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Back Matter

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Published Date:
April 2020
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Statistical Appendix

Unless noted otherwise, data and projections presented in this Regional Economic Outlook are IMF staff estimates as of 7 April 2020, consistent with the projections underlying the April 2020 World Economic Outlook.

The data and projections cover 45 sub-Saharan African countries in the IMF’s African Department. Data definitions follow established international statistical methodologies to the extent possible. However, in some cases, data limitations limit comparability across countries.

Country Groupings

Countries are aggregated into three (non-overlapping) groups: oil exporters, other resource-intensive countries, and non-resource-intensive countries (see table on page 16 for the country groupings).

  • The oil exporters are countries where net oil exports make up 30 percent or more of total exports.
  • The other resource-intensive countries are those where nonrenewable natural resources represent 25 percent or more of total exports.
  • The non-resource-intensive countries refer to those that are not classified as either oil exporters or other resource-intensive countries.

Countries are also aggregated into four (overlapping) groups: oil exporters, middle-income, low-income, and countries in fragile situations (see table on page 16 for the country groupings).

The membership of these groups reflects the most recent data on per capita gross national income (averaged over three years) and the World Bank, Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) score (averaged over three years).

  • The middle-income countries had per capita gross national income in the years 2016–18 of more than $1025.00 (World Bank, using the Atlas method).
  • The low-income countries had average per capita gross national income in the years 2016–18 equal to or lower than $1025.00 (World Bank, Atlas method).
  • The countries in fragile situations had average CPIA scores of 3.2 or less in the years 2016–18 and/or had the presence of a peace-keeping or peace-building mission within the last three years.
  • The membership of sub-Saharan African countries in the major regional cooperation bodies is shown on page 16: CFA franc zone, comprising the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) and CEMAC; the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA); the East Africa Community (EAC-5); the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS); the Southern African Development Community (SADC); and the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU). EAC-5 aggregates include data for Rwanda and Burundi, which joined the group only in 2007.

Methods of Aggregation

In Tables SA1 and SA3, country group composites for real GDP growth and broad money are calculated as the arithmetic average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity as a share of total group GDP. The source of purchasing power parity weights is the World Economic Outlook (WEO) database.

In Table SA1, country group composites for consumer prices are calculated as the geometric average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity as a share of total group GDP. The source of purchasing power parity weights is the WEO database.

In Tables SA2SA4, country group composites except for broad money, are calculated as the arithmetic average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP in U.S. dollars at market exchange rates as a share of total group GDP.

Sub-Saharan Africa: Member Countries of Groupings
Oil exportersOther resource-intensive countriesNon-resource-intensive countriesMiddle-income countriesLow-couincome ntriesCountries in fragile situations
AngolaBotswanaBeninAngolaBeninMalawiBurundi
CameroonBurkina FasoBurundiBotswanaBurkina FasoMaliCentral African Rep.
ChadCentral African Rep.Cabo VerdeCabo VerdeBurundiMozambiqueChad
Congo, Republic ofCongo, Dem. Rep. ofComorosCameroonCentral AfricanNigerComoros
Equatorial GuineaGhanaCôte d’IvoireCongo, Republic ofRep.RwandaCongo, Dem. Rep. of
GabonGuineaEritreaCôte d’IvoireChadSierra LeoneCongo, Republic of
NigeriaLiberiaEswatiniEquatorial GuineaComorosSouth SudanCôte d’Ivoire
South SudanMaliEthiopiaEswatiniCongo, Dem.TanzaniaEritrea
NamibiaGambia, TheGabonRep. ofTogoGambia, The
NigerGuinea-BissauGhanaEritrea EthiopiaUgandaGuinea
Sierra LeoneKenyaKenya
ZimbabweGuinea-Bissau
South AfricaLesothoLesothoGambia, TheLiberia
TanzaniaMadagascarMauritiusGuineaMalawi
ZambiaMalawiNamibiaGuinea-BissauMali
ZimbabweMauritiusNigeriaLiberia MadagascarSão Tomé & Príncipe
MozambiqueSão Tomé & Príncipe
Sierra Leone
RwandaSenegalSouth Sudan
São Tomé & PríncipeSeychellesTogo
SenegalSouth AfricaZimbabwe
SeychellesZambia
Togo
Uganda
Sub-Saharan Africa: Member Countries of Regional Groupings
The West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)Economic and Monetary Community of Central African States (CEMAC)Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)East Africa Community (EAC-5)Southern African Development Community (SADC)Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU)Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
BeninCameroonBurundiBurundiAngolaBotswanaBenin
Burkina FasoCentral African Rep.ComorosKenyaBotswanaEswatiniBurkina Faso
Côte d’IvoireChadCongo, Dem. Rep. ofRwandaComorosLesothoCabo Verde
Guinea-BissauCongo, Republic ofEritreaTanzaniaCongo, Dem. Rep. ofNamibiaCôte d’Ivoire
MaliEquatorial GuineaEswatiniUgandaEswatinSouth AfricaGambia, The
NigerGabonEthiopiaLesothoGhana
SenegalKenyaMadagascarGuinea
TogoMadagascarMalawiGuinea-Bissau
MalawiMauritiusLiberia
MauritiusMozambiqueMali
RwandaNamibiaNiger
SeychellesSeychellesNigeria
UgandaSouth AfricaSenegal
ZambiaTanzaniaSierra Leone
ZimbabweZambiaTogo
Zimbabwe

List of Appendix Tables SA1—SA4:

Table SA1.Real GDP Growth and Consumer Prices
Real GDP (Annual percent change)Consumer Prices, Annual Average (Annual percent change)
1010–16201720182019202020212010–1620172018201920202021
Angola3.6-0.2-1.2-1.5-1.42.613.529.819.617.120.722.3
Benin4.15.76.76.44.56.01.61.80.8-0.9-0.80.6
Botswana5.32.94.53.0-5.46.85.63.33.22.82.12.6
Burkina Faso5.96.26.85.72.05.81.00.42.0-3.23.22.1
Burundi2.80.51.61.8-5.54.28.216.6-2.8-0.78.06.0
Cabo Verde1.93.75.15.5-4.05.51.30.81.31.11.31.4
Cameroon4.83.54.13.7-1.24.12.00.61.12.52.82.3
Central African Rep.-1.94.53.83.01.04.05.24.21.62.71.22.5
Chad4.5-2.42.33.0-0.26.11.8-0.94.0-1.02.22.9
Comoros3.24.23.61.9-1.23.12.00.11.73.33.02.1
Congo, Dem. Rep. of6.93.75.84.4-2.23.56.535.829.34.811.010.5
Congo, Rep. of3.7-1.81.6-0.9-2.33.42.70.41.22.22.12.6
Cote d’lvoire6.07.46.86.92.78.71.80.70.40.81.21.4
Equatorial Guinea-2.2-5.7-5.8-6.1-5.52.33.40.71.30.61.71.7
Eritrea6.5-10.013.03.80.15.98.5-13.3-14.4-16.44.52.4
Eswatini2.82.02.41.0-0.91.86.26.24.82.63.64.5
Ethiopia19.910.27.79.03.24.313.910.713.815.815.49.1
Gabon4.90.50.83.4-1.23.61.82.74.82.03.03.0
Gambia, The1.54.86.56.02.56.55.78.06.57.16.76.0
Ghana6.68.16.36.11.55.911.912.49.87.29.78.5
Guinea5.410.36.25.62.97.612.98.99.89.58.58.0
Guinea-Bissau3.94.83.84.6-1.53.01.7-0.20.40.20.81.5
Kenya6.04.96.35.61.06.17.68.04.75.25.15.0
Lesotho4.5-1.00.41.2-5.25.15.04.54.75.23.63.6
Liberia4.32.51.2-2.5-2.54.08.112.423.527.013.813.5
Madagascar2.63.94.64.80.45.07.18.68.65.65.56.5
Malawi4.24.03.24.51.02.518.911.59.29.414.010.7
Mali4.15.05.25.11.54.11.41.81.7-0.60.61.5
Mauritius3.83.83.83.5-6.85.93.23.73.20.54.77.0
Mozambique6.63.73.42.22.24.78.115.13.92.85.25.7
Namibia4.5-0.10.3-1.4-2.53.25.46.14.33.72.43.2
Niger6.25.07.05.81.08.11.00.22.8-2.54.41.7
Nigeria4.70.81.92.2-3.42.411.116.512.111.413.412.4
Rwanda7.16.18.610.13.56.74.14.81.42.46.95.4
Sao Tome & Principe4.83.93.01.3-6.05.59.25.78.38.47.97.0
Senegal4.67.46.45.33.05.51.11.10.51.02.01.9
Seychelles5.04.43.83.9-10.88.02.32.93.71.84.53.1
Sierra Leone5.43.83.55.1-2.34.06.918.216.014.815.415.2
South Africa2.11.40.80.2-5.84.05.45.34.64.12.43.2
South Sudan-7.4-5.5-1.111.34.93.295.9187.983.551.28.124.5
Tanzania6.66.87.06.32.04.68.75.33.53.43.94.3
Togo6.14.44.95.31.04.01.6-0.20.90.72.02.0
Uganda4.95.06.34.93.54.37.25.62.62.93.94.8
Zambia5.73.54.01.5-3.52.39.56.67.09.813.412.1
Zimbabwe28.24.73.5-8.3-7.42.51.10.910.6255.3319.03.7
Sub-Saharan Africa4.53.03.33.1-1.64.18.110.78.38.49.37.6
Median4.83.93.83.9-0.94.34.94.83.92.84.43.7
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa5.44.84.94.50.74.97.59.87.78.39.66.8
Oil-exporting countries4.30.51.51.8-2.82.610.517.112.211.112.612.2
Excluding Nigeria3.2-0.20.20.8-1.23.39.118.612.510.310.511.8
Oil-importing countries4.74.64.43.8-0.84.96.56.96.06.87.45.0
Excluding South Africa6.16.06.05.41.15.37.17.66.67.99.45.7
Middle-income countries4.12.12.32.1-2.83.88.210.98.27.58.48.1
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa4.93.83.83.4-0.35.17.29.36.76.07.47.4
Low-income countries6.15.86.05.71.74.78.010.38.910.812.06.2
Excluding low-income countries in fragile situations6.76.96.76.62.64.98.07.16.56.27.45.8
Countries in fragile situations5.24.14.94.10.35.65.911.89.614.515.35.4
CFA franc zone4.54.14.74.51.05.81.80.81.40.41.91.9
CEMAC3.30.31.71.8-1.74.02.40.82.11.72.52.5
WAEMU5.46.56.56.12.56.81.40.91.0-0.31.61.5
COMESA (SSA members)6.55.76.05.20.64.58.49.89.213.315.27.3
EAC-55.95.66.65.92.05.27.76.53.53.84.54.7
ECOWAS5.12.93.43.6-1.43.99.312.59.48.310.19.2
SACU2.31.41.00.3-5.64.15.45.24.54.02.43.2
SADC3.52.32.11.1-3.43.97.09.87.79.09.66.6
Sources: IMF, Common Surveillance database and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, April 2020.

Fiscal year data.

In 2019 Zimbabwe authorities introduced the RTGS dollar, later renamed the Zimbabwe dollar, and are in the process of redenominating their national accounts statistics. Current data are subject to revision. The Zimbabwe dollar previously ceased circulating in 2009 and, between 2009–19, Zimbabwe operated under a multi-currency regime with the US dollar as the unit of account.

Note: “…” denotes data not available.
Sources: IMF, Common Surveillance database and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, April 2020.

Fiscal year data.

In 2019 Zimbabwe authorities introduced the RTGS dollar, later renamed the Zimbabwe dollar, and are in the process of redenominating their national accounts statistics. Current data are subject to revision. The Zimbabwe dollar previously ceased circulating in 2009 and, between 2009–19, Zimbabwe operated under a multi-currency regime with the US dollar as the unit of account.

Note: “…” denotes data not available.
Table SA2.Overall Fiscal Balance, Including Grants and Government Debt
Overall Fiscal Balance, Including Grants (Percent of GDP)Government Debt (Percent of GDP)
2010–1620172018201920202021I 2010–1620172018201920202021
Angola0.3-6.32.20.7-6.0-2.542.769.389.0109.8132.2124.3
Benin-2.0-4.2-3.0-0.5-2.8-2.224.339.641.039.439.838.8
Botswana-0.2-1.1-4.6-6.2-5.9-3.118.213.414.214.816.215.8
Burkina Faso-2.8-6.9-4.4-3.0|-5.0-3.527.833.537.740.043.043.3
Burundi-4.1-7.2-5.3-6.0-9.0-6.840.948.653.459.467.768.0
Cabo Verde-7.6-3.0-2.8-1.8-8.3-4.3102.2127.2124.9121.2132.5127.7
Cameroon-3.3-4.9-2.5-2.3-4.5-3.621.537.739.540.945.245.9
Central African Rep.-1.8-1.1-1.01.4-2.40.442.750.350.047.846.243.6
Chad-2.0-0.21.9-0.2-0.4-2.236.449.848.444.247.246.5
Comoros2.20.4-1.0-2.2-3.8-2.719.818.421.125.331.233.6
Congo, Dem. Rep. of0.11.4-0.0-2.1-1.2-0.321.719.115.314.715.713.2
Congo, Rep. of-2.8-7.46.65.85.76.163.0117.790.395.3120.0106.9
Cote d’lvoire-2.1-3.3-2.9-2.3-5.3-2.537.436.939.737.842.140.7
Equatorial Guinea-7.0-2.60.51.7-4.8-2.416.336.239.541.454.252.2
Eritrea-6.1-6.04.2-1.5-5.0-4.5169.4202.5185.6189.2184.8174.7
Eswatini-3.7-7.0-11.2-8.0|-8.9-7.616.025.133.438.446.849.5
Ethiopia1-1.8-3.2-3.0-2.5-3.0-3.447.557.761.157.656.957.6
Gabon1.1-1.7-0.21.9-2.7-1.334.062.960.658.867.262.1
Gambia, The-4.3-5.0-6.2-2.6-2.4-2.160.287.086.682.580.374.6
Ghana-7.1-4.1-7.0-7.4-10.0-5.444.157.259.163.267.665.5
Guinea-3.9-2.1-1.1-0.5-4.3-4.143.940.538.034.543.845.3
Guinea-Bissau-2.3-1.3-4.8-4.9-4.1-3.955.852.560.169.870.971.1
Kenya-6.2-7.9-7.4-7.8-7.7-6.947.155.260.160.864.566.8
Lesotho-4.9-4.0-4.4-3.8|-2.0-7.039.138.047.148.551.050.5
Liberia-3.3-4.8-5.1-5.4-5.2-4.121.834.039.555.462.865.3
Madagascar-2.1-2.1-1.3-1.4-4.0-4.835.940.039.938.441.041.3
Malawi-4.1-7.3-5.5-6.4-6.3-5.247.461.163.163.468.069.1
Mali-2.6-2.9-4.8-1.7-5.8-3.327.836.037.740.544.745.3
Mauritius-3.0-1.4-2.3-6.5-10.6-5.959.164.366.272.883.783.7
Mozambique-5.2-2.9-6.9-0.2-7.7-6.161.9102.4107.2109.0125.4124.9
Namibia-6.1-5.0-5.3-4.7-7.0-7.229.343.950.253.266.667.7
Niger-3.3-4.1-3.0-3.6-4.2-3.321.839.639.042.047.145.8
Nigeria-2.2-5.4-4.3-5.0-6.4-5.817.825.327.229.435.337.0
Rwanda-2.1-2.5-2.6-5.2-8.1-4.620.932.334.838.655.157.1
Sao Tome & Principe-7.0-2.7-1.9-1.8-4.5-1.980.085.883.173.173.569.1
Senegal-4.0-3.0-3.6-3.9-5.6-3.338.161.162.164.267.467.6
Seychelles1.80.50.20.9-14.1-5.774.562.357.755.377.173.1
Sierra Leone-4.8-8.8-5.6-2.9-5.6-5.443.169.268.767.272.973.7
South Africa-4.4-4.4-4.1-6.3-13.3-12.743.753.056.762.277.485.6
South Sudan-9.33.3-0.6-0.3|-2.7-1.240.082.857.741.835.330.5
Tanzania-3.5-1.2-1.9-2.9-3.8-4.432.037.738.638.140.041.8
Togo-6.5-0.3-0.82.1-4.1-1.659.376.076.270.969.164.9
Uganda-3.6-3.2-3.8-6.7-6.8-6.624.733.735.640.046.350.7
Zambia-5.0-7.7-8.2-7.6-5.7-6.936.063.175.085.7109.9112.6
Zimbabwe2-1.3-8.1-4.5-2.6-4.9-1.543.352.937.311.03.22.6
Sub-Saharan Africa-3.1-4.5-3.6-4.3-7.0-6.033.145.648.450.155.957.4
Median-3.3-3.2-3.0-2.6-5.0-3.937.150.350.253.256.957.6
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa1 -2.9-4.2-3.0-3.3-5.3-3.937.451.654.455.759.559.0
Oil-exporting countries-1.9-5.3-2.5-3.4-5.8-4.923.738.741.943.948.748.4
Excluding Nigeria-1.3-5.11.20.5-4.0-2.136.862.971.079.288.283.6
Oil-importing countries-4.0-4.0-4.2-4.9-7.7-6.740.349.752.053.860.263.0
Excluding South Africa-3.6-3.9-4.2-4.2-5.6-4.338.147.949.649.853.653.9
Middle-income countries-3.2-5.0-3.8-4.9-8.1-6.932.545.549.352.159.361.1
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa1 -3.0-5.2-3.2-3.8-6.5-4.338.755.861.365.671.570.1
Low-income countries-2.7-2.8-2.7-2.6-4.0-3.635.846.045.544.046.747.0
Excluding low-income countries in fragile situations-3.0-3.1-3.1-3.0-4.3-4.335.647.549.749.552.153.1
Countries in fragile situations-2.2-3.0-1.8-1.6-3.6-1.937.945.641.838.541.440.1
CFA franc zone-2.6-3.6-2.0-1.3-4.2-2.531.646.246.947.151.450.1
CEMAC-2.7-3.60.00.3-2.6-1.830.052.450.851.357.855.6
WAEMU-2.8-3.6-3.4-2.3-5.0-2.833.542.344.344.548.047.2
COMESA (SSA members)-3.2-4.5-4.3-4.9-5.3-4.739.649.550.950.554.055.2
EAC-5-4.5-4.7-4.9-6.0-6.4-6.036.144.748.149.353.756.2
ECOWAS-2.8-4.8-4.3-4.5-6.4-5.123.533.435.536.842.142.5
SACU-4.3-4.3-4.3-6.2-12.5-11.941.950.554.259.273.481.0
SADC-3.2-4.2-3.0-4.41-8.9-8.140.852.856.961.170.774.4
Sources: IMF, Common Surveillance database and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, April 2020.

Fiscal year data.

In 2019 Zimbabwe authorities introduced the RTGS dollar, later renamed the Zimbabwe dollar, and are in the process of redenominating their national accounts statistics. Current data are subject to revision. The Zimbabwe dollar previously ceased circulating in 2009 and, between 2009–19, Zimbabwe operated under a multi-currency regime with the US dollar as the unit of account.

Note: “…” denotes data not available.
Sources: IMF, Common Surveillance database and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, April 2020.

Fiscal year data.

In 2019 Zimbabwe authorities introduced the RTGS dollar, later renamed the Zimbabwe dollar, and are in the process of redenominating their national accounts statistics. Current data are subject to revision. The Zimbabwe dollar previously ceased circulating in 2009 and, between 2009–19, Zimbabwe operated under a multi-currency regime with the US dollar as the unit of account.

Note: “…” denotes data not available.
Table SA3.Broad Money and External Current Account, Including Grants
Broad Money (Percent of GDP)External Current Account, Including Grants (Percent of GDP)
2010–16201720182019202020212010–1620172018201920202021
Angola35.832.229.331.531.531.83.1-0.57.02.9-6.7-3.0
Benin27.728.627.928.428.428.4-3.3-4.2-4.6-5.1-5.3-3.7
Botswana43.640.241.242.943.240.65.86.12.1-5.2-2.5-1.7
Burkina Faso28.138.638.941.345.047.4-5.0-5.0-4.1-4.4-4.3-4.5
Burundi21.121.325.532.433.333.3-17.4-14.2-15.0-16.4-17.1-16.6
Cabo Verde89.6104.699.498.2101.599.2-8.9-7.9-5.3-0.2-7.7-7.6
Cameroon21.722.624.424.524.124.1-3.4-2.7-3.6-3.7-5.7-4.8
Central African Rep.21.825.027.126.229.027.6-7.5-7.8-8.0-4.9-5.3-5.0
Chad13.715.314.317.018.317.8-9.2-7.1-1.4-4.9-12.9-10.1
Comoros23.227.228.228.027.727.5-2.8-2.1-2.8-3.8-5.7-4.5
Congo, Dem. Rep. of11.513.512.815.415.015.4-5.3-3.3-3.6-4.2-5.4-4.1
Congo, Rep. of34.834.126.228.940.738.6-9.1-3.57.28.4-1.2-2.8
Cote d’lvoire11.210.110.211.610.710.81.0-2.0-3.6-2.7-3.3-2.5
Equatorial Guinea14.916.515.415.518.918.3-9.0-5.8-5.4-5.8-10.4-7.0
Eritrea185.5252.5239.7237.7230.6222.410.224.019.012.110.29.4
Eswatini25.629.328.927.727.327.14.87.02.06.23.54.0
Ethiopia127.531.333.732.931.330.8-6.4-8.5-6.5-5.3-5.3-4.6
Gabon23.222.724.323.326.926.68.0-6.9-3.2-0.81-8.4-6.1
Gambia, The35.540.142.948.450.150.0-7.9-7.4-9.7-5.4-9.8-9.8
Ghana23.525.825.426.826.626.8-7.0-3.4-3.1-2.7-4.5-3.0
Guinea24.623.922.524.025.524.1-16.4-6.7-18.7-13.7-22.9-16.1
Guinea-Bissau35.141.143.045.545.545.5-2.50.3-3.5-10.21-7.4-6.4
Kenya41.437.237.535.735.536.8-7.7-6.2-5.0-4.5-4.6-4.4
Lesotho34.339.140.139.440.439.9-7.6-2.4-1.2-8.36.9-8.2
Liberia20.218.619.620.922.022.3-17.7-22.7-22.4-22.3-18.7-19.7
Madagascar22.225.825.524.827.327.3-4.3-0.40.7-2.5-2.9-3.0
Malawi24.423.623.622.622.622.6-11.2-25.6-20.5-17.2-17.9-17.9
Mali26.027.029.229.529.729.7-5.4-7.3-4.9-4.2-3.7-3.9
Mauritius101.3114.2115.1119.6119.6119.6-7.1-4.6-5.8-5.8-8.4-7.9
Mozambique31.134.335.037.938.038.0-32.8-19.1-30.9-42.2-68.8-74.0
Namibia58.857.958.963.663.663.6-8.0-4.0-2.7-2.3-0.4-1.0
Niger17.317.715.817.116.416.9-13.2-11.4-12.7-13.2-13.5-16.6
Nigeria21.224.725.423.924.024.21.62.81.3-3.8-3.3-2.5
Rwanda21.323.625.326.226.027.8-10.7-7.5-8.0-9.2-16.2-10.2
Sao Tome & Principe38.332.935.632.533.433.4-18.0-13.2-11.1-12.3-10.6-8.9
Senegal31.337.840.741.240.339.1-6.3-7.3-8.8-9.1-11.3-11.4
Seychelles62.876.477.683.182.683.1-19.7-20.1-17.9-16.7-27.8-23.6
Sierra Leone22.723.723.022.523.623.5-24.4-21.0-18.7-13.9-14.3-12.7
South Africa73.072.272.872.872.371.9-3.9-2.5-3.5-3.00.2-1.3
South Sudan20.013.913.711.213.413.2-0.2-3.4-9.3-Z5J-2.40.3
Tanzania23.120.720.319.720.420.8-9.0-2.9-3.5-3.2-3.8-3.8
Togo46.356.057.255.658.659.0-9.3-2.0-3.5-4.3-5.4-4.5
Uganda17.918.818.918.518.618.5-6.2-4.5-7.2-9.5-9.7-8.1
Zambia20.722.022.321.922.522.41.8-1.7-1.31.0-2.0-2.6
Zimbabwe222.128.523.621.315.016.1-10.9-1.3-5.91.1-1.9-1.9
Sub-Saharan Africa35.335.936.035.635.335.3-2.6-2.2-2.5-4.0-4.7-4.2
Median25.327.227.128.028.427.8-6.5-4.5-4.6-4.5-5.4-4.6
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa28.028.628.629.129.129.1-4.6-4.3-3.8-4.4-7.0-6.1
Oil-exporting countries23.125.225.324.525.025.11.21.01.7-2.6-4.2-3.0
Excluding Nigeria27.826.525.026.127.527.30.2-2.22.50.3-6.8-4.4
Oil-importing countries43.942.842.742.441.541.3-5.6-4.2-4.9-4.8-5.0-5.0
Excluding South Africa28.029.229.529.829.429.5-6.8-5.0-5.6-5.6-7.0-6.5
Middle-income countries38.739.139.238.838.438.5-1.1-1.0-1.1-3.0-3.2-2.8
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa31.230.830.431.231.331.2-1.7-2.9-1.3-2.2-5.1-4.1
Low-income countries24.126.326.626.826.826.9-8.8-6.3-7.1-7.0-8.9-8.2
Excluding low-income countries in fragile situations24.126.126.726.626.726.9-9.7-6.7-7.2-7.8-9.3-9.0
Countries in fragile situations21.722.521.722.622.922.6-5.4-4.8-5.4-4.3-6.6-5.4
CFA franc zone21.823.523.824.725.625.4-3.4-4.7-4.3-4.1-6.3-5.7
CEMAC21.422.422.122.825.424.9-3.4-4.7-2.3-2.2-7.1-5.8
WAEMU22.024.224.825.725.725.7-3.7-4.8-5.5-5.3-5.9-5.7
COMESA (SSA members)30.332.032.532.231.431.7-6.2-5.4-5.2-4.8-5.8-5.1
EAC-528.326.326.425.625.826.5-8.2-5.1-5.2-5.4-5.9-5.3
ECOWAS21.824.925.424.825.025.1-0.5-0.1-1.4-4.4-4.6-3.7
SACU70.469.470.070.269.769.2-3.5-2.1-3.2-3.00.1-1.3
SADC53.151.450.951.250.450.3-3.7-2.5-2.5-3.2-4.0-4.2
Sources: IMF, Common Surveillance database and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, April 2020.

Fiscal year data.

In 2019 Zimbabwe authorities introduced the RTGS dollar, later renamed the Zimbabwe dollar, and are in the process of redenominating their national accounts statistics. Current data are subject to revision. The Zimbabwe dollar previously ceased circulating in 2009 and, between 2009–19, Zimbabwe operated under a multi-currency regime with the US dollar as the unit of account.

Note: “…” denotes data not available.
Sources: IMF, Common Surveillance database and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, April 2020.

Fiscal year data.

In 2019 Zimbabwe authorities introduced the RTGS dollar, later renamed the Zimbabwe dollar, and are in the process of redenominating their national accounts statistics. Current data are subject to revision. The Zimbabwe dollar previously ceased circulating in 2009 and, between 2009–19, Zimbabwe operated under a multi-currency regime with the US dollar as the unit of account.

Note: “…” denotes data not available.
Table SA4.External Debt, Official Debt, Debtor Based and Reserves
External Debt, Official Debt, Debtor Based (Percent of GDP)Reserves (Months of imports of goods and services)
2010–16201720182019202020212010–1620172018201920202021
Angola25.238.246.558.085.479.98.18.47.711.59.39.2
Benin113.216.818.622.822.922.9
Botswana15.712.611.311.08.88.411.812.411.511.810.29.2
Burkina Faso121.022.120.722.422.921.8
Burundi20.716.016.116.619.418.93.01.30.80.70.70.7
Cabo Verde75.0100.699.598.7106.6100.45.05.25.88.47.7
Cameroon213.626.327.630.234.535.2
Central African Rep.222.329.526.927.226.624.9
Chad123.626.324.224.226.924.1
Comoros18.617.818.923.629.832.47.06.86.96.85.95.5
Congo, Dem. Rep. of16.614.612.912.613.111.31.20.40.50.80.91.5
Congo, Rep, of227.640.034.038.956.452.8
Cote d’lvoire124.124.026.926.631.530.8
Equatorial Guinea27.49.29.211.220.123.2
Eritrea62.270.964.461.758.154.03.12.32.62.32.22.7
Eswatini7.98.99.811.718.319.84.03.32.82.83.33.1
Ethiopia322.929.130.628.429.931.82.02.01.72.32.12.6
Gabon223.940.638.539.048.846.7
Gambia, The32.045.846.645.145.743.94.02.82.73.83.74.1
Ghana21.829.130.630.236.033.22.72.82.63.42.72.8
Guinea28.720.519.319.329.032.72.31.42.12.32.12.3
Guinea-Bissau124.718.220.823.923.623.5
Kenya22.127.130.431.331.330.84.14.24.86.04.74.4
Lesotho33.336.436.234.140.534.05.04.43.44.93.93.5
Liberia10.824.228.636.243.346.41.92.52.32.52.62.8
Madagascar22.624.825.627.028.930.32.83.84.34.53.53.7
Malawi21.832.831.129.729.631.32.03.13.03.23.33.4
Mali121.426.224.026.328.628.4
Mauritius14.112.911.213.916.817.96.19.510.216.47.96.9
Mozambique50.794.391.393.0105.1108.73.13.72.93.22.42.0
Namibia9.416.216.118.320.919.02.61.72.02.82.93.3
Niger115.025.323.225.329.328.6
Nigeria6.515.616.515.517.416.95.96.65.16.13.93.2
Rwanda21.337.340.845.147.748.44.84.44.75.53.63.6
Sao Tome & Principe77.978.066.366.773.569.14.03.62.73.83.03.2
Senegal126.539.444.947.148.647.3
Seychelles41.229.328.426.932.327.03.33.53.65.32.01.8
Sierra Leone28.340.538.639.746.848.72.74.03.54.03.63.4
South Africa13.621.318.221.422.022.15.35.66.08.97.67.0
South Sudan2.40.10.20.60.20.3
Tanzania23.828.628.827.428.128.84.26.25.74.94.64.4
Togo116.321.119.723.526.225.4
Uganda14.521.623.626.629.030.14.74.54.14.13.73.5
Zambia19.336.741.750.570.773.23.02.22.12.21.10.8
Zimbabwe436.631.133.939.142.242.50.50.50.20.20.20.2
Sub-Saharan Africa15.424.224.625.728.728.15.05.04.65.94.44.2
Median21.526.327.227.129.730.83.53.63.03.83.33.3
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa21.929.230.732.336.536.14.24.03.84.63.73.7
Oil-exporting countries11.222.123.523.527.326.16.06.45.26.54.43.9
Excluding Nigeria21.834.137.643.857.855.16.46.05.37.45.95.8
Oil-importing countries18.625.425.226.929.529.34.14.24.35.54.54.4
Excluding South Africa22.127.728.829.532.332.33.33.43.33.93.23.3
Middle-income countries13.723.023.524.728.027.15.55.65.26.95.14.7
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa21.330.032.735.541.940.65.44.94.76.24.74.6
Low-income countries23.128.228.228.630.631.22.72.82.62.82.62.7
Excluding low-income countries in fragile situations22.830.631.331.433.134.23.13.73.33.53.13.2
Countries in fragile situations23.925.024.625.228.928.32.71.51.72.22.12.4
CFA franc zone19.626.627.329.133.432.75.03.23.64.63.93.9
CEMAC17.527.927.329.636.436.04.82.32.83.73.73.7
WAEMU21.525.727.328.831.731.05.14.04.45.54.14.0
COMESA (SSA members)21.026.227.628.630.731.13.03.03.13.83.03.1
EAC-520.926.929.029.830.630.84.34.84.95.24.44.2
ECOWAS11.019.821.020.423.222.45.05.24.15.13.53.1
SACU13.620.717.920.721.421.45.45.76.18.77.56.9
SADC18.226.425.728.832.932.35.35.65.67.66.15.8
Sources: IMF, Common Surveillance database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, April 2020

As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), see WAEMU aggregate for reserves data.

As a member of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC), see CEMAC aggregate for reserves data.

Fiscal year data.

In 2019 Zimbabwe authorities introduced the RTGS dollar, later renamed the Zimbabwe dollar, and are in the process of redenominating their national accounts statistics. Current data are subject to revision. The Zimbabwe dollar previously ceased circulating in 2009 and, between 2009–19, Zimbabwe operated under a multi-currency regime with the US dollar as the unit of account.

Note: “…” denotes data not available.
Sources: IMF, Common Surveillance database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, April 2020

As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), see WAEMU aggregate for reserves data.

As a member of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC), see CEMAC aggregate for reserves data.

Fiscal year data.

In 2019 Zimbabwe authorities introduced the RTGS dollar, later renamed the Zimbabwe dollar, and are in the process of redenominating their national accounts statistics. Current data are subject to revision. The Zimbabwe dollar previously ceased circulating in 2009 and, between 2009–19, Zimbabwe operated under a multi-currency regime with the US dollar as the unit of account.

Note: “…” denotes data not available.

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