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Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Published Date:
October 2019
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Statistical Appendix

Unless noted otherwise, data and projections presented in this Regional Economic Outlook are IMF staff estimates as of September 30, 2019, consistent with the projections underlying the October 2019 World Economic Outlook.

The data and projections cover 45 sub-Saharan African countries in the IMF’s African Department. Data definitions follow established international statistical methodologies to the extent possible. However, in some cases, data limitations limit comparability across countries.

Additional tables for historical and forecasts for key macroeconomic variables are posted online in the Background Paper and Expanded Statistical Appendix document: https://www.imf.org/~/media/ Files/Publications/REO/AFR/2019/October/ English/backgroundpapers.ashx?la=en

Country Groupings

Countries are aggregated into three (non-overlapping) groups: oil exporters, other resource-intensive countries, and non-resource-intensive countries (see table on page 60 for the country groupings).

  • The oil exporters are countries where net oil exports make up 30 percent or more of total exports.
  • The other resource-intensive countries are those where nonrenewable natural resources represent 25 percent or more of total exports.
  • The non-resource-intensive countries refer to those that are not classified as either oil exporters or other resource-intensive countries.

Countries are also aggregated into four (overlapping) groups: oil exporters, middle-income, low-income, and countries in fragile situations (see table on page 60 for the country groupings).

The membership of these groups reflects the most recent data on per capita gross national income (averaged over three years) and the World Bank, Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) score (averaged over three years).

  • The middle-income countries had per capita gross national income in the years 2016–18 of more than US$1,025.00 (World Bank, using the Atlas method).
  • The low-income countries had average per capita gross national income in the years 2016–18 equal to or lower than US$1,025.00 (World Bank, Atlas method).
  • The countries in fragile situations had average CPIA scores of 3.2 or less in the years 2016–18 and/or had the presence of a peace-keeping or peace-building mission within the last three years.
  • The membership of sub-Saharan African countries in the major regional cooperation bodies is shown on page 60: CFA franc zone, comprising the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) and CEMAC; the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA); the East Africa Community (EAC-5); the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS); the Southern African Development Community (SADC); and the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU). EAC-5 aggregates include data for Rwanda and Burundi, which joined the group only in 2007.

Methods of Aggregation

In Tables SA1 and SA3, country group composites for real GDP growth and broad money are calculated as the arithmetic average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity as a share of total group GDP. Te source of purchasing power parity weights is the World Economic Outlook (WEO) database.

In Table SA1, country group composites for consumer prices are calculated as the geometric average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity as a share of total group GDP. Te source of purchasing power parity weights is the WEO database.

In Tables SA2SA4, country group composites except for broad money, are calculated as the arithmetic average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP in US dollars at market exchange rates as a share of total group GDP.

Sub-Saharan Africa: Member Countries of Groupings
Oil exportersOther resource-intensive countriesNon-resource-intensive countriesMiddle-income countriesLow-income countriesCountries in fragile situations
Angola

Cameroon

Chad

Congo, Republic of

Equatorial Guinea

Gabon

Nigeria

South Sudan
Botswana

Burkina Faso

Central African Rep.

Congo, Dem. Rep. of

Ghana

Guinea

Liberia

Mali

Namibia

Niger

Sierra Leone

South Africa

Tanzania

Zambia

Zimbabwe
Benin

Burundi

Cabo Verde

Comoros

Côte d’Ivoire

Eritrea

Eswatini

Ethiopia

Gambia, The

Guinea-Bissau

Kenya

Lesotho

Madagascar

Malawi

Mauritius

Mozambique

Rwanda

São Tomé & Príncipe

Senegal

Seychelles

Togo

Uganda
Angola

Botswana

Cabo Verde

Cameroon

Congo, Republic of

Côte d’Ivoire

Equatorial Guinea

Eswatini

Gabon

Ghana

Kenya

Lesotho

Mauritius

Namibia

Nigeria

São Tomé & Príncipe

Senegal

Seychelles

South Africa

Zambia
Benin

Burkina Faso

Burundi

Central African

Rep.

Chad

Comoros

Congo, Dem. Rep. of

Eritrea

Ethiopia

Gambia, The

Guinea

Guinea-Bissau

Liberia

Madagascar
Malawi

Mali

Mozambique

Niger

Rwanda

Sierra Leone

South Sudan

Tanzania

Togo

Uganda

Zimbabwe
Burundi

Central African Rep.

Chad

Comoros

Congo, Dem. Rep. of

Congo, Republic of

Côte d’Ivoire

Eritrea

Gambia, The

Guinea

Guinea-Bissau

Liberia

Malawi

Mali

São Tomé & Príncipe

Sierra Leone

South Sudan

Togo

Zimbabwe
Sub-Saharan Africa: Member Countries of Regional Groupings
The West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)Economic and Monetary Community of Central African States (CEMAC)Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)East Africa Community (EAC-5)Southern African Development Community (SADC)Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU)Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
Benin

Burkina Faso

Côte d’Ivoire

Guinea-Bissau

Mali

Niger

Senegal

Togo
Cameroon

Central African Rep.

Chad

Congo, Republic of

Equatorial Guinea

Gabon
Burundi

Comoros

Congo, Dem. Rep. of

Eritrea

Eswatini

Ethiopia

Kenya

Madagascar

Malawi

Mauritius

Rwanda

Seychelles

Uganda

Zambia

Zimbabwe
Burundi

Kenya

Rwanda

Tanzania

Uganda
Angola

Botswana

Comoros

Congo, Dem. Rep. of

Eswatini

Lesotho

Madagascar

Malawi

Mauritius

Mozambique

Namibia

Seychelles

South Africa

Tanzania

Zambia

Zimbabwe
Botswana

Eswatini

Lesotho

Namibia

South Africa
Benin

Burkina Faso

Cabo Verde

Côte d’Ivoire

Gambia, The

Ghana

Guinea

Guinea-Bissau

Liberia

Mali

Niger

Nigeria

Senegal

Sierra Leone

Togo

List of Appendix Tables SA1—SA4:

SA1. Real GDP Growth and Consumer Prices, Average

SA2. Overall Fiscal Balance, Including Grants and Government Debt

SA3. Broad Money and External Current Account, Including Grants

SA4. External Debt, Official Debt, Debtor Based and Reserves

Table SA1.Real GDP Growth and Consumer Prices
Real GDPConsumer Prices, Annual Average
(Annual percent change)(Annual percent change)
2010-15201620172018201920202010-1520162017201820192020
Angola4.6-2.6-0.2-1.2-0.31.210.630.729.819.617.215.0
Benin4.23.35.76.76.66.72.0-0.81.80.8-0.31.0
Botswana5.54.32.94.53.54.36.12.83.33.23.03.5
Burkina Faso5.95.96.36.86.06.01.2-0.20.42.01.11.4
Burundi3.3-1.00.00.10.40.58.75.516.61.27.39.0
Cabo Verde1.54.73.75.15.05.01.7-1.40.81.31.21.6
Cameroon4.84.63.54.14.04.22.20.90.61.12.12.2
Central African Rep.-3.04.74.53.84.55.05.24.64.51.63.02.6
Chad6.2-5.6-2.42.42.35.42.4-1.6-0.94.03.03.0
Comoros3.12.63.03.01.34.22.20.80.11.73.21.4
Congo, Dem. Rep. of7.72.43.75.84.33.97.03.235.829.35.55.0
Congo, Rep. of4.8-2.8-1.81.64.02.82.63.20.41.21.51.8
Côte d'Ivoire5.88.07.77.47.57.32.00.70.70.41.02.0
Equatorial Guinea-1.2-8.8–4.7-5.7-4.6-5.03.81.40.71.30.91.7
Eritrea6.47.4-9.612.23.13.910.9-5.6-13.3-14.4-27.60.0
Eswatini3.11.32.02.41.30.56.07.86.24.82.84.0
Ethiopia110.28.010.17.77.47.215.16.610.713.814.612.7
Gabon5.42.10.50.82.93.41.72.12.74.83.03.0
Gambia, The1.41.94.86.56.56.45.57.28.06.56.96.5
Ghana7.93.48.16.37.55.611.017.512.49.89.39.2
Guinea4.510.810.05.85.96.013.68.28.99.88.98.3
Guinea-Bissau3.66.35.93.84.64.91.61.51.11.4-2.61.3
Kenya6.05.94.96.35.66.07.86.38.04.75.65.3
Lesotho4.22.70.52.82.8-0.24.86.24.54.75.95.7
Liberia5.3-1.62.51.20.41.68.08.812.423.522.220.5
Madagascar2.24.24.35.25.25.37.36.78.37.36.76.3
Malawi4.62.34.03.24.55.118.421.711.59.28.88.4
Mali3.95.85.44.75.05.01.9-1.81.81.70.21.3
Mauritius3.83.83.83.83.73.83.61.03.73.20.92.3
Mozambique7.03.83.73.31.86.06.119.915.13.95.67.6
Namibia5.71.1-0.9-0.1-0.21.65.26.76.14.34.85.5
Niger6.64.94.96.56.36.00.50.20.22.7-1.32.2
Nigeria5.8-1.60.81.92.32.510.415.716.512.111.311.7
Rwanda7.36.06.18.67.88.13.85.74.81.43.55.0
São Tomé & Príncipe4.94.23.92.72.73.59.85.45.77.98.88.9
Senegal4.36.47.16.76.06.81.00.81.30.51.01.5
Seychelles5.14.54.34.13.53.32.8-1.02.93.72.01.8
Sierra Leone5.36.43.83.55.04.76.210.918.216.915.713.0
South Africa2.30.41.40.80.71.15.26.35.34.64.45.2
South Sudan-5.1-16.7-5.5-1.17.98.224.9379.8187.983.524.516.9
Tanzania6.56.96.87.05.25.79.25.25.33.53.64.2
Togo6.15.64.44.95.15.31.70.9-0.20.91.42.0
Uganda5.32.35.06.16.26.27.55.55.62.63.23.8
Zambia6.03.83.53.72.01.78.117.96.67.09.910.0
Zimbabwe29.40.74.73.5-7.12.71.5-1.60.910.6161.849.7
Sub-Saharan Africa5.11.43.03.23.23.67.710.810.98.58.48.0
Median5.03.83.83.84.34.94.95.24.83.93.54.2
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa5.83.54.74.84.65.07.39.910.07.98.37.2
Oil-exporting countries5.3-1.80.51.52.12.59.417.517.112.210.810.8
Excluding Nigeria4.1-2.1-0.20.21.52.46.822.318.612.59.68.4
Oil-importing countries4.93.54.54.33.94.36.66.57.06.16.96.4
Excluding South Africa6.45.16.16.05.45.67.46.67.86.88.06.9
Middle-income countries4.70.42.02.32.52.87.711.611.08.37.88.1
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa5.32.73.73.74.14.16.711.19.66.96.86.6
Low-income countries6.54.45.85.95.25.98.08.610.59.19.97.8
Excluding low-income countries in fragile situations6.95.97.06.76.16.48.65.97.26.66.86.8
Countries in fragile situations5.62.53.94.84.25.25.410.612.610.312.27.5
CFA franc zone4.63.43.94.64.95.12.00.60.91.51.21.9
CEMAC3.9-0.20.41.72.53.02.51.20.82.12.22.4
WAEMU5.26.36.56.56.46.51.50.11.01.00.61.6
COMESA (SSA members)6.84.85.76.05.05.58.76.69.99.312.09.1
EAC-56.05.45.66.55.66.08.05.76.53.64.34.6
ECOWAS5.90.62.83.43.83.88.912.712.99.78.99.3
SACU2.60.61.41.00.81.25.36.25.24.54.35.1
SADC3.91.32.32.11.52.36.69.79.87.78.67.4
Sources: IMF, Common Surveillance database and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, October 2019.

Fiscal year data.

In February, 2019, Zimbabwe adopted a new local currency unit, the RTGS dollar, which has become the official unit of account. Efforts are underway to revise and update all national accounts series to the new RTGS dollar. Current data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in US (and RTGS) dollars. Staff estimates of US dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Sources: IMF, Common Surveillance database and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, October 2019.

Fiscal year data.

In February, 2019, Zimbabwe adopted a new local currency unit, the RTGS dollar, which has become the official unit of account. Efforts are underway to revise and update all national accounts series to the new RTGS dollar. Current data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in US (and RTGS) dollars. Staff estimates of US dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Table SA2.Overall Fiscal Balance, Including Grants and Government Debt
Overall Fiscal Balance, Including GrantsGovernment Debt
(Percent of GDP)(Percent of GDP)
2010-15201620172018201920202010-1520162017201820192020
Angola1.1-4.5-6.32.20.80.137.275.769.389.095.089.9
Benin-0.4-4.3-4.2-3.0-2.3-1.822.335.939.641.040.939.7
Botswana4.50.7-1.1-3.0-3.1-2.518.615.613.412.112.312.0
Burkina Faso-0.8-3.6-7.9-5.0-3.0-3.030.339.238.442.942.942.6
Burundi-8.2-6.2-7.8-8.6-9.1-10.041.448.451.758.463.569.1
Cabo Verde-3.4-3.0-3.0-2.8-2.2-1.497.9128.4127.2124.5123.5118.9
Cameroon7.9-6.1-4.9-2.5-2.3-2.119.632.837.639.140.540.5
Central African Rep.0.51.1-1.10.42.60.640.853.950.349.944.539.2
Chad1.2-1.9-0.21.90.31.834.251.549.848.344.740.2
Comoros-1.0-4.40.4-1.0-3.3-2.220.216.918.421.024.328.2
Congo, Dem. Rep. of0.2-0.51.40.4-0.10.121.721.719.115.313.511.6
Congo, Rep. of14.6-20.4-7.46.68.68.453.6118.6117.587.878.573.3
Côte d'Ivoire-1.0-4.0-4.5-4.0-3.0-3.052.148.449.853.252.751.5
Equatorial Guinea16.3-10.9-2.60.50.90.512.443.438.043.345.446.5
Eritrea-24.03.91.810.90.6-2.8175.9170.1196.2174.3165.1161.4
Eswatini1.4-10.8-8.6-10.5-8.8–4.814.825.027.535.240.942.5
Ethiopia1-3.4-2.3-3.3-3.0-2.8-3.046.155.858.661.059.154.4
Gabon8.5-4.7-1.7-0.21.60.929.064.262.660.756.454.0
Gambia, The-1.7-6.4-5.0-6.2-3.4-3.856.780.987.086.680.975.0
Ghana-3.8-6.9-4.1-7.0-7.1-6.141.857.157.359.363.863.5
Guinea-1.1-0.1-2.1-1.1-2.6-2.044.242.540.638.245.444.8
Guinea-Bissau-5.4-5.6-1.4-5.2–4.9-3.959.562.557.264.369.268.2
Kenya-1.9-8.5-7.9-7.4-7.4-6.645.954.555.260.161.661.3
Lesotho7.6-8.0-3.4-5.1-4.1-2.937.237.037.144.545.946.9
Liberia0.5-3.7-5.1-5.4-6.0-6.620.728.334.039.945.551.1
Madagascar-2.6-1.3-2.4-1.5-2.3–4.536.747.146.045.746.547.5
Malawi-2.3-7.3-7.3-5.5–4.9-2.846.661.361.562.965.163.9
Mali3.6-3.9-2.9-4.7-3.0-3.026.436.036.037.337.638.2
Mauritius-3.6-3.5-1.4-2.2-2.3-2.858.265.064.366.268.769.4
Mozambique-2.9-6.0-3.1-5.2-6.5–4.856.0129.9100.599.8108.8106.8
Namibia1.9-8.6-4.7-4.9-5.5–4.626.042.641.045.849.250.9
Niger7.1-6.1-5.7-4.1–4.2-3.026.744.654.453.855.854.3
Nigeria4.7-4.0-5.4-4.5-5.0–4.716.923.425.327.329.831.4
Rwanda0.6-2.3-2.5-2.6-3.7–4.121.832.936.540.749.150.6
São Tomé & Príncipe31.5-4.2-2.7-1.9-1.7-0.377.595.391.774.577.265.5
Senegal-2.0-3.3-2.5-3.6-3.0-3.036.547.561.261.663.363.1
Seychelles-0.70.20.40.20.91.675.569.063.256.953.849.7
Sierra Leone2.2-8.5-8.8-5.8-3.6–4.239.855.557.963.064.565.4
South Africa0.1-4.1-4.4-4.4-6.2-6.742.451.553.056.759.964.2
South Sudan...-15.53.31.22.43.825.085.763.242.234.427.4
Tanzania-2.5-2.1-1.2-1.9-2.9-3.530.336.436.637.337.738.2
Togo-1.5-9.5-0.3-0.8-2.7-2.155.681.476.076.272.668.7
Uganda-0.8-4.8-3.8-4.2-6.6-8.627.237.139.741.443.647.0
Zambia2.1-6.1-7.7-8.3–4.8-5.131.860.761.878.191.695.5
Zimbabwe2-2.9-6.2-8.1–4.5-2.7-1.241.554.252.937.117.715.1
Sub-Saharan Africa1.7-4.4-4.6-3.7–4.3–4.331.744.446.249.050.250.4
Median-0.6-4.4-3.3-3.0-3.0-3.035.151.552.953.252.751.1
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa1.1-4.8-4.3-2.9-3.1-3.136.153.152.955.756.655.0
Oil-exporting countries5.3-4.6-5.3-2.6-3.3-3.321.636.438.641.942.141.2
Excluding Nigeria6.6-6.0-5.11.20.70.432.065.762.670.771.767.6
Oil-importing countries-0.5-4.3-4.1-4.3–4.8–4.939.949.950.953.255.155.9
Excluding South Africa-1.1-4.4-4.0-4.2–4.2–4.038.149.049.751.252.651.9
Middle-income countries2.2-4.7-5.1-4.0-4.7-4.731.043.546.049.951.452.0
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa2.5-6.0-5.3-3.2-3.3-3.236.857.557.263.165.063.3
Low-income countries-1.2-3.2-2.9-2.6-2.9-3.035.147.447.246.246.445.3
Excluding low-income countries in fragile situations-1.5-3.1-3.2-3.1-3.5-3.935.549.149.651.552.251.1
Countries in fragile situations0.6-4.4-3.0-1.6-1.4-1.139.249.048.343.841.840.1
CFA franc zone4.6-5.5-3.9-2.2-1.5-1.532.048.150.651.150.649.4
CEMAC9.3-7.3-3.60.10.60.626.551.652.550.949.447.6
WAEMU-0.1-4.3-4.1-3.9-3.0-2.937.745.549.251.251.550.6
COMESA (SSA members)-1.6-4.5-4.6-4.2–4.2–4.339.049.750.852.253.152.1
EAC-5-1.9-5.5-4.9-5.0-5.7-5.935.844.645.949.351.151.9
ECOWAS2.8-4.3-5.0-4.6–4.7–4.422.931.534.436.738.539.1
SACU0.3-4.1-4.3-4.5-6.1-6.440.649.050.454.056.960.9
SADC0.3-3.9-4.3-3.0–4.2–4.538.853.352.756.858.960.1
Sources: IMF, Common Surveillance database and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, October 2019.

Fiscal year data.

In February, 2019, Zimbabwe adopted a new local currency unit, the RTGS dollar, which has become the official unit of account. Efforts are underway to revise and update all national accounts series to the new RTGS dollar. Current data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in US (and RTGS) dollars. Staff estimates of US dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Note: “...” denotes data not available.
Sources: IMF, Common Surveillance database and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, October 2019.

Fiscal year data.

In February, 2019, Zimbabwe adopted a new local currency unit, the RTGS dollar, which has become the official unit of account. Efforts are underway to revise and update all national accounts series to the new RTGS dollar. Current data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in US (and RTGS) dollars. Staff estimates of US dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Note: “...” denotes data not available.
Table SA3.Broad Money and External Current Account, Including Grants
Broad MoneyExternal Current Account, Including Grants
(Percent of GDP)(Percent of GDP)
2010-15201620172018201920202010-1520162017201820192020
Angola35.239.532.229.330.229.34.4-4.8-0.56.10.9-0.7
Benin27.429.828.627.927.927.9-6.2-6.8-7.3-6.0-6.1-5.8
Botswana43.941.440.241.341.941.85.47.85.31.9-3.0-1.0
Burkina Faso30.540.544.244.647.250.4-5.5-7.2-7.3-5.8-5.7–4.0
Burundi24.621.722.925.826.426.3-16.8-13.1-12.3-13.4-12.6-11.9
Cabo Verde87.4102.6104.699.499.799.5-9.7-3.9-6.6–4.5-4.4–4.2
Cameroon21.622.522.624.424.524.5-3.4-3.2-2.7-3.7-3.7-3.5
Central African Rep.21.225.225.027.128.530.1-7.9-5.3-7.8-8.0-4.1–4.9
Chad13.415.715.515.516.416.6-9.0-10.2-6.6-3.4-6.4-6.1
Comoros22.427.527.128.128.128.1-2.5-4.3-2.2-3.8-8.0-7.4
Congo, Dem. Rep. of11.114.113.512.813.013.1-5.5-4.1-3.2–4.6-3.4–4.2
Congo, Rep. of33.542.734.126.227.929.5-0.0-63.5-5.96.76.85.3
Côte d'Ivoire15.614.613.613.715.314.91.8-1.2-2.7–4.7-3.8-3.8
Equatorial Guinea14.517.416.415.216.117.2-8.4-13.0-5.8-5.4-5.9-6.2
Eritrea178.1223.4257.9247.2238.4239.99.415.323.816.611.313.2
Eswatini24.929.629.328.929.429.54.37.87.02.02.55.0
Ethiopia127.328.931.733.633.632.8-5.9-9.4-8.6-6.5-6.0-5.3
Gabon23.024.722.724.327.130.011.0-9.9–4.4-2.40.10.9
Gambia, The35.436.140.142.944.845.3-7.7-9.2–7.4-9.7-9.4-13.1
Ghana23.126.425.825.527.127.7-7.3-5.2-3.4-3.1-3.6-3.8
Guinea24.525.224.022.721.020.4-13.8-31.9-7.1-18.4-20.7-17.7
Guinea-Bissau35.947.944.746.044.645.5-3.41.30.3–4.5-4.2-3.7
Kenya41.639.737.237.537.636.2-8.2-4.9-6.2-5.0-4.7–4.6
Lesotho32.831.436.134.833.833.8-7.4-8.4–4.7-8.6-14.6–4.9
Liberia23.320.519.921.323.624.5-21.7-18.6-23.4-23.4-21.2-21.0
Madagascar25.628.029.729.330.230.6-5.90.6-0.50.8-1.6-2.7
Malawi24.622.823.623.723.723.7-10.0-18.5-25.6-15.3-14.3-14.2
Mali25.727.826.828.928.929.0-5.1-7.2-7.3-3.8-5.5-5.5
Mauritius99.9109.9114.2115.1115.1115.1-7.6-4.0–4.6-5.8-7.2-6.5
Mozambique32.837.135.836.734.132.7-34.6-39.0-20.0-30.4-58.0-66.7
Namibia58.451.852.154.354.354.3-6.6-15.4-5.0-2.1-4.1-2.3
Niger22.626.824.421.821.921.2-18.0-15.5-15.7-18.1-20.0-22.7
Nigeria20.525.424.725.426.527.41.80.72.81.3-0.2-0.1
Rwanda20.923.923.625.327.028.5-9.7-14.3-6.8-7.8-9.2-8.7
São Tomé & Príncipe38.835.032.935.032.832.8-20.2-6.6-13.2-10.9-11.5-9.0
Senegal30.337.337.940.342.641.5-6.6-4.0-7.3-8.8-8.5-11.1
Seychelles61.471.877.477.778.580.0-19.5-20.6-20.4-17.0-16.7-17.0
Sierra Leone22.425.123.723.023.323.2-27.0-4.4-14.4-13.8-12.3-10.5
South Africa73.172.472.472.472.472.4–4.1-2.9-2.5-3.5-3.1-3.6
South Sudan18.925.613.913.714.714.5-1.14.9-3.4-6.52.3–4.2
Tanzania23.421.420.720.320.019.9-9.8-4.3-3.0-3.7-4.1-3.6
Togo45.153.656.057.258.158.6-9.2-9.8-2.0–4.9-6.3-5.5
Uganda20.621.722.322.222.823.3-7.9-3.4-5.0-8.9-11.5-10.5
Zambia20.720.622.022.522.522.42.5-4.5-3.9-2.6-3.6-3.4
Zimbabwe221.227.128.523.418.016.5-12.1-3.6-1.3–4.9-0.5-2.5
Sub-Saharan Africa35.737.436.636.636.936.9-2.5-3.9-2.3-2.7-3.6-3.8
Median25.727.828.527.928.129.3-7.0-5.2-5.0–4.9-5.5–4.9
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa28.630.629.629.630.029.8–4.4-6.8–4.6–4.1-5.6-5.8
Oil-exporting countries22.527.025.225.326.327.01.8-2.01.11.5-0.3-0.5
Excluding Nigeria27.331.126.525.026.026.01.6-8.1-2.12.0-0.6-1.6
Oil-importing countries45.244.544.143.843.643.1-5.8-5.2-4.4-5.1-5.6-5.8
Excluding South Africa29.130.530.530.731.030.8-7.3-6.4-5.4-6.0-6.9-6.9
Middle-income countries38.840.639.639.640.140.2-0.9-2.6-1.1-1.2-2.1-2.2
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa31.933.731.631.332.232.0-1.1-5.6-3.1-1.6-3.1-3.4
Low-income countries24.827.027.427.727.627.5-9.4-8.3-6.6-7.4-8.6-8.7
Excluding low-income countries in fragile situations25.226.827.628.128.228.2-10.7-8.6-7.2-7.7-9.7-9.7
Countries in fragile situations23.025.824.523.723.623.5–4.8-9.1–4.9-5.5-5.1-5.4
CFA franc zone23.126.425.726.027.227.7-3.1-8.4-5.4–4.8-4.8-5.1
CEMAC21.024.022.422.323.424.3-1.8-12.8–4.4-2.5-2.3-2.3
WAEMU25.128.328.128.729.829.8–4.6-5.2-6.1-6.6-6.6-7.0
COMESA (SSA members)31.032.433.133.433.332.9-6.3-5.8-5.7-5.5-5.5-5.3
EAC-529.428.327.227.327.427.1-8.9-5.1-5.2-5.5-5.9-5.5
ECOWAS21.826.225.726.227.328.0-0.5-1.6-0.1-1.5-2.4-2.3
SACU70.569.469.469.569.469.4-3.7-2.7-2.2-3.2-3.2-3.4
SADC53.552.951.851.050.750.3-3.6-4.2-2.6-2.7-4.1–4.8
Sources: IMF, Common Surveillance database and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, October 2019.

Fiscal year data.

In February, 2019, Zimbabwe adopted a new local currency unit, the RTGS dollar, which has become the official unit of account. Efforts are underway to revise and update all national accounts series to the new RTGS dollar. Current data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in US (and RTGS) dollars. Staff estimates of US dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Note: “...” denotes data not available.
Sources: IMF, Common Surveillance database and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, October 2019.

Fiscal year data.

In February, 2019, Zimbabwe adopted a new local currency unit, the RTGS dollar, which has become the official unit of account. Efforts are underway to revise and update all national accounts series to the new RTGS dollar. Current data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in US (and RTGS) dollars. Staff estimates of US dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Note: “...” denotes data not available.
Table SA4.External Debt, Official Debt, Debtor Based and Reserves
External Debt, Offial Debt, Debtor BasedReserves
(Percent of GDP)(Months of imports of goods and services)
2010-15201620172018201920202010-1520162017201820192020
Angola22.044.438.246.555.159.07.810.38.37.26.97.5
Benin112.815.516.818.624.123.7.........
Botswana12.510.013.911.210.58.911.513.612.311.39.08.8
Burkina Faso123.426.625.323.423.622.8..................
Burundi21.216.715.314.914.113.53.41.41.41.31.31.3
Cabo Verde72.392.199.688.191.488.64.86.05.35.45.35.2
Cameroon212.421.326.127.531.331.8..................
Central African Rep.221.527.229.526.826.424.8..................
Chad223.225.726.324.225.123.1..................
Comoros19.115.417.718.922.726.77.16.66.85.85.45.3
Congo, Dem. Rep. of16.914.814.612.911.49.81.40.60.40.50.80.8
Congo, Rep. of 224.049.339.328.728.930.6..................
Côte d'Ivoire134.227.732.436.037.736.3..................
Equatorial Guinea27.19.19.29.212.314.7..................
Eritrea62.759.670.364.458.055.23.22.82.42.41.93.1
Eswatini7.79.18.99.811.613.14.13.53.32.72.42.8
Ethiopia321.629.229.630.729.928.02.02.12.01.71.92.1
Gabon221.935.640.638.540.541.1..................
Gambia, The30.740.345.846.643.741.74.51.32.82.73.13.6
Ghana20.429.929.127.830.331.92.82.62.82.72.32.1
Guinea29.722.520.619.529.230.92.41.41.41.82.12.3
Guinea-Bissau127.222.819.822.324.524.0..................
Kenya21.926.727.130.432.131.84.14.74.24.54.84.6
Lesotho31.035.133.633.834.835.55.24.44.33.23.33.0
Liberia9.320.124.228.032.436.92.02.82.92.61.91.2
Madagascar26.128.128.529.431.433.12.83.03.84.04.24.1
Malawi20.331.332.831.229.829.42.02.63.43.23.23.5
Mali121.023.926.223.725.825.4..................
Mauritius14.114.612.911.213.815.35.78.39.510.111.311.4
Mozambique46.899.891.584.091.290.33.12.83.72.31.91.9
Namibia7.916.615.214.816.916.62.62.51.71.72.12.5
Niger118.628.934.732.036.337.3..................
Nigeria5.19.913.313.715.815.25.86.46.67.26.46.0
Rwanda19.333.637.340.842.343.65.04.14.54.64.64.5
São Tomé & Príncipe77.580.378.070.570.065.54.03.93.62.62.42.6
Senegal125.931.141.448.550.850.2..................
Seychelles42.831.829.727.526.525.33.23.73.73.63.53.4
Sierra Leone26.936.740.538.639.339.52.63.73.93.43.23.4
South Africa12.718.921.318.219.619.85.25.75.65.65.45.2
South Sudan..................2.80.30.10.20.40.3
Tanzania22.127.627.627.526.225.04.05.46.25.54.44.2
Togo115.819.221.119.721.922.2..................
Uganda16.021.825.427.329.231.24.65.04.53.93.84.0
Zambia16.238.236.742.255.062.63.02.42.21.71.41.0
Zimbabwe437.033.831.133.656.055.50.50.60.40.20.10.1
Sub-Saharan Africa14.322.024.024.025.925.84.95.15.04.94.74.6
Median21.427.428.027.729.530.73.53.53.73.23.23.4
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa21.329.930.131.233.633.74.34.24.03.73.63.7
Oil-exporting countries9.517.920.621.523.523.06.06.56.36.56.05.9
Excluding Nigeria19.436.434.037.242.344.26.36.75.85.15.25.6
Oil-importing countries18.124.726.025.527.427.54.14.24.24.03.93.8
Excluding South Africa22.227.828.729.431.431.23.33.33.43.23.23.2
Middle-income countries12.420.222.622.724.724.75.55.95.75.75.45.3
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa20.331.130.933.336.737.55.45.55.04.64.64.7
Low-income countries23.028.328.928.529.929.32.72.52.72.42.52.5
Excluding low-income countries in fragile situations22.730.931.832.132.732.13.13.33.63.23.13.1
Countries in fragile situations25.625.926.625.827.827.12.81.31.31.51.81.9
CFA franc zone20.425.829.229.832.432.35.33.23.43.84.24.3
CEMAC16.225.627.726.529.330.05.22.32.32.73.34.0
WAEMU24.926.030.332.234.533.85.33.94.14.54.84.5
COMESA (SSA members)20.826.426.828.130.029.93.03.13.02.93.23.2
EAC-520.726.427.329.330.130.04.24.94.94.74.54.3
ECOWAS10.015.419.119.821.721.25.05.15.25.55.14.9
SACU12.618.420.717.819.019.25.36.05.75.65.45.2
SADC16.826.326.325.427.728.15.25.95.65.24.94.9
Sources: IMF, Common Surveillance database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, October 2019

As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), see WAEMU aggregate for reserves data.

As a member of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC), see CEMAC aggregate for reserves data.

Fiscal year data.

In February, 2019, Zimbabwe adopted a new local currency unit, the RTGS dollar, which has become the official unit of account. Efforts are underway to revise and update all national accounts series to the new RTGS dollar. Current data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in US (and RTGS) dollars. Staff estimates of US dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimate.

Note: “...” denotes data not available.
Sources: IMF, Common Surveillance database, and IMF, World Economic Outlook database, October 2019

As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), see WAEMU aggregate for reserves data.

As a member of the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC), see CEMAC aggregate for reserves data.

Fiscal year data.

In February, 2019, Zimbabwe adopted a new local currency unit, the RTGS dollar, which has become the official unit of account. Efforts are underway to revise and update all national accounts series to the new RTGS dollar. Current data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in US (and RTGS) dollars. Staff estimates of US dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimate.

Note: “...” denotes data not available.

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