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Back Matter

Back Matter

Christian Josz
Published Date:
October 2013
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    The chapters of this paper were prepared by a staff team led by Christian Josz comprising Nazim Belhocine, Salvatore Dell’Erba, Mitra Farahbaksh, Ermal Hitaj, Christina Kolerus, Douglas Shapiro, and Aleksandra Zdzienicka. They were published as Annexes of the Staff Report on the 2012 Article IV Consultation with Mali, posted as IMF Country Report No. 13/44 on the IMF external website (

    Prepared by Christina Kolerus and Mitra Farahbaksh.

    The national poverty line lies at CFAF 453 (about US$1) per day of household consumption.

    Prepared by Nazim Belhocine and Salvatore Dell’Erba.

    As the rates of fuel taxes are set at the level of the West African Economic and Monetary Union, the Malian authorities reduce fuel prices by lowering the fuel excise tax at customs and at times by decreasing the tax base for petroleum products.

    Recent examples include Jordan in 2008, Gabon in 2009, and Niger in 2011.

    The simulations assume constant margins equal to the average level between January 2006 and December 2009 (i.e., CFAF 78 per liter). Initial net taxes are also set at a level consistent with the average level between January 2006 and December 2009 (i.e., CFAF 151 per liter).

    See, for example, the Nigerian case study in Box 1.

    For example, Gabon excluded kerosene products from the automatic price-adjustment mechanism that it adopted in January 2009.

    Prepared by Mitra Farahbaksh and Aleksandra Zdzienicka.

    International Monetary Fund, et al., 2011, March, Conference on Challenges and Opportunities of Mali (Bamako). Available via Internet:


    This chapter was prepared by Ermal Hitaj, with research assistance from Douglas Shapiro.

    This chapter uses the usual HHI, defined as the sum of the squares of the export shares by sector or country of destination.

    Equation (1) includes only the variables whose coefficients were significant at the 20 percent level or above. The t-statistics of the estimators are displayed in brackets. Four, three, two, and one asterisks indicate statistical significance at the 1 percent, 5 percent, 10 percent, and 20 percent levels, respectively.

    Vitek (2012) estimates the equilibrium NFA ratio as a function of the per capita GDP differential from trade partners and the public debt—to—GDP ratio through a panel regression on a dataset that includes 69 countries over a 31-year period.

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