Back Matter
  • 1 0000000404811396https://isni.org/isni/0000000404811396International Monetary Fund

Abstract

In recent years, African policymakers have increasingly resorted to regional trade arrangements (RTAs) as a substitute for broad-based trade liberalization. This trend has long-term implications for the effectiveness of trade policy as a tool for poverty reduction and growth. This paper examines the record of RTAs in promoting trade and investment. It also explores policy measures that may help improve RTAs' performance.

References

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alexandraki, Katerina, and Hans Peter Lankes, 2004, “The Impact of Preference Erosion on Middle-Income Developing Countries,” IMF Working Paper 04/169 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baunsgaard, Thomas, Anne-Marie Geourjon, Michael Keen, Jesus Seade, 2003, “Liberalizing Trade and Safeguarding Public Revenues,” note prepared for the WTO (WT/TF/COH/14), January.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baunsgaard, Thomas, and Michael Keen, 2005, “Trade Revenue and (or?) Trade Liberalization,” IMF Working Paper 05/112 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berg, Andrew, and Anne O. Krueger, 2003, “Trade, Growth, and Poverty: A Selective Survey,” IMF Working Paper 03/30 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhagwati, Jagdish, and Arvind Panagariya, 1996, The Economics of Preferential Trading Arrangements (Washington: American Enterprise Institute).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carrere, Celine, 2004, “African Regional Agreements: Impact on Trade With or Without Currency Unions,” Journal of African Economies, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 199239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clausing, Kimberly A., 2001, “Trade Creation and Trade Diversion in the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement,” Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 67796.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coe, David T., and Alexander W. Hoffmaister, 1999, “North-South Trade: Is Africa Unusual?Journal of African Economies, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 22856.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collier, Paul, 1991, “Africa’s External Economic Relations: 1960–90,” African Affairs, Vol. 90, No. 360, pp. 33956.

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dollar, David, and Aart Kraay, 2001, “Trade, Growth, and Poverty,” Policy Research Working Paper Series 2615 (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elbadawi, Ibrahim A., 1997, “The Impact of Regional Trade and Monetary Schemes on Intra-Sub-Saharan Africa Trade,” in Regional Integration and Trade Liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa, ed. by Ademola Oyejide, Ibrahim Elbadawi, and Paul Collier (London: Macmillan Press Ltd.).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elbadawi, Ibrahim A., and Francis M. Mwega, 1998, “Regional Integration, Trade, and Foreign Direct Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa,” in Trade Reform and Regional Integration in Africa, ed. by Zubair Iqbal and Moshin S. Khan (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flatters, Frank, 2002, “SADC Rules of Origin: Undermining Regional Free Trade.” Available via the Internet: http://qed.econ.queensu.ca/faculty/flatters/main/writings.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flatters, Frank, and Robert Kirk, 2004, “Rules of Origin as Tools of Development? Some Lessons from SADC,” Trade Policy and Economic Development (Arlington, Virginia: The Services Group (TSG)).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foroutan, Faezeh, 1993, “Regional Integration in Sub-Saharan Africa: Past Experience and Future Prospects,” in New Dimensions in Regional Integration, ed. by James de Melo and Arvind Panagariya (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foroutan, Faezeh, and Lant Pritchett, 1993, “Intra-Sub-Saharan African Trade: Is It Too Little?Journal of African Economies, Vol. 2 (May), pp. 74105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • François, Christian A., and Arvind Subramanian, 1998, “Beyond Trade: Regional Trade Arrangements as a Window on Globalization,” in Trade Reform and Regional Integration in Africa, ed. by Zubair Iqbal and Mohsin S. Khan (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frankel, Jeffrey A., Ernesto Stein, and Shang-Jin Wei, 1997, Regional Trading Blocs in the World Economic System (Washington: Institute for International Economics).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Herin, Jan, 1986, “Rules of Origin and Differences Between Tariff Levels in EFTA and in the EU,” EFTA Occasional Paper No. 13 (Geneva: European Free Trade Association).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hinkle, Lawrence E., and Maurice Schiff, 2004, “Economic Partnership Between Sub-Saharan Africa and the EU: A Development Perspective,” The World Economy, Vol. 27, No. 9, pp. 132133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hummel, David, 2001, “Time as a Trade Barrier” (West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University).

  • Jebuni, Charles D., 1997, “Trade Liberalization and Regional Integration in Africa,” in Regional Integration and Trade Liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa, ed. by Ademola Oyejide, Ibrahim Elbadawi, and Paul Collier (London: Macmillan Press Ltd.).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jonsson, Gunnar, and Arvind Subramanian, 2000, “Dynamic Gains from Trade Evidence from South Africa,” IMF Working Paper 00/45 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kasekende, L., and N. Ng’eno, 1995, Regional Integration and Economic Liberalization in East and Southern Africa (Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keen, Michael, and Jenny Ligthart, 2001, “Coordinating Tariff Reductions and Domestic Tax Reform,” Journal of International Economics, Vol. 56, pp. 40725.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keen, Michael, and Alejandro Simone, 2004, “Tax Policy In Developing Countries: Some Lessons from the 1990s and Some Challenges Ahead,” in Helping Countries Develop: The Role of Fiscal Policy, ed. by Sanjeev Gupta, Benedict Clements, and Gabriela Inchauste (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khattry, Barsha, and Mohan Rao, 2002, “Fiscal Faux Pas? An Analysis of the Revenue Implications of Trade Liberalization,” World Development, Vol. 30, pp. 143144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kowalski P., 2004, Impact of Changes in Tariffs on Developing Countries’ Government Revenue, TD/TC/WP(2004)29/Rev1, work in progress (Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krishna, Kala, and Anne O. Krueger, 1995, “Implementing Free Trade Areas: Rules of Origin and Hidden Protection,” NBER Working Paper No. 4983 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kritzinger-van Niekerk, Lolette, and Emmanuel Pinto Moreira 2002, “Regional Integration in Southern Africa: Overview of Recent Developments,” Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krueger, Anne O., 1999a, “Are Preferential Trading Arrangements Trade-Liberalizing or Protectionist?Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 10524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krueger, Anne O., 1999b, “Free Trade Agreements as Protectionist Devices: Rules of Origin,” NBER Working Paper No. 4352 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krueger, Anne O., 1999c, “Trade Creation and Trade Diversion under NAFTA,” NBER Working Paper No. 7429 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leamer, Edward, and Robert Stern, 1970, Quantitative International Economics (Boston: Allyn and Bacon).

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mengistae, Taye, and Catherine Pattillo, 2004, “Export Orientation and Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa,” IMF Staff Papers, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 32753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ng, Francis, and Alexander Yeats, 2000, “On the Recent Trade Performance of Sub-Saharan African Countries: Cause for Hope or More of the Same?Africa Region Working Paper Series No. 26, June (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ng, Francis, and Alexander Yeats, 2002, “What Can Africa Expect from Its Traditional Exports?Africa Region Working Paper Series No. 26, February (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Connell, Stephen A., 1997, “Macroeconomic Harmonization, Trade Reform, and Regional Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa,” in Regional Integration and Trade Liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa, ed. by Ademola Oyejide, Ibrahim Elbadawi, and Paul Collier (London: Macmillan Press Ltd.).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Panagariya, Arvind, 2000, “Preferential Trade Liberalization: The Traditional Theory and New Developments,” Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 38 (June), pp. 287331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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  • Romalis, Johan, 2004, “NAFTA’s and CUSFTA’s Impact on International Trade” (Chicago: University of Chicago).

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schiff, Maurice, and L. Alan Winters, 2003, Regional Integration and Development (Washington: World Bank and Oxford University Press).

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • African Development Bank, 2000, African Development Report 2000 (Abidjan).

  • Agbeyegbe, Terence, Janet G. Stotsky, and Asegedech WoldeMariam, 2004, “Trade Liberalization, Exchange Rate Changes, and Tax Revenue in SubSaharan Africa,” IMF Working Paper 04/178 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alexandraki, Katerina, and Hans Peter Lankes, 2004, “The Impact of Preference Erosion on Middle-Income Developing Countries,” IMF Working Paper 04/169 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ancharaz, Vinaye, 2003, “Determinants of Trade Policy Reform in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Journal of African Economies, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 41743.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arora, Vivek, and Athanasios Vamvakidis, 2004, “How Much Do Trading Partners Matter for Economic Growth?IMF Working Paper 04/26 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, Richard E., 2003, “Openness and Growth: What Is the Empirical Relationship?NBER Working Paper No. 9578 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baldwin, Richard E., and Anthony Venables, 1996Regional Economic Integration” in Handbook of International Economics, Vol. 3, ed. by Gene M. Grossman and Kenneth Rogoff (Amsterdam: North Holland), pp. 15971644.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baunsgaard, Thomas, Anne-Marie Geourjon, Michael Keen, Jesus Seade, 2003, “Liberalizing Trade and Safeguarding Public Revenues,” note prepared for the WTO (WT/TF/COH/14), January.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baunsgaard, Thomas, and Michael Keen, 2005, “Trade Revenue and (or?) Trade Liberalization,” IMF Working Paper 05/112 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berg, Andrew, and Anne O. Krueger, 2003, “Trade, Growth, and Poverty: A Selective Survey,” IMF Working Paper 03/30 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhagwati, Jagdish, and Arvind Panagariya, 1996, The Economics of Preferential Trading Arrangements (Washington: American Enterprise Institute).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carrere, Celine, 2004, “African Regional Agreements: Impact on Trade With or Without Currency Unions,” Journal of African Economies, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 199239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clausing, Kimberly A., 2001, “Trade Creation and Trade Diversion in the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement,” Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 67796.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Coe, David T., and Alexander W. Hoffmaister, 1999, “North-South Trade: Is Africa Unusual?Journal of African Economies, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 22856.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collier, Paul, 1991, “Africa’s External Economic Relations: 1960–90,” African Affairs, Vol. 90, No. 360, pp. 33956.

  • COMESA Secretariat, 2001, Annual Report, Ref.COM/TCM/CT/NTB/1/3 and COM/TCM/NTB/1/4 (Lusaka, Zambia).

  • De Melo, Jaime, Arvind Panagariya, and Dani Rodrik, 1993, “The New Regionalism: A Country Perspective,” in New Dimensions in Regional Integration, ed. by Jaime de Melo and Arvind Panagariya (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dollar, David, and Aart Kraay, 2001, “Trade, Growth, and Poverty,” Policy Research Working Paper Series 2615 (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drysdale, Peter, and Ross Garnaut, 1982, “Trade Intensities and the Analysis of Bilateral Trade Flows in a Many-Country World,” Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, Vol. 22, pp. 6284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ebrill, Liam, Janet Stotsky, and Reint Gropp, 1999, Revenue Implications of Trade Liberalization, Occasional Paper No. 180 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elbadawi, Ibrahim A., 1997, “The Impact of Regional Trade and Monetary Schemes on Intra-Sub-Saharan Africa Trade,” in Regional Integration and Trade Liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa, ed. by Ademola Oyejide, Ibrahim Elbadawi, and Paul Collier (London: Macmillan Press Ltd.).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elbadawi, Ibrahim A., and Francis M. Mwega, 1998, “Regional Integration, Trade, and Foreign Direct Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa,” in Trade Reform and Regional Integration in Africa, ed. by Zubair Iqbal and Moshin S. Khan (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flatters, Frank, 2002, “SADC Rules of Origin: Undermining Regional Free Trade.” Available via the Internet: http://qed.econ.queensu.ca/faculty/flatters/main/writings.html.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flatters, Frank, and Robert Kirk, 2004, “Rules of Origin as Tools of Development? Some Lessons from SADC,” Trade Policy and Economic Development (Arlington, Virginia: The Services Group (TSG)).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foroutan, Faezeh, 1993, “Regional Integration in Sub-Saharan Africa: Past Experience and Future Prospects,” in New Dimensions in Regional Integration, ed. by James de Melo and Arvind Panagariya (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foroutan, Faezeh, and Lant Pritchett, 1993, “Intra-Sub-Saharan African Trade: Is It Too Little?Journal of African Economies, Vol. 2 (May), pp. 74105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • François, Christian A., and Arvind Subramanian, 1998, “Beyond Trade: Regional Trade Arrangements as a Window on Globalization,” in Trade Reform and Regional Integration in Africa, ed. by Zubair Iqbal and Mohsin S. Khan (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frankel, Jeffrey A., Ernesto Stein, and Shang-Jin Wei, 1997, Regional Trading Blocs in the World Economic System (Washington: Institute for International Economics).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Herin, Jan, 1986, “Rules of Origin and Differences Between Tariff Levels in EFTA and in the EU,” EFTA Occasional Paper No. 13 (Geneva: European Free Trade Association).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hinkle, Lawrence E., and Maurice Schiff, 2004, “Economic Partnership Between Sub-Saharan Africa and the EU: A Development Perspective,” The World Economy, Vol. 27, No. 9, pp. 132133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hummel, David, 2001, “Time as a Trade Barrier” (West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University).

  • Jebuni, Charles D., 1997, “Trade Liberalization and Regional Integration in Africa,” in Regional Integration and Trade Liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa, ed. by Ademola Oyejide, Ibrahim Elbadawi, and Paul Collier (London: Macmillan Press Ltd.).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jonsson, Gunnar, and Arvind Subramanian, 2000, “Dynamic Gains from Trade Evidence from South Africa,” IMF Working Paper 00/45 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kasekende, L., and N. Ng’eno, 1995, Regional Integration and Economic Liberalization in East and Southern Africa (Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keen, Michael, and Jenny Ligthart, 2001, “Coordinating Tariff Reductions and Domestic Tax Reform,” Journal of International Economics, Vol. 56, pp. 40725.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keen, Michael, and Alejandro Simone, 2004, “Tax Policy In Developing Countries: Some Lessons from the 1990s and Some Challenges Ahead,” in Helping Countries Develop: The Role of Fiscal Policy, ed. by Sanjeev Gupta, Benedict Clements, and Gabriela Inchauste (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khandelwal, Padamja, 2004, “COMESA and SADC: Prospects and Challenges for Regional Integration,” IMF Working Paper 04/227 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khattry, Barsha, and Mohan Rao, 2002, “Fiscal Faux Pas? An Analysis of the Revenue Implications of Trade Liberalization,” World Development, Vol. 30, pp. 143144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kowalski P., 2004, Impact of Changes in Tariffs on Developing Countries’ Government Revenue, TD/TC/WP(2004)29/Rev1, work in progress (Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krishna, Kala, and Anne O. Krueger, 1995, “Implementing Free Trade Areas: Rules of Origin and Hidden Protection,” NBER Working Paper No. 4983 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kritzinger-van Niekerk, Lolette, and Emmanuel Pinto Moreira 2002, “Regional Integration in Southern Africa: Overview of Recent Developments,” Discussion Paper (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krueger, Anne O., 1999a, “Are Preferential Trading Arrangements Trade-Liberalizing or Protectionist?Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 10524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krueger, Anne O., 1999b, “Free Trade Agreements as Protectionist Devices: Rules of Origin,” NBER Working Paper No. 4352 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krueger, Anne O., 1999c, “Trade Creation and Trade Diversion under NAFTA,” NBER Working Paper No. 7429 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leamer, Edward, and Robert Stern, 1970, Quantitative International Economics (Boston: Allyn and Bacon).

  • Lyakurwa, W. M., 1996, “Trade and Investment Integration in Sub-Saharan Africa,” paper presented at a FONDAD Conference on Regional Integration in Africa, The Hague.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mengistae, Taye, and Catherine Pattillo, 2004, “Export Orientation and Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa,” IMF Staff Papers, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 32753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ng, Francis, and Alexander Yeats, 2000, “On the Recent Trade Performance of Sub-Saharan African Countries: Cause for Hope or More of the Same?Africa Region Working Paper Series No. 26, June (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ng, Francis, and Alexander Yeats, 2002, “What Can Africa Expect from Its Traditional Exports?Africa Region Working Paper Series No. 26, February (Washington: World Bank).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Connell, Stephen A., 1997, “Macroeconomic Harmonization, Trade Reform, and Regional Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa,” in Regional Integration and Trade Liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa, ed. by Ademola Oyejide, Ibrahim Elbadawi, and Paul Collier (London: Macmillan Press Ltd.).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oyejide, T. Ademola, 1997, “Regional Integration and Trade Liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa,” Special Paper No. 28 (Nairobi: African Economic Research Consortium).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Panagariya, Arvind, 2000, “Preferential Trade Liberalization: The Traditional Theory and New Developments,” Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 38 (June), pp. 287331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Panagariya, Arvind, 2002, “EU Preferential Trade Arrangements and Developing Countries,” World Economy, Vol. 25, No. 10, pp. 141532.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Panagariya, Arvind, 2004, “Miracles and Debacles: In Defense of Trade Openness,” World Economy, Vol. 27, No. 8, pp. 114971.

  • Robson, P., 1998, Economic Integration in Africa (London: Allen and Unwin).

  • Rodriguez, Francisco, and Dani Rodrik, 2001, “Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic’s Guide to the Cross-National Evidence,” in NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, ed. by Ben Nernanke and Kenneth Rogoff (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodrik, Dani, 1999, The New Global Economy and Developing Countries: Making Openness Work (London: Overseas Development Institute).

  • Romalis, Johan, 2004, “NAFTA’s and CUSFTA’s Impact on International Trade” (Chicago: University of Chicago).

  • Sachs, Jeffrey, and Andrew Warner, 1995, “Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration,” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: 1, Brookings Institution.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schiff, Maurice, and L. Alan Winters, 2003, Regional Integration and Development (Washington: World Bank and Oxford University Press).

  • Subramanian, Arvind, 2003, “Financing of Losses from Preference Erosion,” note prepared for the WTO (WT/TF/COH/14), January.

  • Subramanian, Arvind, Enrique Gelbard, Richard Harmsen, Katrin Elborgh-Woytek and Piroska Nagy, 2000, Trade and Trade Policy in Eastern and Southern Africa, Occasional Paper No. 196 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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