4144 | 1.4188 | 1.4010 | 1.0127 |

**Rolling-Year Fixed-Base Laspeyres and Seasonally Adjusted Approximate Rolling-Year Price Indices**

Year | Month | P_{LRY} | P_{SAARY} | P_{ARY} | SAF |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1971 | 12 | 1.1008 | 1.1008 |